Subject: Studies in the News 01-23


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

August 1851 - "The San Francisco papers have discussed with much ability the proposition to divide the state, and admit with great frankness that injustice has been done to the south..... Under the present condition of affairs we are more like a conquered province than a free and independent state."  Los Angeles Star (August 2, 1851) 2  

August 1851 - "Sooner or later the division of the state must take place. With interests so diversified and an extent of territory far exceeding that of any state in the union, the people cannot remain under one government with advantage to all.... We have a thousand miles of sea coast and a trip to the capital of the state is an undertaking almost as great as a trip to the capital of the Union."  Los Angeles Star (August 2, 1851) 2.  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Drug treatments for adolescents
   Youth drug use
   Rise of marijuana use among arrestees
   Emerging issues on privatized prisons
   Focus on research on female gangs
ECONOMY
   Vibrant downtown communities
   Internet accountability
   Gasoline supply and demand
   Leading economic indicators rise
   Effect of electricity price controls
   Energy price manipulation hearing
EDUCATION
   Poverty and student achievement
   Resegregation in schools
   Building pre-kindergarten through college collaboration
   Colleges feel economic downturn
EMPLOYMENT
   Displaced worker funds lowered
   Job Corps
   Minority employment builds diverse workforce
   Worker Health Hazards in Silicon Valley
   Workers' compensation inpatient care
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Environmental performance of electric generators
   Advisory panels with ties to industry
   Energy-efficient technologies
   Governmental compensation for land use restrictions
   Urban-growth boundaries
   West isn't leader of suburban sprawl
   Concerns over water allocations
ETHNIC, RACIAL & CULTURAL DIVERSITY
   Impact of immigration from Mexico
   Hispanics and the Internet
   Self governance
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Department of Insurance
   Employment Development Department audit
   Soft money spent by political parties
   Targeting sham issue advocacy
   Public views on current issues
   Hearing on 2001 redistricting
   Decreased revenues and expenditures in final budget
HEALTH
   Caring for people with disabilities
   Patient dumping by hospitals
   States rising cost
   Doctors unsatisfied with managed care
   Effectiveness of condoms in preventing STD's
   Tribes lose appeal on bid for tobacco money
   State use of federal vaccines
   Health of poor urban women
HOUSING
   Costs of federal housing programs
HUMAN SERVICES
   American's children key indicators
   Working families hardships
   Summer nutrition status report
   Unmarried parents, fragile families
   Flexibility in welfare issues
WASHINGTON READER
   California Institute's briefing on federal issues
STUDIES TO COME
   Bioscience industry in southern California
   School choice wars
   Women in the sciences
   Transportation barriers to health care
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

DRUG TREATMENT

"An Evaluation of Drug Treatments for Adolescents in 4 US Cities." By Yih-Ing Hser and others. IN: Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 7 (July 2001) pp. 689-695.

["We studied 1167 adolescents ... using a naturalistic, nonexperimental evaluation design.... Longer stays in treatment were positively associated with several favorable outcomes, although length of time in treatment was generally short.... Strategies specific to adolescents to improve their treatment retention and completion are needed to maximize the therapeutic benefits of drug treatment."]

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DRUG USE

PRIDE Questionnaire Report: 2000-01 National Summary Grades 6 through 12. By the Parents' Resource Institute for Drug Education. (The Institute, Atlanta, Georgia) July 16, 2001. 112 p.

Full Text at: www.pridesurveys.com/natsum00.pdf

["Youths Living With Dads Alone More Prone To Use Illegal Drugs: The survey was conducted at schools that contracted with PRIDE Surveys. More than 75,000 students nationwide answered questionnaires anonymously. This was the 14th annual survey.... The survey found that 38.4 percent of students living only with fathers said they used drugs." San Francisco Chronicle (July 20, 2001) A4.]

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The Rise of Marijuana as the Drug of Choice Among Youthful Adult Arrestees. By Andrew Golub and Bruce D. Johnson, National Institute of Justice. Research in Brief. (The Institute, Washington, DC) June 2001. 19 p.

Full Text at: www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/187490.pdf

["The recent upsurge in marijuana use is referred to as the New Marijuana Epidemic to distinguish it from widespread use prevailing in the 1960s and 1970s. This Research in Brief examines trends in marijuana use detected through urinalysis to track the progress of the recent epidemic among arrestees at 23 locations across the nation.... In addition, this report identifies nationwide drug use trends within the mainstream population."]

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PRIVATIZATION

Emerging Issues on Privatized Prisons. by James Austin and Garry Coventry, National Council on Crime and Delinquency. Monograph. NCJ181249. (The Council, Washington, DC) 2001. 83 p.

Full Text at: www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/bja/181249.pdf

["This study offers a review of the history of privatization, presents a review of relevant research on the issues involved and compares some of the major findings from the National Survey of State Prison Privatization, 1997 ... on the benefits and costs associated with private- and public-managed prison facilities."]

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WOMEN

Female Gangs: A Focus on Research. By Joan Moore and John Hagedorn, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin. (The Office, Washington, DC) March 2001. 11 p.

["This Bulletin summarizes both past and current research on female gangs and draws attention to programmatic and research needs. It considers the underlying reasons for female gang membership, assesses the delinquency and criminal activity of female gang members, examines how ethnicity and gender norms may influence female gang behavior, and discusses the long-term consequences of gang membership for females. It concludes with some proposals for future research."]

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ECONOMY

ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT

Rating Entertainment Ratings: How Well Are They Working for Parents and What Can be Done to Improve Them. Testimony. By Dale Kunkel and others. Presented to Senate Governmental Affairs Committee. (The Committee, Washington, DC) July 26, 2001. Various pagings.

