Subject: Studies in the News 06-05 (January 30, 2006)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

1856 - "The Sacramento Valley Railroad was completed in 1856, largely with the aid of San Francisco capital. The route would head 22 miles east to the mining town of Negro Bar, later to become Folsom, cross the American River, then skirt along the foothills 20 miles north to Marysville. "  http://www.fedshra.org/reqdpost.htm  

1856 - "Charles Lincoln Wilson, a San Francisco transportation businessman, successfully lobbied the State Legislature to allow the construction of the Sacramento Valley Railroad. It was the first commercial railroad west of the Mississippi and, like so many other similar proposals of the 1850's, its promoters held high hopes that it would become the western leg of the first transcontinental railroad when it would be built.... The Sacramento Valley Railroad lost out to the Central Pacific when the all-important transcontinental railroad was routed through Roseville instead of Folsom. "  www.fedshra.org/reqdpost.htm  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CALIFORNIA READER
   Measuring regional progress
CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Mexico and drug traffic to U.S.
   Reducing gun violence
   Federal sentencing
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Charity donations among hispanics
   Financial counseling for building wealth
DEMOGRAPHY
   Growth of California population
   Population formulas for bonds and allocations
ECONOMY
   Policies regarding credit risk transfer
   Families and credit card debt
   Payment card industry fees
   Convention venues and local revenue
   Internet popular in mainstream America
   Modest economic expansion
EDUCATION
   Learning communities and student success
   Florida Supreme Court voucher case
   Undercounting the school exit exam
   Changing nature of segregation
   Postschool experiences of youth with disabilities
   School reform practices in the classroom
   State financial aid
   Boosting student aid
   Consequences of federal tuition aid
EMPLOYMENT
   Decline of United Farmworkers Union
ENERGY
   Ethanol fuel future
   California hydrogen highway
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Air pollution district sprawl rules
   Emergency funding for disaster relief
   Developers buying diary lands
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Online political participation
   Election recounts
   Protection from disease disasters
   Protecting U.S. ports and infrastructure
   Public health security strategies
   Federal competitive grants update
   Revolving door and government relations
   Reviewing program results
   Term limits and legislative influence
HEALTH
   Possible SCHIP shortfalls
   Diabetes becoming a quiet crisis
   Medicaid/SCHIP Cuts increase emergency room costs
   Hospital payment systems
   Federal medical assistance percentages
   Avian influenza economic effects
   Influenza preparedness plan
HUMAN SERVICES
   Helping children in foster care
   Medicaid spending on foster children
   Park facilities lacking in low-income neighborhoods
   Emergency home heating allotments
   Partnerships with faith-based organizations
   Services provided by faith-based groups
STUDIES TO COME
   Hardships for female prisoners
   Health indicators for adolescents and young adults
   Challenge of rationing health care
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CALIFORNIA READER

CALIFORNIA READER

The State of the Region 2005: Measuring Regional Progress. By Ping Chang, Southern California Association of Governments. (The Association, Los Angeles, California) December 2005. 126 p.

Full Text at: www.scag.ca.gov/publications/pdf/2006/SOTR05/SOTR05_FullReport.pdf

["Southern California had failed to cope with worsening traffic but made progress in creating jobs and improving air quality, according to a yearly regional report.... [The report] examines various indicators to determine the quality of life in the six-county region. In grading the area, the agency gave it an F in transportation and Ds in education and housing. The region received good marks in employment and safety." Sacramento Bee (January 6, 2005) A5.]

[Request #S60501]

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CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

DRUGS

Mexico is Becoming the Next Colombia. By Ted Galen Carpenter, CATO Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2005. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.cato.org/pubs/fpbriefs/fpb87.pdf

["Mexico is a major source of heroin, marijuana and methamphetamine for the U.S. market as well as the principal transit and distribution point for cocaine coming in from South America. For years, people both inside and outside Mexico have worried that the country might descend into the maelstrom of corruption and violence that has longed plagued the chief-drug-source country in the Western Hemisphere, Colombia. There are growing signs that the 'Colombianization' of Mexico is becoming a reality."]

[Request #S60502]

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GUNS & GUN CONTROL

Reducing Gun Violence. By George E. Tita, University of California, Irvine, and others. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Justice. (The Department, Washington, DC) 2005. 27 p.

Full Text at: www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/192378.pdf

["The report ... describes the implementation and effects of an individual, local-level program designed to reduce firearm-related violence in [Los Angeles].... The report should be of particular value to anyone interested in adopting a strategic, data-driven, problem-solving approach to reducing gun violence and other crime and disorder problems in communities."]

[Request #S60503]

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SENTENCING

Evolving Roles in Federal Sentencing: The Post-Booker/FanFan World. By Robert J. Anello and Jodi Misher Peikin. IN: Federal Courts Law Review, vol. 9 (2005) [online.]

