Bioindustry: A Description of California's Bioindustry and Summary of the Public Issues Affecting Its Development
By Gus A. Koehler, PhD.

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The following list includes most of the sources cited in, or consulted in the preparation of, this paper, and also includes several other items of potential value and interest to those wishing to pursue the topic further. The list is divided into the following categories:

General Sources

Antébi, Elizabeth, and David Fishlock. Biotechnology: Strategies for Life. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1986.

Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG). Biotechnology in the San Francisco Bay Area. San Francisco: ABAG, September 1988.

Bailey, Ronald. Ecoscam: The False Prophets of Ecological Apocalypse. N.Y.: St. Martin's Press, 1993.

Barley, S., J. Freeman, and R. Hybels, "Strategic Alliances in Commercial Biotechnology," in N. Nohria and R. Eccles, Networks and Organizations. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1992.

Batra, R., and W. Klassen, eds. Public Perception of Biotechnology. Bethesda, Maryland: Agricultural Research Institute, 1987.

Bay Area Bioscience Center. "Gene Acres," June, 1992

Bay Area Bioscience Center and the Bay Area Council. The Emerging Bioscience Skills Gap. [Oakland] : [The Center] , December 1991.

Bay State Skill Corporation. "The Massachusetts Biotechnology Industry/Education Resource Directors" 1991.

Berrier, R. "Public Perceptions of Biotechnology," in L. Batra and W. Klassen, eds., Public Perceptions of Biotechnology (Bethesda, Maryland: Agricultural Research Institute, 1987).

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Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO). "Agriculture and the New Biology." Washington, D.C.: The Association, 1987.

Blakely, Edward J., and Kelvin W. Willoughby. "Choosing a Strategy for Local Industry Development from Biotechnology: Transfer or Incubate." Berkeley: Institute of Urban and Regional Development, Biotechnology Industry Research Group, University of California at Berkeley, May 1990.

Blakely, E. "The Economic Development Potentials of California's Biotech Industry," Working Paper No. 498, Biotech Industry Research Group, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California at Berkeley, April 1989

Blum, Deborah. The Monkey Wars. London: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Booz, Allen & Hamilton. Foreign Investment in Bay Area Bioscience. Oakland, CA: Bay Area Bioscience Center, 1991.

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California Health Care Institute and Ernst and Young LLP, Exporting an Industry: The Impact of FDA Regulation on California's Biomedical Industry. Ernst and Young LLP, April 1996.

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Hacking, Andrew J. Economic Aspects of Biotechnology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

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Kauffman, Stuart. At Home in the Universe. N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1995. The first part of Chapter 7, "The Promised Land," provides a non-technical introduction to genetic engineering techniques.

Kawar, Amal and Richard Sherlock. "Theoretical Issues in the Regulation of Genetically Engineered Organisms: The Case of Deliberate Release," Politics and the Life Sciences, February 1989 (Vol. 7, No. 2), pp. 129-134.

Kelly, Kevin. Out of Control. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley, 1994.

Kenney, Martin. Biotechnology: The University-Industrial Complex. New Haven,Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1986.

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Kloppenburg, Jack Ralph, Jr. First the Seed: The Political Economy of Plant Biotechnology, 1492-2000. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Koehler, Gus. Small Business Networks: Tools to Promote Economic Success. Sacramento: California Research Bureau, 1995.

Kotkin, Joel and Levy, Stephen. "California: A Twenty-First Century Prospectus." Center for the New West, and Center for the Continuing Study of the California Economy, Feb. 28, 1996.

Krimsky, Sheldon. Biotechnics and Society: The Rise of Industrial Genetics. New York: Praeger, 1991.

Lacy, W., L. Lacy, and L. Busch."Emerging Trends, Consequences, and Policy Issues in Agricultural Biotechnology," in M. Halberg, Bovine Somatotropin and Emerging Issues: An Assessment (Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1991).

