Subject: Studies in the News 03-56 (September 5, 2003)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

September 1853 - "In 1853 Anacapa Island was surveyed by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey to determine the need for a lighthouse.... Most early explorers failed to specifically mention Anacapa Island in their charts or logs. In 1848, Anacapa Island became the property of the United States Government with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. It is not known if Chumash Indians lived year round on Anacapa Island in permanent settlements. They did occupy all three islands at least seasonally however. "  http://www.west.net/~scifmail/anahist.html  

September 1853 - "In an unsigned logbook of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic survey dated September, 1853 there is mention of an old house on the south end of Middle Anacapa. Captain George Nidever was one of the first persons after the collapse of Chumash Indian culture to have interests on Anacapa Island where he raised sheep, even though it was government property. During the next forty years Anacapa Island was bought and sold by several parties. Most notably was the Pacific Wool Growing Company. It was not until 1902 that the U.S. Government took an active role as land owner when it leased the island to Louis Le Mesnager for the grazing of sheep."  http://www.west.net/~scifmail/anahist.html  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Community outreach in schools
   Proposition 36 and treatment
   Per capita imprisonment rates
   Registration of sex offenders
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Exemptions found in Proposition 54
   Awareness increasing of Proposition 54
   Permitted use of racial data
   California immigrant population
DEMOGRAPHY
   Domestic migration in the United States
ECONOMY
   Court rules for DVD industry
   Regional use of Internert
   Training for the IT workforce
   American model and government intervention
   Public corporations and the genesis of new ventures
EDUCATION
   Profile of California's college-bound
   No Child Left Behind Act and middle schools
   Vulnerable youth and alternative education
   Alternative education programs
   Internet blocking in public schools
   High school exit exams
EMPLOYMENT
   Workers' Compensation system's cost
ENERGY
   Federal energy task force
   Court confirms Edison agreement
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Pollution's cost in public health
   Older refineries avoiding stringent rules
   Immigration and the problem of sprawl
   Pesticides banned on Russian River
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   American Indian campaign contributions
   Local governments and homeland security
   Federal deficit forecast
   Pension funding and state finances
   Analyses of Propositions 53 and 54
   Dedicating state revenues to infrastructure
   Understanding state budget troubles
HEALTH
   Health care costs in U.S. and Canada
   Rising outpatient drug costs
   Animal-borne epidemics
   Medicare+Choice patient costs
   Responses to health insurance scams
   Cigarette smuggling in California
HUMAN SERVICES
   Court upholds unwed partner adoption
   Child welfare data
   Domestic violence and welfare policy
   Improving TANF for teen parents
   Marriage-related provisions in welfare reauthorization
INTERNATIONAL READER
   President of Mexico's state of the nation address
TRANSPORTATION
   Accommodating older drivers' needs
   Transportation and low-income families
   Transportation choices and costs
STUDIES TO COME
   Crime and American Indian children
   Small high schools
   College students and heavy alcohol use
   Underestimate of veteran's exposure to radiation
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CRIME PREVENTION

Community Outreach Through Police in Schools: [Issue Theme.] By the Office for Victims of Crime. OVC Bulletin. NCJ 197038. (Office for Victims of Crime, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC) August 2003. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/publications/bulletins/policeinschools/ncj197038.pdf

["This publication describes an in-school, collaborative effort between police officers and mental health professionals to minimize the psychological effects of trauma among middle school students at risk for exposure to violence."]

[Request #S8955]

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DRUGS

Crime Prevention Act 2002 Report. By Douglas Longshore and others, UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Program. Prepared for the Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs. (The Program, Los Angeles, California) July 7, 2003. 172 p.

Full Text at: www.uclaisap.org/Prop36/images/Evaluation%20of%20the%20Substance%20Abuse%20and%20Crime%20Prevention%20Act%202002%20Report.pdf

["In the first independent evaluation of a state measure diverting nonviolent drug offenders to treatment rather than prison, UCLA researchers found that methamphetamine abusers and whites comprised the largest portions of the 30,000 people sent to rehabilitation during the first year of Proposition 36." Los Angeles Times (July 17, 2003) 3.]

[Request #S8956]

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PRISONERS

Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1947 - 2001: Special Report. By The Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice (The Office, Washington, DC) August 2003. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/piusp01.pdf

["About one in every 37 U.S. adults was either imprisoned at the end of 2001 or had been incarcerated at one time, the government reported.... The study is the first to measure the prevalence of prison time among American adults." USA Today (August 18, 2003) A1.]