Full Text at: www.fclr.org/articles/2005fedctslrev9(noframes).htm

["This article examines the federal sentencing process as it has changed over the past twenty years, with particular attention to the impact made by the Supreme Court's 2005 ruling in the combined decision of United States v. Booker and United States v. Fanfan. These two cases abolished the mandatory force of the U. S. Sentencing Guidelines but indicated that judges must still consider those Guidelines in consonance with the other goals of sentencing that Congress has defined. They conclude that the system in process of judicial development may result in a thoroughly workable system by increasing judicial discretion and lessening prosecutorial control of the sentencing process." Publisher's Announcement (October 2005) 1.]

[Request #S60504]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

LATINOS

Familia, Fe y Comunidad: Giving and Volunteering Among Hispanics in Silicon Valley. By Teresa Alvanado and others, Hispanic Foundation of Silicon Valley. (The Foundation, San Jose, California) 2005. 29 p.

Full Text at: www.cfsv.org/documents/ReportEnglish.pdf

[“This report serves as a glimpse into the reasons, methods, and manners in which Hispanics in Silicon Valley give back to the community.... Research shows that, contrary to common misconceptions, Hispanics in Silicon Valley donate more money to charitable causes (proportionate to their income) and donate more time to helping others than other groups. Yet despite this rich heritage of giving, there are significant barriers that keep Hispanics in our community from participating in formal philanthropic capacities, such as serving on boards or taking leadership roles in local nonprofits.]

[Request #S60505]

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Financial Counseling: A Meaningful Strategy for Building Wealth in the Latino Community. By Beatriz Ibarra. National Council of La Raza. (La Raza, Washington, DC) December 15, 2005. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.nclr.org/content/publications/download/35644

["The report shows that current policies to improve financial literacy for Latinos fail to include one-on-one financial counseling programs, the linchpin of any strategy to close the wealth gap for Hispanics. Financial Counseling: A Meaningful Strategy for Building Wealth in the Latino Community provides specific policy recommendations on how to increase programs proven to improve financial decision-making of Hispanics –- especially the more than 14.5 million who lack a basic checking account."]

[Request #S60506]

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DEMOGRAPHY

CALIFORNIA

PPIC Statewide Survey: Special Survey on Population, December 2005. By Mark Baldassare, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) December 2005. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/S_1205MBS.pdf

["As Californians proliferate with rabbit-like efficiency, the state's residents are surprisingly of one mind about how to deal with overpopulation. Whether they're liberal Democrats or evangelical Christians, they favor sex education and access by young to birth control. This is one of the startling discoveries in a wide-ranging survey released today by the Public Policy Institute of California.... Fifty-three percent mistakenly see immigration from abroad as the biggest cause of the state's population growth, even though births to residents are mainly responsible for the increase -- something only 12 percent of respondents realize." San Francisco Chronicle (January 5, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S60507]

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IMMIGRANTS

2005 Population Data: Impact on Bond Caps and Social Security Block Grant Allocations. By Federal Funds for States. FFIS Issue Brief. 05-49. (FFIS, Washington, DC) December 28, 2005. 8 p.

["This issue brief summarizes the new Census population estimates and calculates their effect on 2006 tax-exempt private-activity bond limitations and Social Service Block Grant allocations."]

[Request #S60508]

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ECONOMY

BANKING

“Recent Policy Issues Regarding Credit Risk Transfer.” By Jose A. Lopez. IN: FRBSF Economic Letter, no. 2005-34 (December 2, 2005) pp. 1-4.

[“As new varieties of credit risk transfer (CRT) mechanisms have developed, so has the volume of CRT transactions, and this has increased liquidity in the underlying bond and loan markets…. This Economic Letter provides a brief description of the common types of CRT mechanisms and reviews the policy issues surrounding their use, especially with respect to credit derivatives.”]

[Request #S60509]

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CREDIT CARD INDUSTRY

The Plastic Safety Net: The Reality Behind Debt in America: Findings From a National Household Survey of Credit Card Debt Among Low- and Middle-Income Households. By Tamara Draut, Demos, and others. (Demos, New York, New York) 2005. 44 p.

Full Text at: www.demos.org/pubs/PSN_low.pdf

["For many low- and middle-income households, credit cards are the primary safety net available to weather job losses and deal with unexpected expenses. Low- and middle-income households have on average $8,650 in credit card debt. In a recent survey of household debt conducted by Demos and the Center for Responsible Lending, most participants said that they got into debt as a result of either unplanned emergency expenditures (such as medical or dental bills, car repairs) or college expenses for their children." Connect for Kids (October 25, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S60510]

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Overview of Recent Developments in the Credit Card Industry. By Douglas Akers and others, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Banking Review. (The Corporation, Washington, DC) 2005. Various pagings

Full Text at: www.fdic.gov/bank/analytical/banking/2005nov/article2.html

["The article begins by describing the formation of the payment card industry and then its structure. The article continues by explaining the functioning of credit card networks: the various kinds of network models, and the significance of interchange fees in the most complex model. Next discussed are recent industry-altering litigation involving Visa and MasterCard, and significant aftereffects of the litigation. The article concludes by noting the main challenges facing the industry today."]

