CRB California Research Bureau, California State Library

CRB 97-012 August 1997

ENDNOTES

[1] The 71 permanent amusement parks data were for 1994; US Bureau of the Census, County Business Patterns: California, 1994. The 74 carnival owners/operators data were for 1996; State of California, Division of Occupational Safety and Health, "Amusement Ride Inspection Tabulation for 1996," in Amusement Ride Safety in California: Briefing Paper of Public Hearing Conducted by Assembly Members Tom Torlakson and Valerie Brownž June 20, 1997.

[2] (1) Disneyland, (6) Universal Studio CA, (10) Sea World of CA, (12) Knott's Berry Farm, (14) Six Flags Magic Mountain, (15) Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk. "North American Theme/Amusement Park Attendance Figures -- 1996", Compiled by Ultimate Guide Productions, http://home.earthlink.net/~croooow/PARKAT96.txt.

[3] Data for the week of March 12, 1994. US Bureau of the Census, County Business Patterns: California, 1994.

[4] Consumer Product Safety Commission, Directory of State Enforcement and Safety Officials for Amusement Rides, May 1997.

[5] Although the CPSC no longer has jurisdiction over fixed-site amusement parks, they continue to collect data on all types of amusement ride accidents whether at mobile or fixed sites.

[6] 290 million visits to 800 fixed-site amusement parks and 210 million visits to traveling sites.

[7] That does not mean that the data are either 100 percent complete or 100 percent accurate. For example, CRB investigations suggest that one of the "non-occupational" fatalities in California was in fact an employee of the amusement park.

[8] Utah inspects inflatable rides only at both mobile and fixed parks.

[9] In 1996, 103 waterparks had attendance exceeding 100,000 each, averaging 339,000. The top three waterparks in terms of attendance are all located in Orlando, Florida and operate year-round.

[10] Some of the waterslide deaths occurred on water rides at amusement parks. C. Craig Morris, Waterslide Injuries and Deaths, Consumer Product Safety Commission, June 12, 1997.

[11] Associated Press, June 27, 1980.

[12] New York Times, Aug. 7, 1980 and Los Angeles Times, Aug. 12, 1981.

[13] Orange County Register, Aug. 11, 1981 and Los Angeles Times, Aug. 12, 1981.

[14] Oakland Tribune, June 3, 1997.

[15] For a more thorough history, see Appendix A.

[16] Fresno Bee, July 28, 1968

[17] Sacramento Bee, June 16, 1997, p. B5

[18] Chapter 1113, Statutes of 1968.

[19] Public Law 92-574.

[20] Consumer Product Safety Commission v. Chance Mfg. Co., Inc., D.C.D.C. 1977, 441 F.Supp. 228.

[21] Chapter 705, Statutes of 1983.

[22] Public Law 97-35.

[23] Chapter 520, Statues of 1992.

[24] Chapter 731, Statutes of 1996.

[25] California Labor Code §7900 et. seq.

[26] See next section.

[27] The regulations define "public entity" to mean any city or county.

[28] California Code of Regulations §3900 et. seq.

[29] California Code of Regulations §3901(b).

[30] California Labor Code §7340 et. seq.

[31] California Code of Regulations §3150 et. seq.

[32] California Health and Safety Code §116025 et. seq.

[33] California Code of Regulations §65501 et. seq.

[34] California Health and Safety Code §18901 et. seq.

[35] California Building Code §408.2.

[36] California Building Code §106 et. seq.

[37] California Building Code §108 et. seq.

[38] This description was drawn from the ASTM's Frequently Asked Questions, http://www.astm.org/faq.htm.

[39] American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM Standards on Amusement Rides and Devices, Fifth Edition, (ASTM: Philadelphia) 1995. The ASTM has revised two of the standards since publication: F747-95 -- Definitions of Terms Relating to Amusement Rides and Devices, and F1193-95 -- Practice for an Amusement Ride and Device Manufacture Quality Assurance Program.

[40] American Society for Testing and Materials, "Standard Practice for the Design and Manufacture of Amusement Rides and Devices," F-1159 - 94, (ASTM: Philadelphia) 1994.

[41] "Amusement ride" usually means any mechanical device or devices which carry or convey passengers along, around, or over a fixed or restricted route or course for the purpose of giving its passengers amusement, pleasure, thrills, or excitement. Some states explicitly include waterslides.

[42] It typically does not include single-passenger coin-operated rides which are manually, mechanically or electronically operated, except where admission is charged for their use, or non-mechanized playground equipment.

[43] Wyoming has had a carnival ride license requirement since 1929, but its current amusement ride legislation was passed in 1987.

[44] In 1975, the American Recreational Equipment Association reported that 5 percent of ride accidents were due to manufacturing deficiencies, 25 percent to mechanical deficiencies, and 70 percent to operator deficiencies.