[Request #S8957]

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SEX OFFENDERS

California Law Enforcement and Correctional Agencies: With Increased Efforts, They Could Improve the Accuracy and Completeness of Public Information on Sex Offenders. By the Bureau of State Audits, California State Auditor. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) August 2003. 93 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2003-105.pdf

["The state's Department of Justice should put accuracy disclaimers on its sex-offender database and make public the last time a criminal's profile was updated, a state agency said.... A major flaw of the systems in California and elsewhere -- as acknowledged by lawmakers, state officials and law enforcement -- is that the onus of registry falls upon sex offenders. Though they are required to tell local police where they live, usually every year, some fail to do so." Orange County Register (August 21, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8958]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

CULTURAL POLICY

What Would Proposition 54 Mean For the State's Ability To Collect and Use Data? By the California Budget Project. (The Project, Sacramento, California) August 2003. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/2003/bb030813Prop54.pdf

["Proposition 54 contains several exemptions ... including: Activities of the Department of Fair Employment and Housing, which would be exempt for a period ending January 1, 2015; otherwise lawful classification of medical research subjects and patients; actions by law enforcement officers, who would be allowed to describe individuals in 'otherwise lawful ways' while carrying out their law enforcement duties."]

[Request #S8979]

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Plurality Still Favors Prop. 54, But Margin of Support Narrows. By Mark DiCamillo and Mervin Field. The Field Poll. Release #2084. (The Field Institute, San Francisco, California) August 19, 2003. 10 p.

Full Text at: field.com/fieldpollonline/subscribers/RLS2084.pdf

["Awareness of the initiative, which qualified for the ballot some time ago, has grown over the past month to 41%, up from 25% in July.... The poll finds that about one in four voters (23%) say the presence of Prop. 54 makes them more inclined to vote in the special election."]

[Request #S8980]

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The Classification of Race, Ethnicity, Color, or National Origin (CRECNO) Initiative: A Guide to the Projected Impacts on Californians. By Richard Michaelson, Institute of Governmental Studies, University of California, Berkeley. Policy Papers Series, 2003-1. (The Institute, Berkeley, California) August 21, 2003. 74 p.

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1025&context=igs

["Classification by race, ethnicity, color, or national origin will still be allowed under the following circumstances: If the governor and a two-thirds majority of both houses of the legislature decide that classification in state operations other than public education, public contracting, and public employment serves a compelling state interest;... [along with] classification that is mandated by federal law; classification that is necessary in order to maintain or establish eligibility for a federal program in order to prevent a loss of federal funds."]

[Request #S8981]

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IMMIGRANTS

American Community Survey Profile: 2002. By the U.S. Census Bureau (The Bureau, Washington, DC) September 3, 2003.

["California continues to be the state with the highest proportion of immigrants, with 26.9 percent of residents born abroad in the 2002 count, up from 26.2 percent in 2000, the survey concluded. Among large cities, San Francisco and San Jose rank fifth and sixth in the nation, respectively, for their high percentages of foreign-born residents. They rank behind Miami, Santa Ana, Los Angeles and Anaheim. New York is seventh. " San Francisco Chronicle (September 3, 2003) A1.]

Ranking Tables. Various pagings:
http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/Ranking/index.htm

Data Tables: California. Various pagings:
http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/Profiles/Single/2002/ACS/Tabular/040/04000US061.htm

Narrative Profile: California. Various pagings:http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/Profiles/Single/2002/ACS/Narrative/040/NP04000US06.htm

[Request #S9001]

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DEMOGRAPHY

MIGRATION

Domestic Migration Across Regions, Divisions, and States: 1995-2000. By Rachael S. Franklin. State-to-State Migration Flows: 1995-2000. By Marc J. Perry. Internal Migration of the Older Population: 1995-2000. By Wan He and Jason P. Schachter. And Migration and Geographic Mobility in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan America: 1995-2000. By Jason P. Schachter and others. U.S. Census Bureau (The Bureau, Washington, DC) August 2003.

["Fast-growing Nevada and Arizona had the highest rates of net inmigration from other states between 1995 and 2000 and many of their new residents came from California, according to two Census 2000 reports. A third report said the South experienced the greatest net migration gain of older people (65 and over) from other regions: 233,000. And a fourth report found a net migration gain in nonmetropolitan areas of about half a million people." U.S.Census Bureau Press Release (August 6, 2003) 1.]

Domestic Migrations. 8 p.
http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-7.pdf

State-to-State Migration Flows. 12 p.
http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-8.pdf>

Migration of the Older Population. 12 p.
http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-10.pdf

Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan America. 8 p.
http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/censr-9.pdf

[Request #S8959]

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ECONOMY

FILM INDUSTRY

DVD Copy Control Association, Inc. v. Andrew Bunner. California Supreme Court. S102588. August 25, 2003. 53 p.