[Request #S60511]

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ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Space Available: The Realities of Convention Centers as Economic Development Strategy. By Heywood Sanders. The Brookings Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2005. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/metro/pubs/20050117_conventioncenters.pdf

[“To cities the lure of the convention business has long been the prospect of visitors emptying their wallets on meals, lodging, and entertainment, helping to rejuvenate ailing downtowns…. The analysis should give local leaders pause as they consider calls for ever more public investment into the convention business, while weighing simultaneously where else scarce public funds could be spent to boost the urban economy.”]

[Request #S60512]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

A Decade of Adoption: How the Internet Has Woven Itself Into American Life. By Lee Rainie and John Horrigan. Prepared for the Pew Internet & American Life Project. (The Project, Washington, DC) 2005. 14 p.

Full Text at: www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/Internet_Status_2005.pdf

["On a typical day at the end of 2004, some 70 million American adults logged onto the internet.... That represents a 37% increase from ... an average day in 2000.... Addressing the question of how to facilitate faster broadband uptake ... is likely to occupy the attention of policymakers."]

[Request #S60513]

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SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

Southern California Leading Economic Indicators. By the Institute for Economic and Environmental Studies, California State University Fullerton. (The Institute, Fullerton, California) December 2005. 3 p.

Full Text at: business.fullerton.edu/centers/iees/PDFfiles/AdrianPDF/SC_Lead_2005q3.pdf

["The Southern California indicator currently expects an increase in Southern California economic activity in the next three to six months.... Payroll employment in California increased with gains in natural resources and mining; construction; manufacturing; trade, transportation and utilities; educational and health services; and leisure and hospitality. There were fewer jobs in information; financial activities; professional and business services; other services; and government.]

[Request #S60514]

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EDUCATION

POST SECONDARY EDUCATION

Learning Communities and Student Success in Postsecondary Education: A Background Paper. By Derek V. Price and Malisa Lee. MDRC. (MDRC, Oakland, California) December 2005. 26 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/publications/418/full.pdf

["Learning communities at colleges and universities bring together small groups of students who take linked courses together. Interest in learning communities is growing, as is early evidence of their impact on student success. This paper reviews the history and theory underlying learning communities, describes various models, summarizes published research, and describes how some learning communities operate based on field visits to nine colleges. It concludes by proposing a multicollege demonstration project that could produce more conclusive evidence of their effectiveness, and provide information to policymakers and to educational institutions interested in expanding them."]

[Request #S60515]

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SCHOOL VOUCHERS

John Ellis "Jeb" Bush, et al. v. Ruth D. Holmes, et al. Supreme Court of Florida. SC04-2323. January 5, 2006.

Full Text at: www.floridasupremecourt.org/decisions/2006/sc04-2323.pdf

["The Florida Supreme Court struck down the voucher system that allowed some children to attend private schools at taxpayer expense, saying that it violates the state constitution's requirement of a uniform system of free public schools. The 5-2 opinion struck down the Opportunity Scholarship Program, championed by Gov. Jeb Bush, which was the nation's first statewide system of school vouchers. Under the 1999 law, students at public schools that earn a failing grade from the state in two out of four years were eligible for vouchers to attend private schools." FindLaw/Associated Press (January 6, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S60516]

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SECONDARY EDUCATION

More Questions than Answers: California High School Exit Exam Results: Opportunity to Learn, and the Class of 2006. By John Rogers and others, UCLA/IDEA Institute for Democracy Education and Access. (University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California) 2005. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.idea.gseis.ucla.edu/resources/exitexam/pdfs/IDEA-CAHSEEff.pdf

["UCLA researchers say the state is overestimating the number of students passing the California High School Exit Exam.... The reason for the difference: UCLA's calculations include class of 2006 students who dropped out in 10th and 11th grade or didn't take the test for some other reason. The California Department of Education includes only students still enrolled and trying to pass the test by the end of 11th grade."]

[Request #S60517]

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SEGREGATION

Racial Transformation and the Changing Nature of Segregation. By Gary Orfield and Chungmei Lee. The Civil Rights Project Harvard University. (The Project, Cambridge, Massessechutts) January 2006. 41 p.

Full Text at: www.civilrightsproject.harvard.edu/research/deseg/Racial_Transformation.pdf

["This report is about the changing patterns of segregation in American public schools through the 2003-2004 school year.... [The report] explores the relationship between racial and economic segregation, documents the growing presence of multiracial schools, and discusses the implications of the lifting of desegregation orders on districts and the possible policy alternatives. The report ends with a brief discussion of what could be done to increase integration in schools."]