[45] International Amusement and Leisure Defense Association, Uniform Rider Safety Act, June 1995.

[46] As of June 1996, the ten states with laws are Idaho, New Hampshire, Indiana, Wisconsin, Wyoming, New York, Ohio, New Jersey, Nevada, and Pennsylvania. States pursuing legislation as of June 1996 include California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Virginia, and Washington.

[47] Rhode Island, District of Columbia, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

[48] Nondestructive testing (NDT) is the development and application of technical methods such as radiographic, magnetic particle, ultrasonic, liquid penetrant, electromagnetic, neutron radiographic, acoustic emission, visual, and leak testing to examine materials or components in ways that do not impair the future usefulness and serviceability in order to detect, locate, measure and evaluate discontinuities, defects, and other imperfections; to assess integrity, properties and composition; and to measure geometrical characters.

[49] These states include Arizona, Colorado, District of Columbia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Utah.

[50] C. Craig Morris, Deaths and Injuries Associated With Amusement Rides, Consumer Product Safety Commission, May 9, 1997, p. 3.

[51] For a number of reasons, this estimate differs from the IAAPA's estimate of a 1 in 250 million chance of a fatal accident. First, the IAAPA estimates appear to be per ride. They assumed each visitor will ride two rides. We have no data to base an assumption of how many rides a person might take. Hence our estimates are per visit. Second, the IAAPA used the CPSC's national fatality data and the IAAPA's own attendance estimates. However, the CPSC warns that their data do not account for all amusement ride related deaths. Consequently, we used the CPSC's California fatality data and doubled the number of deaths to account for any undercounting. Third, the IAAPA used their estimates of national attendance. We based our estimated 33 million state attendance based on 1996 attendance estimates for Disneyland, Universal Studios, Knott's Berry Farm, Six Flags Magic Mountain, Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk, and Paramount's Great America. This estimate is clearly low, as it ignores attendance at all other permanent and mobile amusement parks, carnivals, and fairs. (Attendance - 33 million. Deaths - average 1.1 per year. Based on CRB documentation of 13 deaths from 1973 through August 1997, plus 100 percent for possibility of missed deaths.)

[52] The Bakersfield Californian, September 27, 1967.

[53] The Bakersfield Californian, October 2, 1967.

[54] Sacramento Bee, March 6, 1968.

[55] The bill implied, but did not specify, that Cal-OSHA would do the inspection.

[56] Fresno Bee, July 28, 1968.

[57] Sacramento Bee, June 16, 1997, p. B5.

[58] Regulations later defined "public entity" as a city or county.

[59] Public Law 92-574.

[60] 15 UCS §5052.

[61] Consumer Product Safety Commission v. Chance Mfg. Co., Inc., D.C.D.C. 1977, 441 F.Supp. 228.

[62] Cal-OSHA has jurisdiction over all aerial tramways.

[63] Los Angeles Times, December 27, 1978.

[64] Los Angeles Times, December 27, 1978.

[65] For some unspecified reason, Cal-OSHA considered the "Cyclone" to be "portable."

[66] Long Beach Press Telegram, September 4, 1978, September 5, 1978, and September 11, 1978.

[67] Los Angeles Herald Examiner, December 30, 1978.

[68] San Francisco Chronicle, March 30, 1980; San Francisco Chronicle, May 20, 1980.

[69] Public Law 97-35.

[70] United States Congress, House Committee on Energy and Commerce. Amusement Park Safety Act of 1984, House Report; 98-1072. Washington, DC: US GPO, 1984.

[71] San Francisco Chronicle, June 21, 1997.

[72] In 1983, there were 71 amusement parks in California. Four parks employed 1,000 or more in March, none employed 500 to 999, five employed 100 to 499, six employed 50 to 99, and 56 employed less than 50. US Bureau of the Census, County Business Patterns: California, 1983.

Staff had requested permission to inspect Disneyland and Knott's Berry Farm. Both companies denied the request. Jo-Ellen McChesney, personal conversation, July 24, 1997.

[73] Assembly Subcommittee on Amusement Ride Safety, Final Report, October 1983, p. 12.

[74] Sacramento Bee, August 7, 1984; and San Jose Mercury News, August 7, 1984.

[75] House Committee on Energy and Commerce, Amusement Park Safety Act of 1984, Report 98-1072, September 24, 1984.

[76] The Senate debate on July 24, 1985, was typical. See: Congressional Record, Vol. 131, Part 15, pp. 20358 - 20367.

[77] San Francisco Chronicle, June 19, 1997.

[78] Los Angeles Times, November 1, 1991.

[79] Los Angeles Times, November 28, 1991.

[80] Chapter 731, Statutes of 1996.