Full Text at: www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/S102588.PDF

["In a case pitting free speech rights against trade secrets, the California Supreme Court ruled that courts can prevent computer users from posting codes on the Internet that allow others to illegally copy DVDs.... The court injunction did not involve government censorship and burdened 'no more speech than necessary to serve the government's interest in encouraging innovation and development.'" Los Angeles Times (August 26, 2003) C1.]

[Request #S8960]

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INTERNET

Internet Use by Region in the United States. By Tom Spooner, Pew American Life and Internet Project. (The Project, Washington, DC) August 27, 2003. 105 p.

Full Text at: www.pewinternet.org/reports/pdfs/PIP_Regional_Report_Aug_2003.pdf

["Internet usage among adult Americans reached 59% at the end of 2002, and the regions of the country with the highest rates of Internet penetration are along the Atlantic seaboard (New England with 66% of the adult population using the Internet and the Capital region with 64% using the Internet) as well as the Pacific seaboard (the Pacific Northwest with 68% online and California with 65% Internet penetration)." ]

[Request #S8961]

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TECHNOLOGY

Education and Training for the Information Technology Workforce. By the Office of the Secretary of Commerce. Prepared for the U.S. Congress (The Technology Administration, Washinton, DC) April 2003. 233 p.

Full Text at: www.technology.gov/reports/ITWorkForce/ITWF2003.pdf

["Rapid advances in information technology have contributed greatly to our country’s economic growth, low inflation, high-wage job creation, low unemployment, solid increases in productivity, and improvements in our quality of life.... While the education and training landscape is rich with consumer choice, it is also complex. In this report, we lay out the landscape, with the hope that policymakers in government, education, and business will find this information useful as they develop education and training policies and programs designed to ensure a world-class IT workforce for the United States."]

[Request #S8962]

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U.S. ECONOMY

What is the American Model Really About? Soft Budgets and the Keynesian Devolution. By James K. Galbraith. Public Policy Brief No. 72. (The Levy Economics Institute of Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, New York) 2003. 31 p.

Full Text at: www.levy.org/docs/ppb/ppb72.pdf

["The “American model” serves as a point of reference in discussions of economic policy around the world. In countless op-ed pieces and sometimes even in front-page articles, the American case is portrayed as a paradigm of the free market in its purest form. This brief offers a radically different perspective on the American success story of the 1990s. The author argues that the real sources of American economic strength have been misunderstood by analysts across the full range of the ideological spectrum .... Far from embracing a textbook model of untrammeled free enterprise, the United States has relied heavily upon government intervention in health care, pensions, and education."]

[Request #S8963]

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VENTURE CAPITAL

Entrepreneurial Spawning: Public Corporations and the Genesis of New Ventures, 1986 - 1999. By Paul Gompers, Josh Lerner, and David Scharfstein, National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper 9816 (The Bureau, Cambridge, Massachusetts) July 2003. 51 p.

Full Text at: papers.nber.org/papers/w9816.pdf

["This paper examines the factors that lead to the creation of venture capital backed start-ups, a process we term entrepreneurial spawning.' We contrast two alternative views of the spawning process. In one view, employees of established firms are trained and conditioned to be entrepreneurs by being exposed to the entrepreneurial process and by working in a network of entrepreneurs and venture capitalists. Alternatively, individuals become entrepreneurs because the large bureaucratic companies for which they work are reluctant to fund their entrepreneurial ideas. Controlling for a firm's size, patent portfolio and industry, we find that the most prolific spawning firms were public companies located in Silicon Valley and Massachusetts that were themselves once venture capital backed. Less diversified firms are also more likely to spawn new firms."]

[Request #S8964]

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EDUCATION

ACADEMIC ASSESSMENT

College Bound Seniors: A Profile of SAT Program Test Takers: California 2003. By the College Board. (The Board, New York, New York) August 2003. 21 p.

Full Text at: www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr2003/pdf/2003_CALIFORNIA.pdf

["With California keeping pace, the nation's high school seniors who took the SAT scored a 30-year high in math, the College Board said.... Less impressive were the verbal scores, which generally are lower than math scores in this nation of immigrants. California scored an average of 499 -- up 3 points since last year -- compared to the national average of 507." San Francisco Chronicle (August 27, 2003) A1.]

[Request #S8965]

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EDUCATION

NCLB and Middle Schools: Confronting the Challenges. By Alliance for Excellent Education. Policy Brief (The Alliance, Washington, DC) July 2003. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.all4ed.org/publications/NCLB%20and%20Middle%20Schools_Confronting%20the%20Challenges.doc

["No Child Left Behind (NCLB) treats middle schools like high schools some of the time, and like elementary schools some of the time. This report attempts to clarify NCLB’s requirements for middle schools while also providing insight into the unique challenges middle schools face in implementing them."]

