California Research Bureau, California State Library

Bioindustry: A Description of California's Bioindustry and Summary of the Public Issues Affecting Its Development

By Gus A. Koehler, PhD.

Prepared at the Request of Assemblyman John Vasconcellos

April 1996

Biotechnology, the application of engineering concepts to biological processes, is relatively new, rapidly growing, and profoundly important. The field is sprawling and complex. California, especially northern California, has been a world leader in biotechnology and bioindustry since modern biotechnology was "invented" in the San Francisco Bay Area in 1973. One of the key scientific breakthroughs that made the field possible, gene splicing, depends on technology developed by professors at the University of California at San Francisco and Stanford University. The California State Assembly has been involved in bioindustry public policy making for over 10 years.
  1. An Overview of Biotechnology and Bioindustry
    1. Background
    2. Basic Classification of Bioindustry firms
    3. Human Health-Related Products
    4. Bioindustry Animal and Plant Products
      1. Animal Products
        1. Introduction of Genetically Engineered Products into Animals to Improve Their Economic Value
        2. Transgenic Animals
        3. "Gene Pharming"
        4. Organ Transplants
      2. Plant Biotechnology
        1. Herbicide-Resistant Plants
        2. Virus-Resistant Plants
    5. Food Processing
    6. Research on Environmental Cleanup and New Energy Sources
      1. Energy
      2. Bioremediation
    7. Links with Microelectronics and Nanotechnology
    8. Research Priorities and the Market Place
    9. Agribusiness Industry Organization and Biotechnology Research Priorities
  2. Bioindustry in the U.S., California, and the World
    1. National Bioindustry
    2. California's Bioindustry
    3. Employment
    4. Sales, Revenues and Markets
    5. Bioindustry Suppliers and Construction
    6. Factors Contributing to Regional Development of Biotechnology in California
    7. International Competition for Biotechnology Markets
      1. Belgium
      2. Germany
      3. Indonesia
      4. Netherlands
      5. Singapore
      6. United Kingdom
  3. Regulation of Biotechnology
    1. Federal Regulations
    2. State Approaches To Regulation
    3. Current California Bioindustry Regulation
    4. Federal, State, and Local Government Regulations often Overlap
    5. Owning or Patenting Animals, Plants, and Human Biological Materials
      1. Human Biological Material Property Rights
      2. Public Funding and Intellectual Property Rights
      3. Professional Conflicts of Interest
    6. Food Product Labeling And Safety
  4. Ethical Issues and Risk Assessment in Biotechnology
    1. Creation of New Genomes and Genetically Engineered Biologically Active Substances
    2. Ethical Debate On Patenting Life
    3. Organ Transplants And Embryological Tissue
      1. Animal to Human Organ Transplants
    4. Bioethics and Human Diagnostics
    5. Field Testing and Growing Genetically Engineered Crops
    6. Reframing Bioethical Issues for Public Policy
  5. Business Needs of Biotechnology
    1. Workforce and Training
    2. Financing Bioindustry
    3. Survival Index for Biotechnology Companies
      1. Private Sources of Capital Investment and Financing
      2. International Investment
      3. Joint Ventures and Alliances
      4. Government Sources of Investment and Financing
        1. State Government Funding
    4. Government-Supported Biotechnology Centers
    5. Research and Development Funding
      1. Funding University Research
      2. Private Industry Research Funding
    6. Product Development
    7. Bioindustry Manufacturing
      1. Scale-up from Basic Discovery to Production
      2. Manufacturing Facility Construction
        1. Water
        2. Hazardous Materials Disposal and Spill Cleanup
        3. Air Pollution
        4. Liability Issues and the Availability of Biomaterials
  6. Public Policy Options
    1. Critical Factors
    2. Is There a Role for Government?
    3. Research
    4. Biotechnology Ethical Issues
    5. Economic Development
      1. California Biotechnology Development Strategy
      2. Strategy Options
      3. Economic Policy For A Global Biotechnology Industry
    6. Bioindustry Networks
    7. Product Development
    8. Health Care
    9. Manufacturing
    10. Regulations
    11. Financing
    12. Workforce Training
  7. Selected Bibliography
    1. General Sources
    2. State of California/University of California Documents
    3. Federal Government Documents
    4. Bio/Technology Magazine Articles
    5. Other Periodical Articles
  8. Appendix: Biotech Organizations

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