[Request #S60518]

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SPECIAL EDUCATION

After High School: A First Look at the Postschool Experiences of Youth with Disabilities. By Mary Wagner and others. Prepared for Office of Special Education Programs U.S. Department of Education. (The Department, Washington, DC) 2005. 190 p.

Full Text at: www.nlts2.org/pdfs/afterhighschool_report.pdf

["The study ... finds that disabled students overall are less than half as likely as their peers to have attended college in the two years after high school, but the college-going rate varies greatly by type of disability: Students with hearing or visual impairments are as likely as nondisabled students to have done some postsecondary work."]

[Request #S60519]

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A Delicate Balance: District Policies and Classroom Practice. By Lauren E. Allen and others, Cross City Campaign for Urban Reform. (The Campaign, Chicago, Illinios) 2005. 104 p.

Full Text at: www.crosscity.org/downloads/delicate_balance.pdf

["The goal of this report is to help policy makers, practitioners, and others gain insight about what conditions need to be in place for instructional refoms to reach into schools and change classroom practices."]

[Request #S60520]

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STUDENT AID

State Financial Aid: Policies to Enhance Articulation and Transfer. By Bridget Terry Long, Harvard Graduate School of Education. Prepared for Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education. (The Commission, Boulder, Colorado) 2005. 36 p.

Full Text at: wiche.edu/Policy/Changing_Direction/documents/Financial_Aid_and_Articulation_000.pdf

["This study ... provides a venue for policymakers and educators nationwide to critically examine strengths and weaknesses of public policies and develop new approaches by looking at emerging trends, their potential impact on higher education, and policy implications related to issues of financial aid, finance, the cost of education, and access. While this involves all sources of assistance and financing -- federal state, local, and institutional -- the project focuses on state policies and practices."]

[Request #S60521]

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Easy Money: How Congress Could Increase Federal Student Aid Funding at No Additonal Cost to Taxpayers. By CALPIRG. (CALPIRG, Sacramento, California) 2005. 272 p.

Full Text at: calpirg.org/reports/easymoney.pdf

["Bipartisan legislation is pending in Congress that would increase federal student aid for those colleges and universities that utilize the more economically efficient of the two federal student loan programs. The Student Aid Reward Act would increase student aid funding by redirecting the subsidies currently going to student loan companies to needy students."]

[Request #S60522]

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Making College More Expensive: The Unintended Consequences of Federal Tuition Aid. By Gary Wolfram, Hillsdale College. Prepared for the Cato Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2005. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa531.pdf

["One result of the federal government's student financial aid programs is higher tuition costs at our nation's colleges and universities.... Congress can at best know that its policies increase tuitions and that some portion of the federal assistance ends up being captured by state government and by colleges and universities."]

[Request #S60523]

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EMPLOYMENT

LABOR UNION

"UFW: A Broken Contract [Series.]" "Decisions of Long Ago Shape the Union Today;" "Farmworkers, Poverty and Chavez's Legacy;" "Real Estate Deals Pay Off for Insiders;" "Linked Charities Bank on the Chavez Name;" "Offering Laborers a Helping Hand." IN: Los Angeles Times (January 8-12, 2006) A1+

["The decline of Chavez and the UFW is one of the more fascinating epochs in California sociopolitical history, but one clouded by a code of silence among union insiders and their strenuous efforts to bolster Chavez's secular sainthood - until now. Ironically, it fell to another troubled California institution, The Los Angeles Times, to provide the first extensive account of the UFW's erosion." Sacramento Bee January 16, 2006) B2.]

[Request #S60551]

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ENERGY

ALTERNATIVE FUELS

A Brief on Ethanol: The Debate on Ethanol: Prospects and Challenges to California Producers. By Rosa Maria Moller, California Research Bureau, California State Library. (CRB, Sacramento, California) November 2005. 72 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/05/09/05-009.pdf

["Currently, almost all of the ethanol consumed in California is imported. Of the 950 million gallons consumed in 2004, only seven million gallons were produced in the state.... This compares with 3,400 million gallons produced elsewhere in the country – mostly in the Midwest where corn is readily available as feedstock. With high land prices and crop values, the prospects for a flourishing California ethanol industry heavily depend on using cellulosic materials for feedstock. There are plenty of cellulosic materials in the state."]

[Request #S60524]

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California Hydrogen Blueprint Plan. By the California Environmental Protection Agency. (The Agency, Sacramento, California)2005. Various pagings.

["The supply of fossil fuels is increasingly insecure. The world is running out of easily accessible petroleum and almost 60 percent of the petroleum imported into the U.S. is from geopolitically unstable areas of the world. The burning of fossil fuels produces pollution that damages human health and generates greenhouse gases that contribute to the unsustainable climate change of the planet. Hydrogen has the potential to revolutionize the ways we harness the world’s energy resources. Hydrogen is both a fuel and an energy carrier."