[Request #S8966]

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Vulnerable Youth: Identifying Their Need for Alternative Educational Settings. By Janine Zweig, The Urban Institute (The Institute, Washington, DC) June 2003. 23 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410828_vulnerable_youth.pdf

["The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which alternative education schools and programs can meet the needs of the nation's vulnerable youth. The characteristics of youth facing disconnection from society are summarized, as are the risk factors associated with disconnection and the characteristics of students in selected alternative education settings. While there are currently no consistent or comprehensive data on the number of youth who could potentially benefit from alternative education or the number currently being served by alternative education schools and programs, rough estimates (based on existing data) are presented to provide a sense of the magnitude of need."]

[Request #S9002]

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Towards a Typology of Alternative Education Programs: A Compilation of Elements from the Literature. By Laudan Aron, The Urban Institute (The Institute, Washington, DC) July 2003. 30 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410829_alternative_education.pdf

[Non-college-bound youth and others who have not done well in traditional public schools have been turning to alternative education programs in record numbers as a "last best chance" to succeed academically. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize existing knowledge, definitions, and themes about alternative education programs, based on a review of literature and reports.]

[Request #S9003]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Internet Blocking in Public Schools: A Study on Internet Access in Educational Institutions. By Electronic Frontier and Online Policy Group. (The Frontier, San Francisco, California) June 2003. 120 p.

Full Text at: www.eff.org/Censorship/Censorware/net_block_report/net_block_report.pdf

["The issue of the effectiveness and societal implications of Internet blocking or filtering software in schools deserves the attention of students, parents, teachers, adminstrators, school board members, and legislators to help ensure the best possible educational opportunities for students in U.S. schools.... This study measures the extent to which blocking software impedes the educational process by restricting access to web pages relevent to the required curriculum."]

[Request #S8967]

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STANDARDIZED TESTING

State High School Exit Exams Put To the Test. By Keith Gaylor and others, The Center On Educational Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) August 2003. 140 p.

Full Text at: www.cep-dc.org/highschoolexit/1/exitexam4.pdf

["While several states have revised or delayed their exit exam requirements in response to public opposition, high failure rates, and concerns about negative effects of tests on minority, poor, and special needs students, most of the adjustments made have affected small numbers of students or bought states time to fix problems with the tests before diplomas are withheld. The debates over these changes show how complicated it is to strike a balance that addresses legitimate concerns about the exams without losing their rigor."]

[Request #S8968]

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EMPLOYMENT

WORKERS COMPENSATION

California's Workers' Compensation Program: The Medical Payment System Does Not Adequately Control the Costs to Employers to Treat Injured Workers or Allow for Adequate Monitoring of System Costs and Patient Care. By the Bureau of State Audits, California State Auditor. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) August 2003. 159 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2003-108.1.pdf

["Workers' comp-related medical costs have climbed more than 250 percent in the past decade and totaled $5.7 billion in 2002, according to the report.... To help control costs in the future, the auditor recommended the state adopt a medical fee schedule, set up medical treatment guidelines and improve its monitoring system -- an endorsement of many of the reforms proposed by lawmakers." Sacramento Bee (August 28, 2003) A1.]

[Request #S8969]

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ENERGY

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

Energy Task Force: Process Used to Develop the National Energy Policy. By the U.S. General Accounting Office, GAO-03-894. (The Office, Washington, DC) August 22, 2003. 26 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d03894.pdf

["The White House collaborated heavily with corporations in developing President Bush's energy policy but repeatedly refused to give congressional investigators details of the meetings, according to a federal report.... The report was the culmination of a lengthy legal battle between Congress and the Bush administration over the secrecy of government deliberations. The GAO sued in federal court for access to records of Cheney's task force, but dropped the action after a decisive court setback, followed by pressure from Republicans." Sacramento Bee (August 25, 2003) A8.]

[Request #S8970]

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UTILITIES

Southern California Edison Co v. Peevey. California Supreme Court. S110662. August 21, 2003. 54 p.

Full Text at: www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/S110662.PDF

["The California Supreme Court upheld a state commission's power to bail out a utility and shift onto ratepayers $3 billion in costs for the 2000-01 energy crisis.... It said the commission was required by the Legislature to turn its attention to assuring 'that the electric utilities would have the capacity and financial viability to provide power to California consumers.'... Now that the California Supreme Court has clarified the state legal provisions, federal courts are powerless to overrule it." Sacramento Bee (August 22, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8971]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR POLLUTION

Clearing the Air. By Michelle Ernst, and others, Surface Transportation Policy Project. (The Project, Washington, DC) August 2003.