Lacy, W., L. Busch, and L. Lacy. "Public Perceptions of Agricultural Biotechnology," in B. Baumgardt, and M. Martin, eds., Agricultural Biotechnology: Issues and Choices (West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press, 1991).

McKinsey Global Institute. Manufacturing Productivity. Washington, D.C.: McKinsey and Company, 1993.

Miller, Henry I., M.D. "Remarks for the California Legislature Assembly Committee on Agriculture, March 7, 1994" (photocopy).

Olson, Steve. Biotechnology: An Industry Comes of Age. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1986.

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Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Biotechnology and the Changing Role of Government. Paris: OECD, 1988.

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Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Biotechnology for a Clean Environment: Prevention, Detection, Remediation. Paris: OECD, 1994.

Ouellette, Robert P., and Paul N. Cheremisinoff. Essentials of Biotechnology. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Technomic Publishing Company, 1985.

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Powell, W., and P. Brantley, "Competitive Cooperation in Biotechnology: Learning Through Networks," in N. Nohira, and R. Eccles, Networks and Organizations (Boston Mass.: Harvard Business School Press: 1992).

Prentis, Steve. Biotechnology: A New Industrial Revolution. N.Y.: George Braziller, Inc., 1984.

President's Council on Competitiveness. Report on National Biotechnology Policy. [Washington] : The Council, 1991.

RAND, Institute on Education and Training. "Does California's Fiscal Future Bode Ill for Education?" [Santa Monica] : Policy Brief, January 1966.

Rissler, Jane, and Margaret Mellon. Perils Amidst the Promise: Ecological Risks of Transgenic Crops in a Global Market. Cambridge, Massachussetts: Union of Concerned Scientists, 1993.

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Thompson, Paul B., Robert J. Matthews, and Eileen O. van Ravenswaay. Ethics, Public Policy, and Agriculture. N.Y.: Macmillan, 1994.

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Yoxen, Edward. The Gene Business: Who Should Control Biotechnology? N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1983.

State of California/University of California Documents

California Department of Food and Agriculture. "Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin (BST) Consensus Document." Not dated but probably February 1994.

California Environmental Protection Agency. "Draft Strategic Plan for Promoting the Environmental Industry in California," October 1993.

California State Assembly, Committee on Agriculture (staff). "Background Paper on Biotechnology Prepared by the Assembly Committee on Agriculture Staff," March 7, 1994.

California Trade and Commerce Agency, Office of Economic Research. "Biotechnology: A California Industry Profile" (pamphlet), July 1993.

Eng, G. "Legal Aspects of Food Labeling for Foods Derived from Biotechnology," California Department of Health Services, Office of Legal Services, February 3, 1994.

Interagency Task Force on Biotechnology, State of California. California's Biotechnology: Permits and Regulations-- a Description. [Sacramento] : [The Task Force] , 1986.

Rote, J. "Biotechnology: A Regulatory Review." Sacramento: Assembly Office of Research, 1985.

Systemwide Biotechnology Research and Education Program, University of California. "California Biotech Facts" (mimeographed sheet), [1994?] .

University of California Systemwide Biotechnology Research and Education Program, "Guidance for State Governments on Oversight of Biotechnology," Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, September 1990.

Willoughby, Kelvin W., and Edward J. Blakely. "The Economic Geography of Biotechnology in California," Working Paper Number 90-176, Center for Real Estate and Urban Economics, Institute of Business and Economic Research, [University of California at Berkeley] , 1990.

Willoughby, Kelvin W., and Edward J. Blakely. "Making Money from Microbes: Finance and the California Biotechnology Industry," Working Paper Number 89-166, Center for Real Estate and Urban Economics, Institute of Business and Economic Research. Berkeley: University of California at Berkeley, 1989.

Zucker, L., M. Brewer, and M. Darby. "`Who Knows' Determines the 'Where' and 'when': The founding of New Biotechnology Enterprises," UCLA Systemwide Biotechnology Research and Education Programs, 1993.