Volume I:
www.hydrogenhighway.ca.gov/plan/reports/volume1_050505.pdf

Volume II:
www.hydrogenhighway.ca.gov/plan/reports/volume2_050505.pdf

[Request #S60525]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR POLLUTION

Indirect Source Review: Rule 9510. By the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District. (The District, Fresno, California) December 15, 2005.

Full Text at: www.valleyair.org/rules/currntrules/Rule%209510%201205.pdf

["Convinced that sprawl begets smog, Central Valley air quality officials are expected to become the first regulators in the nation to force builders to pay air pollution fees for new development. Builders would pay less if their new homes, shopping centers and office complexes were designed in ways that limited automobile use — by locating banks and dry cleaners closer to houses, for example, or linking bicycle trails and walking paths to schools and work centers.... The idea is to prod builders to cut down on traffic in an area where huge growth, and the cars that come with it, have combined with factory farming to create some of America's dirtiest air.... The San Joaquin Valley has the highest asthma rates in California and now rivals the Los Angeles Basin for the nation's worst air quality." Los Angeles Times (December 15, 2005) A1.]

[Request #S60526]

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DISASTERS

Emergency Supplemental Funding for Disaster Relief and Pandemic Flu. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Budget Brief 06-01. (FFIS, Washington, DC) January 11, 2006. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/ffis/subs/bb/2005/BB06-01.pdf

["Most of the funding for state and local governments would flow to the five states directly affected by Gulf of Mexico hurricanes -- Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas.... In addition, emergency highway funding would provide $550 million for prior-year projects in all affected states and additional funding would flow to support New York and its first responders for the September 11 attacks."]

[Request #S60527]

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FARM LAND

"Dairies Moving out of Inland Empire." By Jerry Hirsch. IN: Los Angeles Times (January 9, 2006) A1.

Full Text at: www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-dairy9jan09,0,7173262.story?coll=la-story-footer&track=morenews

["Once home to one of the nation's largest concentrations of dairy farms, the Inland Empire's $500-million dairy industry is rapidly evaporating as dozens of farmers sell out to real estate developers. Developers are offering $400,000 to $500,000 an acre, and sometimes more. Five years ago, the same land sold for $50,000 to $100,000 an acre.... California has about 2,100 dairies, a 5% decline from five years ago. But the number of dairy cows has jumped 14%, to more than 1.7 million, during that same period as the average size of the dairy farms has grown."]

[Request #S60528]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

ELECTIONS

Electronic Democracy in America: Civil Society, Cyber Society and Participation in Local Politics. By Michael Jensen and others. University of California Irvine. (Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations, Irvine, California) 2005. 30 p.

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/crito/government/362

["Are political practices online simply an extension of offline political practices?... The results suggest that interactions with online community groups, online hobby groups, and online religious groups are not related with participation in the political community. In fact, of the online associations, only interaction with political groups is associated with political engagement.... By contrast membership in a club or attendance at a neighborhood event is unrelated to either offline or online participation."]

[Request #S60529]

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Recounts: From Punch Cards to Paper Trails. By the Election Reform Information Project. (The Project, Washington, DC) 2005. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.electionline.org/Portals/1/Publications/ERIPBrief12_FINAL.pdf

["A new report finds that while 25 states will require the use of paper trails in time for the 2008 presidential election, so far only 14 states currently plan to use them as the official record in a recount of votes. How or if they would be used in recounts -- and how difficult that process might be -- are questions many states still need to answer."]

[Request #S60530]

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EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

Ready or Not? Protecting the Public's Health From Disease, Disasters, and Bioterrorism. By Shelley A. Hearne and others. Trust for America's Health. (The Trust, Washington, DC) 2005. 84 p.

Full Text at: healthyamericans.org/reports/bioterror05/bioterror05Report.pdf

["California has made minimal progress in preparing for bioterrorism or a major natural disease outbreak.... Twenty-one states, including New York, Texas and Kentucky, were rated higher. The rest of the states and the District of Columbia did no better or were worse off than California.... Among the areas where California was found deficient were in being ready to deliver drugs and medical equipment in the Strategic National Stockpile and in establishing a disease-tracking system by which data can be collected electronically and monitored via the Internet." Sacramento Bee (December 7, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S60531]

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Further Refinements Needed to Assess Risks and Prioritize Protective Measures at Ports and Other Critical Infrastructure. By Government Accountability Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) December 2005. 130 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-06-91

["This report contains many recommendations aimed at helping the three components face their next risk management challenges. DHS, including the Coast Guard, ODP, and IAIP, generally concurred with the report and its recommendations. DHS said that all three components have actions under way to address many of the recommendations in this report."]

[Request #S60532]

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State Strategies for Fully Integrating Public Health into Homeland Security. By the National Governors' Association Center for Best Practices. (The Association, Washington, DC) 2005. 13 p.