["Air pollution from cars and trucks in Los Angeles costs roughly $ 11.8 billion a year in public health costs, according to a report released by a national transportation reform group.... The goal of the report is to draw a link between air pollution generated from vehicle travel and the public health cost of living with dirty air.... With new technology and new requirements, vehicles have gotten 90 percent cleaner over the last three decades, but report authors said the improvements have been undermined as the number of miles most Americans drive these days has tripled." Los Angeles Daily News (August 20, 2003) 1.]

Report. 68 p.
http://www.transact.org/library/reports_pdfs/Clean_Air/report.pdf

California factsheet. 3 p.
http://www.transact.org/library/reports_pdfs/Clean_Air/CA.pdf

[Request #S8972]

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Clean Air Act: EPA Should Use Available Data to Monitor the Effects of Its Revisions to the New Source Review Program. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-03-947. (The Office, Washington, DC) August 22, 2003. 30 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d03947.pdf

["Congressional auditors questioned the rationale behind a regulatory overhaul that is making it easier for older refineries and power plants to avoid stringent clean-air rules.... 'Because EPA based its conclusions that (new source review rules) discouraged some energy efficiency projects on anecdotal information rather than a comprehensive survey or representative sample of industries subject to the program, its findings are not necessarily representative of the program's effect on energy efficiency projects,' the GAO reported." Contra Costa Times (August 26, 2003) F4.]

[Request #S8973]

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MANAGED GROWTH

Outsmarting Smart Growth: Population Growth, Immigration, and the Problem of Sprawl. By Roy Beck and others, Center for Immigration Studies. (The Center, Washington, DC) August 2003. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.cis.org/articles/2003/sprawl.html

["In a fresh twist on two familiar California controversies, analysts say admitting fewer immigrants would reduce population pressures they partially blame for unruly sprawl. And, the analysts say, they've got some numbers to prove it.... The Center for Immigration Studies suggests immigrant admissions could be fruitfully cut to about 300,000 a year, down from the current levels that exceed 1 million." Fresno Bee (August 27, 2003) A1.]

[Request #S8974]

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PESTICIDES

Washington Toxics Coalition, et al. v. Environmental Protection Agency, et al. U.S. District Court, Western District of Washington. C01-132C. July 16, 2003. 5 p.

["The order calls for a broad pesticide-free zone on both sides of salmon-bearing waterways until the federal Environmental Protection Agency enacts pesticide regulations to protect the fish. The buffer zones would be a first in Sonoma County and would affect anyone with land along the Russian River system, including homeowners, timber harvesters and vineyard owners." Santa Rosa Press Democrat (July 26, 2003) A1.]

[Request #S8975]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

CAMPAIGN CONTRIBUTIONS

Hard Money, Soft Money and Lobbying Expenditures: The Emergence and Growth of American Indian Campaign Contributions. By Frederick J. Boehmke. (Midwest Political Science Association, Bloomington, Indiana) 2003. 28 p.

Full Text at: mpsa.indiana.edu/conf2003papers/1031954415.pdf

["In this paper we use an interest group's perspective to study the patterns of contributions made by Indian tribes that have obtained casino-style gaming since 1988.... Our data consists of total hard money contributions, soft money contributions and lobbying expenditures for all Indian nations in the continental U.S. from 1990 to 2000."]

[Request #S8976]

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EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

State and Local Officials: Still Kept in the Dark About Homeland Security. By the U.S. Senate Governmental Affairs Committee (The Committee, Washington, DC) August 13, 2003. 46 p.

Full Text at: www.senate.gov/~govt-aff/_files/stateandlocalreport.pdf

["America’s safety demands that state and local officials, especially law enforcement and public safety professionals —are fully engaged in the war against terrorism. Governmental Affairs Committee (GAC) Minority staff found that these officials are being asked to fight the war against terrorism with incomplete and unreliable access to one of the most potent weapons in the homeland security arsenal: information .... This report contains the results of a staff investigation conducted ... to review the information needs of state and local officials and assess the progress of the Bush Administration in meeting those needs. Staff interviewed officials on the front lines in the fight against terrorism, while also reviewing reports, hearings, and other public information."]

[Request #S8977]

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FEDERAL BUDGET

The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update. By the Congressional Budget Office. (The Office, Washington DC) August 2003. 87 p.

