Subject: Studies in the News 04-24 (April 13, 2004)

CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

1854 - "In 1854 San Quentin was built by convict laborers who slept on a prison ship at night and worked during the day. The building initially housed about 400 convicts.... In 1860 the prison, which had been run by private contractors, formally came under state control. "  San Jose Mercury News (June 21, 2003 )  

1854 - "Before San Quentin was built on the outskirts of San Francisco, the prisoners were kept on prison ships such as the Waban. The California legal system decided to create a more permanent structure because of overcrowding and frequent escapes aboard the ship. They chose Point San Quentin and purchased 20 acres of land to begin what would become the state's oldest prison. http://americanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa031002a.htm"

Contents This Week
Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Consequences of youth reentry
   Incorporating local justice information
   New death row at San Quentin
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   State of black America
   Race, ethnicity and economic well-being
ECONOMY
   UCLA Anderson forecast
   Exxon Mobile and Walmart top the lists
   On-line publishing restrictions
   Charitable solicitation by commercial fundraisers
   The public cost of low-wage jobs in San Diego
   Manufacturing in Southern California
   Gas tax increase would slow economy
   Economic recovery
EDUCATION
    English language development test results
   Students fall short in knowledge of history
   Bilingual education and English learners
   Title IX and California schools
EMPLOYMENT
   Farm laborers win compensation for travel
ENERGY
   Hydrogen development in California
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   State goals for perchlorate
   Sub-populations and environmental toxins
   State environmental policy innovations
   Environmental regulations
   Timber company subject to SWRCB
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   State legislation on slave labor unconstitutional
   Federal funds
   California's share of federal formula grants
   Non-profits squeezed by workers' comp premiums
   Court upholds Prop 13 calculation
   Technology and productivity growth
   Effects of budget cuts on state departments
   State responses to budget crises
HEALTH
   Sleep deprivation and children/parents
   Sleep deprivation and children
   Health insurance premiums higher in California
   Race, ethnicity and health
   Cost of prescription drugs for the uninsured
HOUSING
   Affordable housing crisis
   Planned developments
HUMAN SERVICES
   Child care funding
   Investing in foster children
   Lawsuit targets unsafe care of foster children
   Reducing chronic homelessness
   Trends in parents' economic hardship
TRANSPORTATION
   Journey to work
   What government can do about congestion
WASHINGTON READER
   California Institute's briefing on federal issues
STUDIES TO COME
   Handbook of state indicators
   Television's effect on young children
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News (SITN) is a current compilation of policy-related items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau and State Information & Reference Center to supplement the public policy debate in California's Capitol. To help share the latest information with state employees and other interested individuals, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library's website.

How to Obtain Materials Listed in SITN:

  • When available on the Internet, the URL for the full-text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

JUVENILE OFFENDERS

The Dimensions, Pathways, and Consequences of Youth Reentry. By Daniel P. Mears and Jeremy Travis, Urban Institute. Research Report. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2004. 44 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410927_youth_reentry.pdf

["Approximately 200,000 juveniles and young adults age 24 and under leave secure juvenile correctional facilities of state and federal prisons and return home each year.... Youths may face numerous obstacles ... to becoming contributing members of society.... This report examines these issues and provides policy and research recommendations." Child Welfare League of America News (March 5, 2004) online.]

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LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES

Incorporating Local Justice Information in State Systems. By the Center for Best Practices, National Governor's Association. Issue Brief. (The Center, Washington, DC) March 2004. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.nga.org/cda/files/030104JUSTICE.pdf

["The sharing of criminal justice information has become a major focus for states. As states work toward this goal ... they must engage local agencies and governments successfully. This means addressing key protocol issues, such as who controls information, who funds initiatives, and who supports the technology.... There are a number of [recommended] strategies to incorporate local justice information into statewide systems."]