Federal Government Documents

Caswell, Margriet F., Keith O. Fuglie, and Cassandra A. Klotz. Agricultural Biotechnology: An Economic Perspective, Agricultural Economic Report Number 687. Herndon, Virginia: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 1994.

Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology. Biotechnology for the 21st Century: Realizing the Promise. Bethesda, MD:: National Institutes of Health, 1993.

Runningen, R. "Intellectual Property Protection -- NAFTA Fact Sheet," U.S. Department of Agriculture.

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Genetic Counseling and Cystic Fibrosis Carrier Screening: Results of a Survey, NTIS #PB93-101764. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992.

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Genetic Monitoring and Screening in the Workplace, OTA-BA-455. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, October 1990.

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Genetic Tests and Health Insurance: Results of a Survey: Results of a Survey--Background Paper, OTA-BP-BA-98, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, October 1992.

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. New Developments in Biotechnology: Background Paper, Public Perceptions of Biotechnology. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987.

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. New Developments in Biotechnology: Patenting Life. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. A New Technological Era for American Agriculture, OTA-F-474. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 1992.

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Potential Environmental Impacts of Bioenergy Crop Production, OTA-BP-E-118. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1993.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "Alaskan Oil Spill Bioremediation Project-Update." July 1990.

U.S. General Accounting Office, Radioactive Waste: Status of Commercial Low-Level Waste Facilities, GAO/RCED-95-67.

Bio/Technology Magazine Articles

Alper, Joseph. "Has Consolidation Finally Commenced?" Bio/Technology, January 1995, pp. 10-11.

Bienz-Tadmor, Brigitta, et al. "Biopharmaceuticals and Conventional Drugs: Clinical Success Rates," Bio/Technology, May 1992, pp. 521-525.

Brownstein, Alex. "Why Not New York?" Bio/Technology, August 1994, pp. 776-7.

Cavan, Brent N. "Improving Clinical Trials Cost Management in Biotech Companies," Bio/Technology, March 1995, p. 226-8.

Dibner, Mark, Gregory N. Stock, and Noel P. Greis. "Away from Home: U.S. Sites of European and Japanese Biotech and R&D." Bio/Technology, December 1992, pp. 1535-1538.

Dixon, B. "Debating Biotechnology," Bio/Technology, August 1994, p. 746. Need full citation of pages.

Drake, Peter, and Gregory Brown. "The Biotech Sector's Clarion Call for Cash," Bio/Technology, January 1995, p. 12.

Dughan, Louise. "Plant Biotechnology: the 'Jury' Decides," Bio/Technology, December 1994, pp.1346-8.

Edgington, Stephen M. "Environmental Biotechnology," Bio/Technology, December 1994, p. 1338-42.

Edgington, Stephen M.. "Surviving the '90s: Can Biotech Master Clinical Trials?," Bio/Technology, October 1994, pp. 977-981.

Fox, Jeffrey L. "Biotech food policy still staggering along." Bio/Technology, December 1994, pages 1332-3.

Fox, Jeffrey L. "EPA Finally Issues TSCA and FIFRA Rules," Bio/Technology, October 1994, p. 967.

Fox, Jeffrey L. "NIH Panel gives green light to embryo research," Bio/Technology, November 1994, p. 1067.

Fradd, R. B., and C. Engelberg. "Biostocks near four-year low," Bio/Technology, February 1995), pp. 109-10.

Glaser, Vicki. "Pheromone firms cooperate to speed approvals," Bio/Technology, March 1995, pp. 219-20.

Goy, Patricia Ahl. and John H. Duesing. "From Pots to Plots: Genetically Modified Plants on Trial," Bio/Technology, May 1995, pp. 454-458.

Hassler, Susan. "European Patent Legislation: A Missed Opportunity," Bio/Technology, April 1995, p. 305.

Hayward, Sally, and Martin Griffin. "Europe at BioWork: Challenges and Prospects," Bio/Technology, July 1994, pp. 667-70.