Full Text at: ftp://ftp.cbo.gov/44xx/doc4493/08-26-Report.pdf

["The nonpartisan office said the deficit would be $480 billion next year but could reach a cumulative total of $5.8 trillion by 2013.... The new analysis is based on fairly cautious assumptions. It assumes that economic growth will surge next year and remain solid for the rest of the decade." New York Times (August 26, 2003) A1

[Request #S8978]

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PENSION FUNDS

The Impact of Pension Funding On State Government Finances. By J. Fred Giertz, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. IN: State Tax Notes vol. 29, no. 7 (August 18, 2003) pp 507 - 513.

["State pension funding today is no sounder than in the early 1990s. This is not necessarily a cause for alarm, but it is a source of concern. Pension funding will be an increasingly important demand on state finances in the upcoming years. Pension funding issues do not have the immediacy .... of the state budget shortfalls for fiscal 2003 and fiscal 2004, but they must be considered when states address long-term structural imbalance problems."]

[Request #S8982]

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PROPOSITIONS

Analyses of Propositions For Election: Tuesday, October 07, 2003. By the Legislative Analyst's Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) August 11, 2003. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/initiatives/qryPropositions_by_election_10-2003.asp

["Proposition 53 ... would increase the amount of General Fund revenue committed to pay-as-you-go capital outlay projects.... Proposition 54... measure restricts... state and local governments from 'classifying' information on a person's race, ethnicity, color, or national origin for the purposes of ... government operations."]

[Request #S8983]

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PUBLIC INFRASTRUCTURE FINANCING

Porposition 53: Should California Earmark General Fund Revenues For Infrastructure? By the California Budget Project. (The Project, Sacramento, California) August 2003. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/2003/bb030813Prop53.pdf

["While there is clearly a demonstrated need for investment in the state’s infrastructure, this measure joins a growing number of initiatives that tie the Legislature’s and Governor’s hands by dedicating state revenues for specified purposes.... The transfers would initially equal one percent of General Fund revenues as estimated by the Department of Finance, gradually increasing (by 0.3 percent per year) to 3 percent in 2013-14 and thereafter."]

[Request #S8984]

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STATE BUDGETS

Understanding State Budget Troubles. By the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (The Bank, San Francisco, California) August 15, 2003. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/2003/el2003-23.pdf

["The gradual process of working through budget problems typically restrains state and local governments well after the national economy recovers. This Economic Letter reviews the magnitude and genesis of states' current fiscal problems, examines the adjustments states made in fiscal 2004, and discusses the likely impact of state budgets on the national and regional economies."]

[Request #S8885]

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HEALTH

COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

Costs of Health Care Administration in the United States and Canada. By Steffie Woolhandler, Harvard Medical School, and others. IN: New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349, no. 8, (August 21, 2003) pp. 768-775.

["The United States could reduce per capita health care spending by implementing a single-payer system similar to Canada's to reduce administrative costs, according to this study... Researchers found that health care administrative costs totaled $1,059 per person in the United States, compared to $307 per person in Canada. The study found that advertising and underwriting costs for private-sector U.S. insurers accounted for about 11.7% of spending, compared to 1.3% in Canada and 3.6% for Medicare. After adjustments, researchers found that 31% of U.S. health care spending could be attributed to administrative costs, compared to 16.7% in Canada." California Healthline (August 21, 2003).]

[Request #S8986]

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DRUG PRICES

Trends in Outpatient Prescription Drug Utilization and Expenditures: 1997 - 2000. By the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (The Survey, Rockville, Maryland) August 6, 2003. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.meps.ahrq.gov/papers/st21/stat21.htm

["According to the survey, the cost of medications prescribed to outpatients steadily increased between 1997 to 2000 from $72.3 billion to $103 billion .... The average expense for people age 65 and older with any prescription drug expense increased about 35 percent, from $819 to $1,102. For those under 65, the amount increased about 40 percent from $347 to $485" Health Care Policy Report (August 11, 2003) 1054.]

[Request #S8987]

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INFECTIOUS DISEASE

Animal-Borne Epidemics Out of Control: Threatening the Nation's Health. By the Trust for America's Health. (The Trust, Washington, DC) August 2003. 24 p.

Full Text at: healthyamericans.org/resources/files/Animalreport.pdf

["The United States has a piecemeal approach to controlling diseases that cross over from animals to humans, and the effort needs to be better coordinated and funded .... The report examined monkeypox, West Nile virus, Lyme disease, mad cow disease and chronic wasting disease." The Atlantic Journal-Constitution (August 6, 2003) A1.]