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PRISONS

California Department of Corrections: Its Plans to Build a New Condemned-Inmate Complex at San Quentin Are Proceeding, But its Analysis of Alternative Locations and Costs was Incomplete. By Elaine M. Howle, State Auditor. Prepared for the Governor of California, President Pro Tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the Assembly. (Bureau of State Audits, Sacramento, California) March 4, 2004. 71 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2003-130.pdf

["Audit Faults New Death Row Plans at San Quentin: California prisons officials used a flawed analysis to justify a $220 million project now under way to build a new Death Row at San Quentin State Prison, according to a report. But whether taxpayers would get a better deal by moving the state's 622 condemned inmates from Marin County to another prison is unknown." Sacramento Bee (March 17,2004) B3.]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

AFRICAN AMERICANS

The State of Black America: The Complexity of Black Progress: Executive Summary. By the National Urban League. (The League, Washington, DC) March 2004. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.nul.org/pdf/sobaexec.pdf

["Blacks Lag Whites in Home Ownership: Black Americans are less likely than white Americans to own homes, don't earn as much as whites, don't live as long, and don't do as well in school, according to a report.... The 2000 census found that 91.8 percent of white students graduated from high school, compared to 83.7 percent of black students." San Francisco Chronicle (March 24, 2004) A2.]

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MINORITIES

Race, Ethnicity, and Economic Well-Being. By Kenneth Finegold and Laura Wherry, Assessing the New Federalism, Urban Institute. Snapshots 3. Report No. 19. (The Institute, Washington, DC) March 18, 2004. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310968_snapshots3_no19.pdf

["Data shows that poverty rates dropped to 23 percent for blacks, 25 percent for Hispanics, and eight percent for whites in 2002. Forty-four percent of Hispanics experienced food hardship in 2002 compared with 38 percent of blacks and 17 percent of whites. In 2002, 24 percent of blacks, 20 percent of Hispanics, and ten percent of whites experienced housing hardship." Assessing the New Federalism (March 22, 2004) online.]

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ECONOMY

CALIFORNIA

The UCLA Anderson Forecast for the Nation and California. By the UCLA Anderson Forecasting Project, Anderson Graduate School of Management. And Quarterly Business Forecast Seminar: Packet. By Joeph Hurd, Anderson Graduate School of Management, and others. (The School, Los Angeles, California) March 2004. Various pagings.

["The California job picture is looking better than previously expected and the state's economy is moving out of recession.... The forecast noted California's health care and financial services sectors are leading the state's recovery. Both sectors have grown in spite of the recession and are forecast to continue to expand.... Manufacturing jobs have dipped every year since 2000 and are predicted to fall another 1.2 percent in 2004. And information technology jobs will follow three consecutive years of losses with a scant 0.3 percent increase in 2004." Sacramento Bee (March 25, 2003) D1.]

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CORPORATIONS

"The 500 Largest U.S. Corporations." And "50 Years of the Fortune 500: The Lists." IN: Fortune (April 5,2004) F1+

["Wal-Mart Tops Fortune 500 List: With sales of almost $259 billion, the late Sam Walton's global chain of general stores easily kept its No. 1 rank among the nation's largest publicly traded companies.... In terms of profits, Exxon Mobile was first with $21.5 billion in earnings. Wal-mart had $9.05 billion in earnings." Sacramento Bee (March 22, 2004) A4.]

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INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technoloty and the Law To Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity. By Lawrence Lessig. (Penguin Press, New York, New York) 2004. 352 p.

Full Text at: www.free-culture.cc/freeculture.pdf

["(Lawrence) Lessig, a law professor at Stanford University, argues that making information more widely available can make business sense.... The book ... explores technical and legal restrictions that publishers and other large media corporations use to control information and keep it from the public domain." USA Today (March 26, 2004) 1.]

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NOT FOR PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

Charitable Solicitation by Commercial Fundraisers: Summary of Results. By the Office of California Attorney General. (The Office, Sacramento, California) March 30, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: caag.state.ca.us/charities/publications/2002cfr/2002_cfr.pdf

["Only a little more than one-third of the money raised by professional fund-raisers actually goes to charity, according to a report.... [It]'raises questions about the value of using commerical fund-raisers,' said Tom Dresslar, spokesman for Bill Lockyer's office.... In 1998, 44 percent of money raised by commercial fund-raisers made it to the nonprofit groups. It peaked at 48 percent in 1999, but dropped to 38 percent in 2001 and 2002. The fund-raisers kept the rest of the money to cover their expenses and profits." San Francisco Chronicle (March 31, 2004) 1.]