Full Text at: preview.nga.org/Files/pdf/FULLYPUBLICHEALTH.pdf

["NGA urges states to: 1) Ensure public health officials have active representation within any homeland security governance or decision-making structure; 2) Encourage public health input in homeland security planning; 3) Pursue a multidisciplinary approach toward overall exercising; 4) Take advantage of disease surveillance systems. The report notes that Pennsylvania and Maryland have successfully integrated public health expertise and resources in their fusion centers. States should include public health representatives in state intelligence fusion centers. These centers and other state intelligence sharing entities seek to avoid the 'information silo'." Government Computer News (January 9, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S60533]

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FEDERAL BUDGET

FFIS Competitve Grant Update. By the Federal Funds Information for States. Update 05-39-05-42. (FFIS, Washington, DC) December 2, - 29, 2005.

[Includes: "Certification and Verification Program," "NIST 2006 Small Grant Program," "College Students High-Risk Drinking or Violent Behavior Prevention" and others.]

[Request #S60534]

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LOBBYING & LOBBYISTS

A Matter of Trust: How the Revolving Door Undermines Public Confidence in Government - And What to Do About It. By Revolving Door Working Group. (The Group, Washington, DC) 2005. 76 p.

Full Text at: www.revolvingdoor.info/docs/matter-of-trust_final-full.pdf

["Public confidence in the integrity of the Federal Government is alarming low. While numerous factors contribute to this phenomenon, one of the most potent is the widespread belief that government has been taken over by powerful special interests.... Yet money is not the only way business exercises its influence; it also relies on the movement of certain people into and out of key policymaking posts in the legislative branches. This movement, know as the the revolving door, increases the likelihood that those making poicies are sympathetic to the needs of business -- either because they come from that world or they plan to move into the private sector after finishing a stint with government."]

[Request #S60535]

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STATE OVERSIGHT

Asking Key Questions: How to Review Program Results. By William T. Pound. National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Washington, DC) 2005. 26 p.

["The focus of this report is on state programs that are in charge of delivering public services and programs for citizens rather than on internal state services such as personnel, procurement and data processing. Two examples, one reviewing higher education institutions and the second reviewing child care programs, are provided to illustrate the program reviews."]

[Request #S60536]

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TERM LIMITS

"The Truth About Term Limits." By Alan Greenblatt. IN: Governing (January 2006) pp. 1-5.

Full Text at: www.governing.com/articles/1term.htm

["Term limits have been a mixed bag for lobbyists, who must introduce themselves to a new, skeptical set of legislators every couple of years, rather than rely on cozy relations with a few key chairmen. Nor is there much evidence that legislative staff have taken advantage of member turnover to impose their own views on inexperienced legislators. In many states, the rate of staff turnover matches or exceeds that of members. The revolving-door system created by term limits has reduced the influence of the legislature itself.... Every generation of legislators and leaders wants its own initiatives to brag about and, as a result, sometimes neglects programs closely identified with a preceding group."]

[Request #S60537]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

Possible SCHIP Shortfalls; Territorial Medicaid Ceilings. By Federal Funds Information of States. FFIS Issue Brief 06-03. (FFIS, Washington, DC) January 9, 2006. 4 p.

["As the state children's health insurance program (SCHIP) has grown, the process of redistributing funds from slower spending states to those with larger programs has become more important. This fiscal year (FY) 2006 budget reconciliation bill, if enacted, would appropriate additional SCHIP funds to ensure that no state has a shortfall during FY 2006. A preliminary analysis indicates that these funds should prove sufficient."]

[Request #S60538]

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DIABETES

"Diabetes and Its Awful Toll Quietly Emerge as a Crisis." By N. R. Kleinfield. IN: New York Time (January 9, 2006) p. 1.

["Within a generation or so, doctors fear, a huge wave of new cases could overwhelm the public health system and engulf growing numbers of the young, creating a city where hospitals are swamped by the disease's handiwork, schools scramble for resources as they accommodate diabetic children, and the work force abounds with the blind and the halt. The prospect is frightening, but it has gone largely unnoticed outside public health circles. As epidemics go, diabetes has been a quiet one, provoking little of the fear or the prevention efforts inspired by AIDS or lung cancer."]

[Request #S60539]

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HOSPITAL COSTS

"Medicaid/SCHIP Cuts And Hospital Emergency Department Use." By Peter J. Cunningham. IN: Health Affairs, vol. 25 no. 1 (January/February 2006) pp. 237-247.

Full Text at: content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/reprint/25/1/237?ijkey=Bzunw9Sr22Wlo&keytype=ref&siteid=healthaff

["This paper examines how decreases in enrollment in Medicaid and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) and increases in the number of uninsured people would affect the volume and distribution of emergency department (ED) use among low-income people. A decrease in Medicaid/SCHIP enrollment would lead to an increase in ED visits by the uninsured but little change in overall ED volume. The results suggest that cost containment efforts that reduce eligibility and enrollment will achieve cost savings largely by reducing access and shifting costs away from Medicaid/SCHIP."]