Hodgson, John. "Still Waters Run Deep," Bio/Technology, October 1994, pp. 983-987.

Hoyle, Russ. "BST off to fast start, despite early stumbles," Bio/Technology, January 1995, pp. 13-15.

Hoyle, Russ. "EPA Okays First Pesticidal Transgenic Plants," Bio/Technology, May 1995, pp. 434-5.

Hoyle, Russ. "Let's finally get the threat of virus-resistant plants straight," Bio/Technology, July 1994, pp. 662-3.

Hoyle, Russ. "USDA likely to okay Asgrow's engineered squash," Bio/Technology, August 1994, pp. 761-2.

Kidd, George, and James Dvorak. "Agbiotech firms increase R&D spending 43.6%," Bio/Technology, August 1994, pp. 755-6.

Kidd, George, and James Dvorak. "Agracetus' cotton patent draws opposition," Bio/Technology, July 1994, p. 659.

Kidd, G. and J. Dvorak. "BST off to fast Start, Despite early Stumbles," Bio/Technology, January 1995, p. 13.

Kidd, George, and James Dvorak. "A gutsy map of the future of agribiotech," Bio/Technology, November 1994, pp. 1064-5.

Levinson, Gene. "Artificial Life: Biotechnology of the 21st Century?" Bio/Technology, February 1995, pp. 122-3.

Mascarenhas, Desmond. "A Vital Interest: Science Education and the Biotech Industry," Bio/Technology, July 1994, pp. 671-3.

Ramos, Juan L., "The Behavior of Bacteria Designed for Biodegradation," Bio/Technology, December 1994, pp.1349-56.

Shamel, Roger E., and Michele Keough. "Places to Go for Companies Going Places," Bio/Technology, August 1994, pp. 770-773.

Shimoda, Sano. "Agbiotech will vertically integrate agribusiness," Bio/Technology, November 1994, pp. 1062, 1064.

Spalding, B. J. "Biopharmaceutical Firms Up R&D Spending 89%," Bio/Technology, July 1994, pp. 652-5.

Spalding, B. J. "Second Quarter sees 22 firms raise $274 million," Bio/Technology, August 1994, pp. 753-4.

Struck, Mark-M. "Biopharmaceutical R&D Success Rates and Development Times," Bio/Technology, July 1994, pp. 674-7.

Thomas, Daniel. "Nanotechnology's Many Disciplines," Bio/Technology, May 1995, pp. 439-43.

Ward, Mike. "Modified Seeds reach European Market First," Bio/Technology, July 1994, p. 660.

Wheelwright, Scott M. "Commercializing Biotech Products," Bio/Technology, September 1994, pp. 877-80.

Zechendorf, Bernard. "What the Public Thinks about Biotechnology," Bio/Technology, September 1994, pp. 870-75.

Other Periodical Articles

Aldhous, Peter. "Genome Initiatives Tackle Developing World's Big Killers," Science, June 24, 1994, pp. 1848-9.

American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs. "Biotechnology and the American Agricultural Industry," Journal of the American Medial Association, March 20, 1991, p. 1431.

Anderson, W. French. "Gene Therapy," Scientific American, September 1995, pp. 124-128.

Baker, B. "Biomedical Funding May be More Stable Than Other Research Areas," Bio/Science, April 1995, p. 250.

Barinaga, M. "Confusion on the Cutting Edge," Science, July 31, 1992.

Beardsley, T. "Patently Obvious," Scientific American, September 1995, p. 45.

Berkeley Monthly. "Clean Weapon in a Dirty War," November, 1993.

Bonnicksen, Andrea L. "Human Embryos and Genetic Testing: A Private Policy Model," Politics and the Life Sciences, February 1992, pp. 53-62.

Darby, J., et al. "Approach to Management of the Heart Beating 'Brain Dead' Organ Donor," Journal of the American Medical Association, April 1989, p. 2205.

Davis Enterprise, "Biotech firm picks Vacaville," November 2, 1994, p. A.1.