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SAN DIEGO

Hidden Costs: The Public Cost of Low-Wage Jobs in San Diego. By the Center on Policy Initiatives (The Center, San Diego, California) March 2004. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.onlinecpi.org/Hidden%20Costs.pdf

["San Diego’s changing economy resembles an hourglass. The loss of middle-class jobs has led to new jobs in high-tech, high-wage industries at the top, and low-wage, no benefit, primarily service sector jobs at the bottom. As this report finds, this new 'hourglass' economy poses many problems for San Diego’s consumers, taxpayers and businesses."]

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SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

Manufacturing in Southern California. By the Economic Information and Research Department, Los Angeles County Economic Development Corporation. (The Corporation, Los Angeles, California) April 2004. 12 p.

Full Text at: laedc.info/pdf/Manufacturing-2004.pdf

["L.A. 'Bleeding' Jobs in Manufacturing: The Los Angeles metropolitan area retained its title as the nation's biggest manufacturing center for the 13th consecutive year during 2003, but job losses remain a prime concern because of the state's unfriendly business climate.... Nevertheless, the sector across the broader region remained robust enough last year with 953,000 manufacturing jobs to rank second nationally if it were a state." Daily News of Los Angeles (March 23, 2004) N1.]

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TAXATION

An Increase in the Gas Tax Would Hurt Consumrs and Slow the Economy. By Rea S. Hederman and Alfredo Goyburu, Heritage Foundation. Web Memo #45. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) March 18, 2004. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.heritage.org/Research/Taxes/wm451.cfm?renderforprint=1

["A macroeconomic analysis shows that increasing the gas tax would depress economic activity and the incomes of millions of Americans. It would also raise significantly less revenue than its proponents project."]

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UNITED STATES

Beige Book: Review and Analysis. By the Financial Markets Center. (The Center, Philomont, Virginia) March 2004. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.fmcenter.org/PDF/Beige030304.pdf

["Expansion Continues, Doubts Remain: The March Beige book paints a broadly positive picture of the domestic economy during the first two months of 2004. Yet the same caveats that recurred in recent surveys -- particularly companies' reluctance to hire new workers, raise wages and decisively ramp up capital spending -- crop up again in the new report."]

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EDUCATION

ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

California English Language Development Test. By the California Department of Education. (The Department, Sacramento, California) 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: celdt.cde.ca.gov/main2004.html

["California students who are still learning English have made significant strides in mastering the language for the second year in a row.... Forty-three percent of the state's 1.4 million students who speak English as a second language demonstrated proficiency in 2003 on English tests of reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills." Los Angeles Times (March 19, 2004) B6.]

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ACADEMIC STANDARDS

"'Greatest Generation' Struggled With History, Too." By Jay Mathews. IN: Washington Post (March 9, 2004) 1.

["The U.S. Department of Education reported that in 2001 nearly six out of 10 high school seniors lacked even a basic knowledge of the nation's history.... Yet, it turns out Americans have been deeply ignorant of their history for a very long time, while still creating the strongest, if not the brightest, country in the world.... Many of the 1943 students who said the United States purchased Alaska from the Dutch and Hawaii from Norway were later lionized in books, movies and television as 'the Greatest Generation.'"]

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BILINGUAL EDUCATION

A National Study of School Effectiveness For Language Minority Students' Long-Term Academic Achievement. By Wayne P. Thomas and Virginia P. Collier, George Mason University. (Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence, Santa Cruz, California) 2004.

Full Text at: crede.ucsc.edu/research/llaa/1.1pdfs/1.1complete.pdf

["Initiatives in several states have sought to replace bilingual instruction for English language learners with English immersion. While meta-analyses have shown that bilingual programs can have a significant positive effect on student achievement when compared to English immersion, bilingual programs emphasize primary and secondary language instruction to differing degrees, with different levels of effectiveness." Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development SmartBrief (March 2, 2004).]

Executive Summary. 10 p.:
http://www.crede.ucsc.edu/research/llaa/1.1pdfs/1.1_01es.pdf

Full Report. 335 p.:
http://www.crede.ucsc.edu/research/llaa/1.1pdfs/1.1complete.pdf

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HIGHER EDUCATION

Title IX Athletics Compliance at California's Public High Schools, Community Colleges, and Universities. By Dr. Margaret Beam and others, RMC Research Corporation. Prepared for the California Postsecondary Education Commission and the California Department of Education. (The Corporation, Portland, Oregon) March 22, 2004. 69 p.