[Request #S8989]

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MEDICAID

Average Out-of-Pocket Health Care Costs for Medicare+Choice Enrolleess Increased 10 Percent in 2003. By Marsha Gold and Lori Achman. The Commonwealth Fund. (The Fund, Washington, DC) August 2003. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.cmwf.org/programs/medfutur/gold_averageoopcosts_ib_667.pdf

["Medicare reform is one of the top issues on the domestic policy agenda, and the role of private plans in that reform is one of its critical dimensions.... Medicare+choice plans have played an important role in reducing the out-of-pocket liability of its enrollees.... In the past few years, however, that role had been eroding."]

[Request #S8990]

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PUBLIC POLICY

Health Insurance Scams: How Government Is Responding and What Further Steps Are Needed. By Mila Kofman and others, Health Policy Institute, Georgetown University. Prepared for the Task Force on the Future of Health Insurance. (The Commonwealth Fund, Washington, DC) August 2003. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.cmwf.org/programs/insurance/kofman_insurancescams_ib_665.pdf

["A recent unprecedented increase in unauthorized and illegal health insurance plans, spurred by rising health care costs and increasing numbers of uninsured, has left approximately 100,000 people with millions of dollars in medical debts and no coverage. This report notes that health insurance scams have been rising over the past two years as insurance premiums have increased at double-digit rates. It provides policy recommendations to prevent the proliferation of phony health plans."]

[Request #S8991]

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SMOKING

Cigarette Smuggling in California: Fact and Fiction. By Stanton A. Glantz and others, the Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco (The Center, San Francisco, California) 2003. 32 p.

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1031&context=ctcre

["In contrast to industry claims, the broad consensus among independent economic studies have shown in the United States that cigarette smuggling has remained at 2% to 6% of total consumption. The lone exception to this consensus has been the California Board of Equalization, which has estimated that 27% of cigarettes smoked in California are smuggled. This represents $292 million of lost excise tax revenue for 2002."]

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HUMAN SERVICES

ADOPTION

Sharon S. v. San Diego County Superior Court. California Supreme Court. S102671. August 4, 2003. 69 p.

Full Text at: www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/S102671.PDF

["The state Supreme Court upheld California's practice of allowing adoptions by unmarried partners, in a ruling with wide impact on how parents and families will be defined. At stake was the validity of up to 20,000 existing adoptions statewide, many by gay and lesbian couples. Critics said the ruling would trivialize the bonds of family, but gay-rights advocates hailed it." San Francisco Chronicle (August 5, 2003) A1.]

[Request #S8993]

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CHILDREN

Most States Are Developing Statewide Information Systems, but the Reliability of Child Welfare Data Could Be Improved. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-03-809 (The Office, Wahsington, DC) July 2003. 70 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d03809.pdf

["Most state officials said they recognize the benefit their state will achieve by developing Statewide Child Welfare Information System (SACWIS), such as contributing to the timeliness of child abuse and neglect investigations; however, despite the availability of federal funds since 1994, states reported a median delay of 2-½ years beyond the timeframes they set for completion. States reported that they encountered some difficulties during SACWIS development, such as challenges receiving state funding and creating a system that reflected their work processes."]

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FAMILIES

Domestic Violence and Welfare Policy: Research Findings That Can Inform Policies on Marriage and Child Well-Being. By Sharmila Lawrence, Research Forum on Children, Families, and the New Federalism, National Center For Children in Poverty. (The Forum, New York, New York) December 2002. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.researchforum.org/newsletter/DomVio.pdf

["This report examines what is known from past research on domestic violence that may inform policies related to marriage and child well-being. In addition, it highlights areas for future research and strategies that can advance stable marriage and improve the well-being of children who might otherwise suffer the effects of domestic violence."]

[Request #S8995]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

Improving Access To TANF For Teen Parents: Recommendations for Reauthorization. By Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2003. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/DMS/Documents/1062691295.3/Teen_Parent_Recs.pdf

["Teen parents may receive their own Temparary Assistance for Needy Families assistance grants if they meet certain criteria.... The minor parent education/training rule prohibits states from awarding TANF cash grants to minor parents unless they are participating in education or training activities. The minor parent living arrangement rule prohibits states from awarding TANF cash grants to minor parents unless they are living with a parent, legal guadian, or another adult relative, or living in an arragement approved by the state."]

[Request #S8996]

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WELFARE

Marriage-Related Provisions in Recent Welfare Reauthorization Proposals: A Summary. By Mary Parke, The Center for Law and Social Policy (The Center, Washington, DC) June 2003. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/DMS/Documents/1056725608.93/marr_prov.pdf

["This paper briefly gives the background of marriage-promotion efforts within the context of welfare reform and then describes provisions relating to marriage and family formation in the 2002 and 2003 TANF reauthorization efforts."]