Davis Enterprise. "USDA will relax its biotech regulations," August 25, 1995.

Dekker, J., and G. Comstock. "Ethical and Environmental Considerations in the Release of Herbicide Resistant Crops," Agriculture and Human Values, Summer 1992.

Detjen, Jim. "Fight Against Cystic Fibrosis Gains," Sacramento Bee, September 2, 1994, p. A10.

Dibner, M., "Biotech Centers Represent a Major Force in Development and Support of the Industry," Genetic Engineering News, October 1, 1995.

Doeringer, P. and D. Terkla. "Business Strategy and Cross-Industry Clusters," Economic Development Quarterly, August 1995.

Fackelmann, Kathy A. "Beyond the Genome: the Ethics of DNA Testing," Science News, November 5, 1994, pp. 298-9.

Fentiman, Linda C. "Organ Donations: The Failure of Altruism," Issues in Science and Technology, Fall 1994, pp. 43-48.

Fletcher, J., F. Miller, and A. Caplan. "Facing Up to Bioethical Decisions," Issues in Science and Technology, Fall 1994, pp. 75-80.

Florida, R. "Technology Policy for a Global Economy," Issues in Science and Technology, Spring 1995.

Galletti, P. "Embargo on Biomaterials," Science, May 20, 1994, p. 1065.

Gordon, D. "Genes R Us," State Legislatures, August 1994.

Greater San Diego Chamber of Commerce Economic Bulletin, April 1994.

Harris, T. "Gene Ownership," Science, July 29, 1994, p. 589.

Hartman, R. "Beyond Moore: Issues of Law and Policy Impacting Human Cell and Genetic Research in the Age of Biotechnology," The Journal of Legal Medicine, September 1993, pp. 463-477.

Kahn, P. "Blending Biology, Technology, and Economic Development," Science, Feb. 10, 1995, p. 785.

Kassirer, J., and M. Angell. "Financial Conflict of Interest in Biomedical Research," New England Journal of Medicine, August 19, 1993.

Kessler, David and Karyn Feiden. "Faster Evaluation of Vital Drugs," Scientific American March 1995, p. 48-54.

Kirschner, Marc W., Elizabeth Marincola, and Elizabeth Olmsted Teisberg. "The Role of Biomedical Research in Health Care Reform," Science, October 7, 1994, pp. 49-51.

Koenig, Robert L. "Germany Loosens some Red Tape," Science, January 20, 1995, p. 326.

Kolata, G. "Scientists Claim Gene Therapy's First Success," New York Times, October 20, 1995, p. A-13.

Langer, Robert, and Joseph P. Vacanti. "Artificial Organs," Scientific American, September 1995, pp. 130-133.

Neergaard, Lauran. "FDA too slow to OK drugs? Debate heading to Congress," Sacramento Bee, 20 February 1996, A-6.

Los Angeles Times. "Drug Price Rise May Add Presure For Controls," February 1, 1994, p. A-12.

Los Angeles Times. "F.D.A. Unit Rules Calgene Tomato Safe," April 7, 1994, p. D2.

Los Angeles Times. "Merger Would Create Drug Industry Giant," August 3, 1994, p. D1.

Los Angeles Times. "As Scientific Puzzle Unravels, a Legal Issue Tangles More," April 11, 1994, p. B6.

Marshall, E. "Less Hype, More Biology Needed for Gene Therapy," Science, December 15, 1995, p. 1751.

McKown, R., "Contract Manufacturing in Biotech Industry: Growing to Meet Demand," Genetic Engineering News, October 1, 1995.

Mervis, J. (1995). "Final Rules Put Universities in Charge," Science, July 21, 1995, p. 295.

Miller, H. "Foods of the Future: The New Biotechnology and F.D.A. Regulation," Journal of the American Medical Association, February 17, 1993, 910-912.

New York Times. "Harvard's New Test-Tube Business," Sunday, August 22, 1993.