Full Text at: www.cpec.ca.gov/CompleteReports/2004Reports/TitleIX.pdf

["Fewer Women Pursue Sports at 2-Year Colleges Than at California Public High Schools, Universities; Official Blames Lack of 'Institutional Awareness' for failure to comply with Title IX. The study found that only 8% of the state's two-year colleges that responded to a survey were in compliance last year with Title IX, the federal law that requires gender equity in school sports. By comparison, the study found 26% of high schools and 57% of four-year universities had satisfactory participation rates for women in athletics." Los Angeles Times (March 31, 2004) B6.]

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EMPLOYMENT

AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

Medrano v. D'Arrigo Brothers Company. U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, San Jose Division. C00-20826JF(RS) March 17, 2004. 23 p.

["Pay Ruling Favors Farmworkers: Agribusiness must compensate laborers forced to ride buses.... In a ruling, Judge Fogel said D'Arrigo's failure to pay employees for nearly four years for time spent traveling and waiting for the bus -- as long as two hours a day, in some cases -- left the company in violation of the minimum-wage law for at least some of the more than 3,000 field workers represented in the class action suit." San Francisco Chronicle (March 24, 2004) B3.]

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ENERGY

ALTERNATIVE FUELS

California 's Hydrogen Highway: The Case for a Clean Energy Science and Technology Initiative: Testimony. By Daniel Sperling, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis. Presented to the California Assembly Select Committee on Air and Water Quality. (The Author, Sacramento, California) February 25, 2004. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.its.ucdavis.edu/publications/2004/UCD-ITS-RR-04-03.pdf

["I have come to believe the following: even more initiative is appropriate and desirable, even broader benefits will likely result, and California is well positioned to be the international leader in moving toward hydrogen. The underlying premise of my conclusion is that hydrogen potentially provides far greater societal benefits than any other major long term opttion under serious consideration."]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

DRINKING WATER

Public Health Goals for Chemicals in Drinking Water: Perchlorate. By the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency. (The Office, Sacramento, California) March 2004.

["State environmental regulators published safety guidelines for a toxic ingredient of rocket fuel called perchlorate, positioning California as the first state in the nation to regulate the pollutant that has infiltrated some drinking water supplies.... The Office cautioned that the public health goal -- which some criticize as too high and others as too low -- is not a final regulation setting maximum acceptable levels for the contaminant.... The regulation setting maximum acceptable contaminant levels will be completed within a year by the state Department of Health Services." Los Angeles Times (March 12, 2004) B6.]

Health goals. 106 p.
http://www.oehha.ca.gov/water/phg/pdf/finalperchlorate31204.pdf

Press release. 2 p.
http://www.oehha.ca.gov/public_info/press/percpress041104.pdf

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ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE

Ensuring Risk Reduction In Communities With Multiple Stressors: Environmental Justice and Cumulative Risks/Impacts: Draft Report. By the Cumulative Risk/Impacts Work Group, National Environmental Justice Advisory Council. (The Council, Washington DC) January 31, 2004. 80 p.

Full Text at: www.tulane.edu/~telc/NEJAC%20Cum%20Risk%20Rpt_Dft%20Fnl.pdf

["In order to ensure environmental justice for all communuties and tribes, what short-term and long-term actions should the EPA take in proactively implementing the concepts containined in its Framework for Cumulative Risk Assessment? The Work Group has worked diligently over the past 12 months to address this question."]

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ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

"Devolution and Innovation: The Adoption of State Environmental Policy Innovations by Administrative Agencies." By Alka Sapat, Florida Atlantic University. IN: Public Administration Review, vol. 64, no. 2 (March/April 2004) pp. 141-151.

["This study analyzes the adoption of environmental policy innovations by state administrative agencies in the area of hazardous waste regulation. Four explanations are developed to explain the factors that affect innovation adoption: the severity of the problem; the importance of institutional factors; the role played by interest groups; and contextual factors.... State environmental managers are not directly influenced by interest groups, and the inclusion of all stakeholders is likely to lead to greater support for new policy initiatives."]

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ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION

"The Regulation Dilemma: Cooperation and Conflict in Environmental Governance." By Matthew Potoski, Iowa State University, and Aseem Prakash, University of Washington, Seattle. IN: Public Administration Review, vol. 64, no. 2 (March/April 2004) pp. 152-163.