[Request #S8997]

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INTERNATIONAL READER

Third State of the Nation Speech. By Vicente Fox, President of the Republic of Mexico. Presented to the Congress of Mexico. (The Office of the President, Mexico City, Mexico) September 1, 2003. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.presidencia.gob.mx/?P=2&Orden=Leer&Tipo=Pe&Art=6189

["President Vicente Fox, addressing a nation demanding stronger leadership from him, gave an unusually frank evaluation of Mexico's deep social, economic and political problems and urged the opposition-dominated Congress to help him through the country's unfinished transition.... On relations with the United States, Fox called for a continued push toward changes in immigration law." Washington Post (September 1, 2003) A1.]

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TRANSPORTATION

DRIVERS

Designing Roadways To Safely Accommodate the Increasingly Mobile Older Driver: A Plan To Allow Older Americans To Maintain Their Independence. By the Road Information Program. (The Program, Washington D.C.) July 2003. 18 p.

Full Text at: www.atssa.com/downloads/TRIP2003OlderDrivers.PDF

["California ranks third among the states for the number of drivers 70 and older killed during 2001.... The report calls for more federal funding to increase roadway safety, including clearer signs with larger lettering and pavement markings; brighter lane markings at intersections; and wider lanes and shoulders on streets and highways." Contra Costa Times (July 25, 2003) F4.]

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FEDERAL POLICY

The Long Journey to Work: A Federal Transportation Policy for Working Families. By Evelyn Blumenberg, UCLA School of Public Policy and Social Research, and Margy Waller, Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy. (Brookings Institution, Washington, DC) July 2003. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/es/urban/publications/20030801_Waller.pdf

["This brief examines the serious transportation challenges facing low-income workers as they seek employment and offers specific policy responses. Central to the argument is research evidence showing that improved transportation services can enhance economic outcomes, with the most compelling evidence centered on access to automobiles. But the transportation needs of the poor vary by metropolitan area and by neighborhood; therefore, this brief provides a full menu of practical policy options, including automobile access programs, improved fixed-route transit services, and expanded paratransit and other door-to-door transit services.]

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FINANCING

Transportation Costs and the American Dream: Why a Lack of Transportation Choices Strains the Family Budget and Hinders Home Ownership. By Surface Transportation Policy Project. (The Project, Washngton, DC) July 2003. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.transact.org/library/decoder/american_dream.pdf

["Aside from the latest spike in gasoline prices, the costs of transportation go mostly unnoticed by the average American. Yet, on average, American households devoted 19.3 percent of every dollar spent in 2001 to transportation expences. This is the second largest expense category -- more than three times the cost of health care -- adding up to $7,633 per family annually just to get around."]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

YOUTH

Enlarging the Healing Circle: Ensuring Justice for American Indian Children. By the Coalition for Juvenile Justice. (The Coalition, Washington, DC) 2003.

["The report identifies substance abuse, depression, gang involvement and faulty legal procedures as major underlying causes of American Indian youth delinquency.... A failure to understand the particular cultures and perspectives that impact American Indian youth can only lead to more lost children."]

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EDUCATION

SECONDARY SCHOOLS

High Schools On a Human Scale: How Small Schools Can Transform American Education. By Thomas Toch. (Beacon Press, Boston, Massachusetts) 2003. 141 p.

["Tests aren't the only way to judge a high school. In the past decade, educators around the country have created dozens of intriguing models for reform. They include virtual high schools where all classes are online and 'theme' schools based on environmental issues or the health-care profession." Newsweek (June 2, 2003) 54.]

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HEALTH

ALCOHOL & DRUG USE

"Perception and Reality: A National Evaluation of Social Norms Marketing Interventions to Reduce College Students' Heavy Alcohol Use." By Wechsler H. Nelson. IN: Journal of Studies on Alcohol, vol. 64 no. 4 (2003) pp. 484-494.

["The current study does not provide evidence supporting the effectiveness of social-norms marketing programs, as currently utilized, in reducing alcohol use among college students."]

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CANCER

A Review of the Dose Reconstruction Program of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. By John E. Till, and others, Committee to Review of the Dose Reconstruction Program, National Research Council. (National Academies Press, Washington, DC) 2003.

["Military personnel who took part in aboveground nuclear weapons tests a half-century ago were exposed to more radiation than government agencies believed, researchers said -- but not in amounts that would qualify many more for compensation.... Veterans with any of 21 types of cancer are already automatically granted compensation.... If the program is continued, improvements need to be made, said Till, adding that Congress and the Defense Department need to take a hard look at if and how it should go forward." Miami Herald (May 9, 2003) A34.]

Press release. 1 p.
http://www4.nationalacademies.org/news.nsf/isbn/0309089026?OpenDocument

Full report. 377 p.
http://www.nap.edu/books/0309089026/html/

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