Nowak, Rachel. "Xenotransplants Set to Resume," Science, November 18, 1994, pp. 1148-51.

Phillips, Susan. "Genetically Engineered Foods," CQ Researcher, August 5, 1994, pp. 675-695. Includes bibliography.

Portz, John and Peter Eisinger. "Biotechnology and Economic Development: The Role of the States," Politics and the Life Sciences, February 1991, pp. 225-239.

Sacramento Bee. "Fight Against Cystic Fibrosis Gains," September 2, 1994, p. A10.

Sacramento Bee. "Greatest Gift or Worst Cruelty?" May 25, 1995, pp. B1 and B3.

Sacramento Bee. "Job Bias on Basis of Genetics Outlawed," April 7, 1995, p. A8.

Sacramento Bee. "Leaders of many U.S. Faiths Unite to Fight Gene Patents," May 14, 1995.

Sacramento Bee. "Limits put on studies of embryos," December 3, 1994, p. A6.

Sacramento Bee. "Microbes may help clean nuclear waste," February 13, 1995.

Sacramento Bee. "Milk a goat for medications? FDA Says OK," August 31, 1995, p. A-12.

Sacramento Bee. "Way to alter genes in sperm discovered," November 11, 1994, p. A-4.

San Diego Business Journal. "City-Backed bond program could tie biotechs to town," September 1992 (vol. 30, No. 38), p. 7.

San Diego Union. "Biomed Summit Termed Success," March, 20, 1992.

San Francisco Chronicle. "Bay Biotech Firms Land U.S. Grants," Oct. 26, 1994.

San Jose Mercury News. "Betting on Biotech," May 20, 1996, p. E-1.

San Jose Mercury News. "Sunnyvale firm will develop biochemical 'super chip,' " September 22, 1994, p. F-1.

San Jose Mercury News. "What EPA regulations cost you," August 1, 1994, p. 7B.

Science. "F.D.A. Airs Qualms Over Xenotransplants," January 6, 1995, p. 19.

Science. "Gene Tests: Who's Minding the Store?" July 22, 1994, p. 465.

Science. "Rules Would Drop Need for Clinical Data," January 6, 1995, pp. 23-4.

Science. "Singing the Biotech Blues," February 3, 1995, p. 618.

Scientific American, September 1995: entire issue devoted to "key technologies for the 21st century."

Scientific American. "Food Indigo," July 1995, p. 29.

Scientific American. "State of Shock: Sepsis can be fatal to firms as well as to patients," October 1994, pp. 133-134.

Scientific American. "What Goes Around Comes Around for Life's Master Molecule," June 1994, p. 26.

Service, Robert F. "Barriers Hold Back New Contraceptive Strategies," Science, December 2, 1994, p. 1489.

Stone, Richard. "Large Plots are Next Test for Transgenic Crop Safety," Science, December 2, 1994, pp.1472-3.

Wall Street Journal. "The Trailing Edge: Some Germans Fear They're Falling Behind in High-Tech Field," April 27, 1994, p. A1.

Appendix: Biotech Organizations

The following list of biotechnology-related organizations was published on the Internet (Worldwide Web) by the Biotechnology Information Center, National Agricultural Library.

Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO)
1625 K Street, N.W., Suite 1100
Washington, DC 20006-1604
202-857-0244, 202-857-0237 fax

Council for Responsible Genetics (CRG)
19 Garden Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
617-868-0870, 617-864-5164 fax

Center for Science Information (CSI)
4252 20th Street
San Francisco, CA 94114

International Food Information Council
1100 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 430
Washington, DC 20036
202-296-6540, 202-296-6547 fax

National Agricultural Biotechnology Council (NABC)
159 Biotechnology Building
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853-2703

Institute for Biotechnology Information
North Carolina Biotechnology Center
P.O. Box 13547
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-9834
919-549-8880, 919-990-9521 fax

Union of Concerned Scientists
1616 P Street, N.W., Suite 310
Washington, DC 20036
202-332-0900, 202-332-0905 fax

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