["This article examines how governmental regulatory enforcement can influence firms' compliance with mandatory and voluntary regulations.... If firms are likely to evade compliance, governments are better off adopting a deterrance approach. If governments insist on rigidly interpreting and enforcing laws, firms may have incentives to evade regulations and not voluntary codes. Cooperation is possible through credible signals between firms and government."]

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WATER QUALITY

Pacific Lumber Company v. California State Water Resources Control Board. California Court of Appeals, First Appellate District. A102399. March 18, 2004. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/A102399.PDF

["Does the Forest Practice Act establish an exclusive regulatory framework that precludes other agencies from enforcing the laws they are charged with administering when logging activities implicate those laws? We conclude that it does not and that it was an error to issue a writ of mandate preventing the California State Water Resources Control Board from enforcing water quality protection measures against a timber company."]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

FEDERAL / STATE RELATIONS

Taiheiyo Cement Corporation, et al. v. Superior Court of Los Angeles County. California Court of Appeals, Second Appellate District. B155736. March 30, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/B155736A.PDF

["Bowing to the U.S. Supreme Court, a state appellate court has ruled unconstitutional a California law that allowed victims of forced labor in World War II to sue Japanese companies that made them work without pay.... A 1951 treaty among the United States, 47 wartime allies and Japan 'embodies the federal government's foreign policy that claims against Japan and its nationals are to be resolved diplomatically,' said Justice Paul Boland in the 3-0 ruling." San Francisico Chronicle (April 1, 2004) B3.]

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FEDERAL BUDGET

FFIS Competitive Grant Update. By the Federal Funds Information for States. Update 04-05 - 04-06. (FFIS, Washington, DC) March 19 - April 2, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/ffis/subs/cg/2004/CG%2004-05.htm

["Includes: "Research Scholar Grant in Health Services and Health Policy Outcomes Research;" "Mentored Research Scholar Grant;" "Postdoctoral Fellowships;" "Doctoral Training Grant in Clinical Oncology Social Work;" Postdoctoral Fellowships; Physician Training Award in Preventive Medicine;" and others.]

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FEDERAL GRANTS

Factors Determining California's Share of Federal Formula Grants. Second edition. By Tim Ransdell, Public Policy Institute of California, in collaboration with the California Institute. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) 2004. 48 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/FF_204TRFF.pdf

["This report significantly expands on its predecessor, discusses several additional factors, describes more of the 'special cases' that make formula grant analysis so challenging and adds many more charts to graphically illustrate the differences between California and other states.... The report notes California's percentage share of the nation's total for various factors -- like population, poverty, income, immigrants, transportation stats, etc -- and predicts whether factors are likely to increase or reduce California's share of federal money."]

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NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

"Workers' Comp Costs Hurt Non-Profits: Press Release." California State Controller's Press Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) March 25, 2004. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.sco.ca.gov/eo/pressbox/2004/03/news0325.pdf

["Workers' Comp Hits Nonprofits, Too: Like private employers, California nonprofits have been squeezed hard by surging workers' compensation insurance premiums in recent years, according to a survey.... Rate increases over three years range from 10.97 percent for Catholic charities in San Fransisco to 543.3 percent for Comprehensive Youth Services in Fresno." Sacramento Bee(March 26, 2004) 1.]

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PROPOSITION 13

County of Orange, et al. v. Renee M. Bezaire, et al. California Court of Appeal, Fourth Appellate District. G032412. March 26, 2004. 17 p.

Full Text at: www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/G032412.PDF

["A state appeals court spared governments across California a potential $10-billion hit by upholding how Orange and other counties assess property taxes.... The process allows the tax assessor to increase the value of property above Proposition 13's annual 2% limit after it has lost value or stayed flat in previous years, in order to recover revenues lost because of the temporary market decline." Los Angeles Times (March 27, 2004) B1.]

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PUBLIC POLICY

Technology, Productivity, and Public Policy. By Mary Daly and John Williams, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. FRBSF Economic Letter. No. 2004-07. (The Bank, San Francisco, California) March 12, 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/2004/el2004-07.pdf

["The study of productivity growth cuts across many of the fields and approaches in economics.... This Economic Letter summarizes papers presented at the conference 'Technology, Productivity, and Public Policy' held on November 7-8, 2003.... The seven papers presented highlight the breadth of questions and methodologies of recent research on productivity growth."]