[Request #S60540]

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"Hospital Payment Systems: Will Payers Like the Future Better Than the Past?" By Len M. Nicholas and Ann S. O'Malley. IN: Health Affairs, vol. 25 no. 1 (January/February 2006) pp. 81-93.

Full Text at: content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/reprint/25/1/81

["Unsustainable health care cost growth has forced payers to reexamine goals for hospital payment systems. Employers want simplicity and transparency, with comparative performance data available in the public domain. Insurers favor simplicity but prefer to keep the analysis of comparative performance data and pricing private. Thirty-five pay-for-performance experiments have been devised in the private sector, to reward hospitals for higher quality and move toward more effective payment systems. Definitive results are not yet known, and caveats remain, but early signs are promising. We develop three scenarios for future hospital payment systems and identify policy actions to improve outcomes."]

[Request #S60541]

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MEDICAID

FY 2008 FMAP Projections. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief 06-02. (FFIS, Washington, DC) January 5, 2006. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/ffis/subs/ib/2005/IB06-02.pdf

["The release of quarterly personal income data and annual 2005 population data permits preliminary projections of FY 2008 Medicaid matching rates. Under the assumptions used in this brief to project FY 2008 FMAPs, 26 states would lose and 12 would gain. This would continue the experience of many states in FYs 2006-2007, which showed the greatest two-year overall FMAP drop in history. While most states would lose, projected increases for Louisiana and some large states would result in substantial increases, and the net impact on Medicaid would be a $104 million increase in federal Medicaid spending."]

[Request #S60542]

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PUBLIC HEALTH

Potential Influenza Pandemic: Possible Macroeconomic effects and Policy Issues. By the Congressional Budget Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) December 8, 2005. 50 p.

Full Text at: www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/69xx/doc6946/12-08-BirdFlu.pdf

["Based on past influenza pandemics and the SARS outbreak, the most important effects would be ... a shrinking of labor supply as workers became ill or stayed home out of fear or to take care of others who were sick.... During a severe pandemic, hospitals, clinics, and doctors’ offices would probably be overwhelmed, and surveillance (keeping track of where the disease was and where it was going) would be difficult.... Care for nonacute health problems would be sharply curtailed.... A severe influenza pandemic would have an impact on the U.S. economy that was slightly larger than the typical recession experienced during the period since World War II."]

[Request #S60543]

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Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Plan. [Draft] By the California Department of Health Services. (The Department, Sacramento, California) January, 2006. 170 p.

Full Text at: www.dhs.ca.gov/ps/dcdc/pdf/Draft%20Pandemic%20Influenza%20Plan%201-18-06.pdf

["A flu pandemic would occur in waves and could last 18 to 24 months. 'This level of disease activity would disrupt all aspects of society and severely affect the economy...'local health departments will develop most of the response measures in the event of a flu pandemic and will receive $17.9 million in funds for those efforts. Under the plan, local health departments will: Conduct initial tests to detect a flu outbreak; Provide local education about flu; Operate flu vaccine clinics and distribute antiviral medications when they are available; and Enforce quarantine and isolation orders when necessary..." The plan asks the State to allocate about $2 million to stockpile the antiviral medication Tamiflu. The state has ordered 70,000 10-pill treatments of Tamiflu and expects to order 200,000 more when they become available." California Healthline (January 19, 2006) online.]

[Request #S60544]

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HUMAN SERVICES

FOSTER CARE

Building a Home Within: Meeting the Emotional Needs of Children and Youth in Foster Care. By Toni Vaughn Heineman and Diane Ehrensaft. (Paul H. Brookes Publishing, Baltimore, Maryland) 2006. 239 p.

[“All children need stable, lasting relationships with caring adults to ensure their healthy emotional, cognitive, and social development. But for children and adolescents in foster care, these essential relationships are often absent. When young people work with the same therapist for as long as they need to, they’ll make better progress toward developing strong, healthy relationships and hope for the future.... Through the lessons these therapists learned as they donated their time to weekly psychotherapy sessions, readers will gain new insight on how to build positive relationships with children." NOTE: Building a Home Within ... is available for loan.]

[Request #S60545]

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Medicaid Spending on Foster Children. By Rob Geen and others, Urban Institute. Child Welfare Research Program. Brief No. 2. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2005. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311221_medicaid_spending.pdf

["This policy brief presents the first national analysis of Medicaid spending on children in foster care and children adopted from foster care. The authors document the types of services most commonly received by foster children and the amount states expended on these services. It also highlights variation in spending across states; among children of different genders, ages, and races; and among children receiving and not receiving capitated health care services."]