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STATE BUDGET

Control Section 4.10: Impact Statements. By Various California State Departments. (The California Department of Finance, Sacramento, California) April 1, 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.dof.ca.gov/HTML/BUD_DOCS/ImpctStmntMenu.htm

["Control Section 4.10 required $1.1 million in savings, either through budget reductions or employee compensation concessions; a minimum of $306.5 million in reductions to appropriations; and abolishment of at least 16,000 state employee positions. The impact statements were prepared by each agency and, according to the DOF, have not been reviewed by the DOF. For each program, a brief summary of the program is provided, and the following questions are addressed: How was the reduction implemented?; and, What was the actual effect of this reduction?" California Budget Project Listserv (April 2, 2004).]

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STATE BUDGETS

State Responses to 2004 Budget Crises: A Look at Ten States. By John Holahan and others, the Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) February 2004.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410946_StateBudgetCrises.pdf

["This report examines how 10 states responded to their ongoing budget crises in FY 2004. With few exceptions, the 10 states did not increase personal or corporate income taxes or sales taxes. 'Sin taxes' were adopted more broadly. States continued to draw on reserves, rainy day funds, dedicated trust funds, and used other short-term solutions to enhance revenue. Most striking were budget cuts in higher education, aid to localities, size and compensation of the state workforce, and health care. In addition to freezing or reducing provider reimbursement rates and cutting optional benefits in Medicaid, most states made unprecedented efforts to reduce enrollment. Federal fiscal relief helped most states reduce the extent of spending cuts or tax increases."]

Full Report. 11 p.:
http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410946_StateBudgetCrises.pdf

Alabama. 5 p.:
http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410947_AL_budget_crisis.pdf

California. 6 p.:
http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410948_CA_budget_crisis.pdf

Colorado. 5 p.:
http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410949_CO_budget_crisis.pdf

Florida. 6 p.:
http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410951_MA_budget_crisis.pdf

Michigan. 5 p.:
http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410952_MI_budget_crisis.pdf

New Jersey. 6 p.:
http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410953_NJ_budget_crisis.pdf

New York. 5 p.:
http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410954_NY_budget_crisis.pdf

Texas. 5 p.:
http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410955_TX_budget_crisis.pdf

Washington. 5 p.:
http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410956_WA_budget_crisis.pdf

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

2004 Sleep in America Poll. By the National Sleep Foundation. Prepared by WB&A Market Research. (National Sleep Foundation, Washington, DC) 2004. 183 p.

Full Text at: www.sleepfoundation.org/polls/2004SleepPollFinalReport.pdf

["Not getting enough shut-eye? You're not alone. American parents and children are sleeping less than experts recommend, according to a new National Sleep Foundation survey. Children doing better on the sleep front are more likely to include reading -- and not TV or videos -- as part of their bedtime routine. Children who get the fewest hours of sleep or go to bed after 10 pm are the most likely to drink caffeinated beverages during the day." Connect for Kids Weekly (April 5, 2004).]

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Sleep in America. By the National Sleep Foundation (The Foundation, Washington, DC) 2004. 183 p.

Full Text at: www.sleepfoundation.org/polls/2004SleepPollFinalReport.pdf

["Sixth-grader Anthony Alvarado goes to bed around 11:30 p.m. and turns the television on in his room to help him get to sleep. He wakes up at 6:50 a.m. to get ready for school, but most mornings he's still tired.... Anthony and many children like him are not getting enough sleep, according to a poll released by the National Sleep Foundation. Kids need sleep for memory, concentration and focus," said Dr. Richard Stack, medical director for the Mercy Sleep Center. He said a good night's sleep leads to better success at school and better self-esteem." Sacramento Bee (March 31, 2004) B1.]

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HEALTH INSURANCE

Employer Health Benefits: Annual Survey. Gary Claxton and others, Kaiser Family Foundation. (The Foundation, Menlo Park, California) 2003. 165 p.

Full Text at: www.kff.org/insurance/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.cfm&PageID=20672

["State Health-Premium Costs Outpace Nation's: Health insurance premiums rose faster in California last year than in the rest of the country, an ominous sign for a state struggling to maintain its economic competitiveness. Private employers saw their health benefits jump by an average of 15.8% in 2003, compared with a national average of 13.9%.... Analysts attributed the higher rate of increase in 2003 partly to changes in managed-care plans in California that are allowing consumers access to more doctors and hospitals." Los Angeles Times (March 17,2004) 1.]

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MINORITIES

Race, Ethnicity, and Health. By Kenneth Finegold and Laura Wherry, Assessing the New Federalism, Urban Institute. Snapshots 3. Report No. 20. (The Institute, Washington, DC)March 18, 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310969_snapshots3_no20.pdf

["Data from the 2002 round of the National Survey of America's Families shows that insurance coverage increased by six percentage points for low-income black and white children and five percentage points for low-income Hispanic children between 1997 and 2002. Twenty percent of Hispanic children were uninsured in 2002 compared with nine percent of black children and seven percent of white children. Overall rates of insurance coverage dropped for low-income Hispanic adults between 1997 and 2002 while remaining unchanged for low-income black and white adults over this period." Assessing the New Federalism (March 29, 2004) online.]

[Request #S1731]

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UNINSURED

Paying the Price: An Analysis of Prescription Drug Prices in California and 19 other States. By California Public Interest Research Group Education Fund. (The Group, Sacramento, California) March 2004. 21 p.

Full Text at: calpirg.org/reports/PayingthePriceCA.pdf

["People without health insurance in California pay 72 percent more on average for common prescription drugs than the federal government, according to a survey.... According to the survey, uninsured Californians pay more for their drugs than people in other parts of the country with the exception of the mid- Atlantic region....The prices can be barriers for uninsured people who rely on certain drugs." San Francisco Chronicle (March 31, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S1732]

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HOUSING

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

America's Neighbors: The Affordable Housing Crisis and the People It Affects. By the National Low Income Housing Coaltition. (The Coalition, Washington, DC) February 2004. 21 p.

Full Text at: www.nlihc.org/research/lalihd/neighbors.pdf

["Deterioration in Housing Affordability for Low/Extremely Low Incomes? According to the Coalition analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau's 2000 database, up to 75% of the extremely low-income renter households had at least one housing problem, and about 56% paid more than half of their income for rent. By the end of the decade all 50 states needed at leat 4.9 million additional affordable rental units for the lowest-income renter households." National Mortgage News (March 15, 2004) 16.]

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COMMUNITY PLANNNING

Planned Developments in California: Private Communities and Public Life. By Tracy M. Gordon, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) 2004. 102 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/R_304TGR.pdf

["Housing Pattern Analyzed: California's increasingly widespread 'common-interest developments,' with their homeowners' associations that function like private governments, are much more diverse than such stereotypes imply, according to a report.... [It] did find that planned developments tend to be less racially and ethnically diverse than surrounding communities." Sacramento Bee (March 31, 2004) D1.]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

Myths About the Adequacy of Current Child Care Funding. By Jennifer Mezey, Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) March 29, 2004) 3 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/DMS/Documents/1080577074.01/cc_myths.pdf

["As the Senate begins debate on welfare reauthorization and child care funding, this analysis debunks six myths about the adequacy of federal funding for child care. It concludes that states need additional child care funding." Moving Ideas News (March 31, 2004).]

[Request #S1735]

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FOSTER CARE

Connected By 25: A Plan For Investing in Successful Futures For Foster Youth. By the Youth Transition Funders Group, Foster Care Work Group, and the Finance Project. (The Project, Washington, DC) 2004. 80 p.

Full Text at: www.financeprojectinfo.org/publications/foster%20care%20final1.pdf

["Developing a strategy for public- and private- sector investments to help youth in foster care become connected by age 25 poses a significant challenge. This investment plan, produced by the Foster Care Work Group, calls for government, foundations, community organizations, and individuals to mobilize their energy and resources with a greater focus on the future of foster youth and those aging out of foster care." Moving Ideas News (March 17, 2004).]

[Request #S1736]

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Reverend David Wheeler v. David Sanders, Director, Los Angeles County Department of Social Services et al. Petition for Writ of Mandate (C.C.P. sec 1085) and Complaint for Injunctive and Declaratory Relief. Superior Court of the State of California, Los Angeles County.

["Lawsuit to Target Unsafe Foster Care by Relatives: Advocates say kids are being placed in dangerous homes in L.A. County.... The suit cites several recent high-profile incidents involving children who were placed in homes with unsafe conditions or criminal activity.... In Torrance last summer, police on a drug raid found seven foster children living with their grandmother and a drug dealer in a filthy house with bars on the windows." Sacramento Bee (March 24, 2004) A4.]