[Request #S60546]

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LOW INCOME

Performance Audit of the Maintenance Activities of the Department of Recreation and Parks. By City of Los Angeles, California Office of the City Controller. (The Office, Los Angeles, California) January 2006. 89 p.

Full Text at: www.lacity.org/ctr/audits/ctraudits18034693_01092006.pdf

[“Low-income neighborhoods of Los Angeles have dramatically less access to parks and recreation resources than more affluent communities, and parks throughout the city remain severely under-policed.... The agency was faulted for not asking the public what services it wants and for not adequately evaluating programs." Los Angeles Times (January 6, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S60547]

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FY 2006 LIHEAP Allotments; Emergency Allotments Announced. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief 06-01. (FFIS, Washington, DC) January 5, 2006. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/ffis/subs/ib/2005/IB06-01.pdf

["The Labor, Health and Human Services, Education and Related Agencies appropriations bill for federal fiscal year (FY) 2006 appropriates $1.98 billion for low-income home energy assistance (LIHEAP) formula grant program and an additional $181.2 million for emergency grants to states..... In addition, on January 5, 2006, the release of $100 million in emergency funds was announced."]

[Request #S60548]

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SOCIAL POLICY

The State of the Law – 2005: Legal Developments Affecting Partnerships Between Government and Faith-Based Organizations. By Ira C. Lupu and Robert W. Tuttle. The Roundtable on Religion and Social Welfare Policy. (The Roundtable, Albany, New York) December 2005. 119 p.

Full Text at: www.religionandsocialpolicy.org/docs/legal/reports/State_of_the_Law_2005.pdf

[“This year’s report is somewhat more prospective in character than its predecessors. First, the report focuses on the year’s most prominent events in the legal culture –- the imminent departure from the Supreme Court bench Justice Sandra Day O’Connor…. Second, the disastrous hurricanes that struck the southeastern United States … have given rise to a number of intriguing policies and initatives that implicate partnerships between government and faith-based groups.”]

[Request #S60549]

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The Policy Environment for Faith-Based Social Services in the United States: What Has Changed Since 2002? Results of 50-State Study. By Mark Ragan and David J. Wright, The Roundtable on Religion and Social Welfare Policy. (The Roundtable, Albany, New York) December 2005. 52 p.

Full Text at: www.religionandsocialpolicy.org/docs/policy/State_Scan_2005_report.pdf

[“The Roundtable on Religion and Social Welfare Policy gathered information on the status of state policies and initatives related to social services provided by faith-based organizations (FBOs)…. The area of state government that has seen the most change since [the] previous report is state legislatures. Over the last two years, 27 states have enacted legislation that includes references to FBOs, either as potential participants in social service program functions, or more directly in legislation intended to increase state/FBO partnerships.”]

[Request #S60550]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

PRISONERS

A World Apart: Women, Prison, and Life Behind Bars. By Cristina Rathbone. (Random House, New York, New York) 2005. 279 p.

["Life in a women’s prison is full of surprises, writes Cristina Rathbone in her account of life at MCI Framingham. After two intense court battles with prison officials, Rathbone gained unprecedented access to the otherwise invisible women of the oldest operating women’s prison in America. Women reveal the agonies of separation from family, and the prevalence and depression, sexual predation, and institutional malaise behind bars. Note: A World Apart … will be available for loan."]

[Request #S60552]

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HEALTH

ADOLESCENCE

"Longitudinal Trends in Race/Ethnic Disparities in Leading Health Indicators From Adolescence to Young Adulthood." By Kathleen Mullan Harris and others. IN: Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 160 no. 1 (January 2006) pp. 74-81.

["Americans increase consumption of tobacco and alcohol, exercise less and eat poorer diets soon after they become adults, a study found. Adults age 19 to 26 were considered less healthy in 15 of 20 measures scanned in a study, including eating breakfast, smoking marijuana and having regular medical checkups.... Researchers expected certain behaviour, such as drinking, to become more frequent after adolescence ...[but] they did not expect the decline in health to range across "so many different domains." 'As adolescents become young adults, they are more likely to eat fast food, get no exercise, be obese and smoke cigarettes,' researchers ... said [article]." The Gazette (January 12, 2006) A2.]

[Request #S60553]

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HEALTH CARE

Can We Say No? The Challenge of Rationing Health Care. By Henry J. Aaron and William B. Schwartz. Brookings Institution. (Brookings, Washington, DC) 2005. 199 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/press/books/sayingno.htm

["[The authors] argue that sensible health care rationing not only can save money, but that it can improve general welfare and public health, as well. The book reviews Great Britain’s experience with health care rationing. The choices the British have made point up the nature of the options Americans will face if they wish to prevent public health care budgets from driving taxes even higher and private health care spending from crowding out increases in other forms of worker compensation and consumption." Publisher's Announcement (2005) 1.]

[Request #S60554]

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