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HOMELESS

Strategies for Reducing Chronic Homelessness: Final Report. By Martha R. Burt and others. Prepared for U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Office of Policy Development and Research. (January 2004) 349 p.

Full Text at: www.huduser.org/Publications/PDF/ChronicStrtHomeless.pdf

["The report cited programs in seven cities that have shown good progress over the past few years, and it urged other communities to follow suit. Foremost among the goals in all the programs was routing the most troubled among the down-and -out into supportive housing, or residential units with heavy counseling in the same building." San Fransisco Chronicle (March 3, 2004) online.

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PARENTS

Trends in Parents' Economic Hardship. By Sandi Nelson, Assessing the New Federalism, Urban Institute. Snapshots 3. Report No. 21. (The Institute, Washington, DC) March 18, 2004. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310970_snapshots3_no21.pdf

["Data from the 2002 round of the National Survey of America's Families shows that food hardship affected 51 percent of low-income parents in 2002. Housing hardship among single low-income parents increased 32 percent in 1997 to 2002." ANF (March 29, 2004) online.]

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TRANSPORTATION

COMMUTERS & COMMUTING

Journey To Work: 2000. By Clara Reschovsky, Economics and Statistics Bureau, U. S. Census Bureau. Census 2000 Brief.(The Bureau, Washington, DC) March 2004. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/c2kbr-33.pdf

["Among the 128.3 million workers, 76 percent drove alone to work. In addition, 12 percent carpooled, 4.7 percent used public transportation, 3.3 percent worked at home, 2.9 percent walked to work, and 1.2 percent used other means.... This report ... provides information on the place of work and journey to work characteristics of workers 16 years and over who were employed and at work during the reference week."]

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HIGHWAY TRAFFIC

Traffic: Why It's Getting Worse, What Government Can Do. By Anthony Downs, The Brookings Institution. (The Institution, Washington, DC) January 2004. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/dybdocroot/comm/policybriefs/pb128.pdf

["Peak-hour traffic congestion is an inherent result of the way modern societies operate. It stems from the widespread desires of people to pursue certain goals that inevitably overload existing roads and transit systems every day.... Although governments may never be able to eliminate road congestion, there are several ways cities and states can move to curb it."]

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WASHINGTON READER

California Capitol Hill Bulletin. By the California Institute For Federal Policy Research. Volume 11, Bulletin 7-11. (The Institute, Washington, DC) March 4 - April 2, 2004. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.calinst.org/bulletins/b1111.pdf

[Includes: "More California Leadership on Energy Efficiency;" "Gaviota Coast Will Not Be Designated A National Seashore;" "California Coastal Commission Briefs Delegation;" "Senate Panel Reviews Higher Education's Link to Workforce Development;" "Highway Program Provisions of House Transportation Bill;" "Transit Provisions in the TEA-LU Bill;" "Oak Disease Continues To Threaten California's Nurseries" "DOT Announces New Nonstop Flights Between DCA and LAX;" "$6 Billion Bipartisan Senate Child Care Increase Added, But Welfare Bill Still Incomplete;" and others.]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

GENERAL GOVERNMENT

STATE OF THE STATE

State Handbook of Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Indicators, 2003. By David Baer, Public Policy Institute, American Association of Retired Pesons. (The Association, Washington, DC) 2004. 426 p.

Full Text at: research.aarp.org/econ/d18047_fiscal.pdf

["This handbook includes data on population, poverty rates, per capita state personal income, state and local tax rates, state and local government revenues and spending programs, and real property tax relief programs. Gender and age comparisons are provided for some of the data. NOTE: State Handbook of Economic ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S1743]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

"Early Television Exposure and Subsequent Attentional Problems in Children." By Dimitri A. Christakis and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 113, no. 4. (April 2004) pp. 708-713.

["Very young children who watch television face an increased risk of attention-deficit problems by school age, this study has found, suggesting that TV might overstimulate and permanently 'rewire' the developing brain. For every hour of television watched daily, two groups of children -- aged 1 and 3 -- faced a 10% increased risk of having attention problems at age 7. The findings bolster previous research showing that television can shorten attention spans and support American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations that youngsters under age 2 not watch television." Education Commission of the States E-Clips (April 4, 2004)1.]

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