["Professor Kunkel discussed why media ratings were initially developed and how well they are working. He also provided recommendations on how media ratings can be improved, indicating more active monitoring and oversight of the ratings process is needed and that the prospect of a universal rating system that could be applied across all media should be seriously considered." Capitol Hill Bulletin (July 27, 2001) 2.]

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CITIES

"Boomburbs": The Emergence of Large, Fast-Growing Suburban Cities in the United States. By Robert E. Lang and Patrick A. Simmons, Fannie Mae Foundation. Fannie Mae Foundation Census Note; 06 (The Foundation, Washington, DC) June 2001. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.fanniemaefoundation.org/boomburb.PDF

["New Vitality Seen in 'Boomburbs': Researchers are finding that parts of Southern California are in a unique position to transform the region's endless sprawl into walkable communities with vibrant downtown centers.... Many of these outlying cities -- so labeled in a recent Fannie Mae Foundation study -- were quiet commuter outposts not long ago, but have grown to become home to more than 100,000 residents each." Los Angeles Times (July 12, 2001)A1.]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Toward a Framework for Internet Accountability. By Markle Foundation. (The Foundation, New York, New York) July 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.markle.org/news/_news_pressreport_index.stm

["Survey Shows Support For Internet Rules: The extensive survey of typical users and Internet experts conducted for the Foundation found Americans concerned about their rights and wrestling with several key issues.... By an overwhelming margin of 70 percent to 23 percent, respondents said they question the truthfulness of most things they read on the Internet.... The study is unique among surveys of its kind in its focus on how Internet public policy should develop." Washington Post (July 10, 2001) A10.]

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PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

Over a Barrel : How to Avoid California's Second Energy Crisis. By Julia Levin and Patricia Monahan. Union of Concerned Scientists. (The Union, Cambridge, Massachusetts) July 2001. 28 p.

["Gas shortages And Price Spikes Coming To State: San Diego motorists continue to feel more pain at the pump than their conterparts elsewhere in the United States, and there were signs that the ride may soon get costlier for area commuters. A report warns that California is on a path to gas shortages and unprecedented price shocks that could hit as early as next spring. 'California's demand for gasoline is on a collision course with supply,' said Julie Levin." San Diego Union Tribune (July 26, 2001) A1.]

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U.S. ECONOMY

U.S. Composite Indexes For June 2001. By The Conference Board. (The Board, New York, New York) July 2001. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.globalindicators.org/US/LatestReleases/2001/Jun01.pdf

["A key forecasting gauge of U.S. economic activity rose for the third consecutive month, bringing cautious optimism... that the economy may be readying for a rebound. The...Index of Leading Economic Indicators rose 0.3 percent to 109.6 last month after rising 0.5 percent to 105.3 in May." San Francisco Chronicle (July 20, 2001) B1.]

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UTILITIES

The Impact of Wholesale Electricity Price Controls on California Summer Reliability. By the Office of Economic, Electricity and Natural Gas Analysis, Department of Energy. (The Office, Washington, DC) June 2001. 29 p.

Full Text at: www.energy.gov/HQPress/releases01/junpr/CA-0615.pdf

["A Closer Look: Electricity Deregulation, Outages Spark New Market: In the past, regulators told utilities what they could charge consumers, basing the rates on the cost to produce the electricity with a small percentage of profit. Regulations vary from state to state, but about half have opened the electricity production market to competition, while still controlling the price that consumers will pay. This has created new wholesale electricity trading markets, increasing the number of independent power producers and power marketers -- those who don't produce power, but sell it -- according to the Department of Energy." BestWire (July 18, 2001) 1.]

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Operation and Maintenance of Generation Facilities: Hearing. By the California Senate Select Committee To Investigate Price Manipulation of the Wholesale Energy Market. (The Committee, Sacramento, California) June 22, 2001. 252 p.

["Workers Say Plant Limited Production: Duke Energy ramped production up and down at one power plant, idled units altogether and threw away unused equipment in apparent attempts to drive up electricity costs, three former plant workers told a state Senate committee investigating alleged price manipulation.... Sources at other plants told the Chronicle that ramping plants up and down was a primary tactic last year in manipulating the wholesale electricity market." San Francisco Chronicle (June 23, 2001) A1.]

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EDUCATION

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

The Relationship Among Achievement, Low Income, and Ethnicity Across Six Groups of Washington State Students. By Martin L. Abbott and Jeff Joireman. Washington School Research Center, Seattle Pacific University. (The Center, Lynnwood, Washington) July 2001. 25 p.

Full Text at: www.spu.edu/wsrc/WSRC-TechnicalReport-1-CorrectedFinal.pdf

["The primary goal of this investigation was to evaluate the unique contribution of low income and ethnicity to academic achievement. Across a variety of grades and tests, our results support the conclusion that low income explains a much larger percentage of the variance in academic achievement than ethnicity."]

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DESEGREGATION

Schools More Separate: Consequences of a Decade of Resegregation: New Research from The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University. By Gary Orfield and Nora Gordon, The Harvard Civil Rights Project. (The Project, Cambridge, Massachussetts) July 17, 2001. 53 p.

Full Text at: www.law.harvard.edu/civilrights/publications/schoolsseparate.pdf

["As federal courts rolled back school desegregation plans over the past decade, African American and Latino students became more segregated in impoverished school districts than at any time in the last 30 years.... White students became isolated, too ... but in suburban schools that attract better teachers and resources.... Research has shown that segregated minority schools tend to offer vastly unequal opportunities."]

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HIGHER EDUCATION

Building a Highway to Higher Ed: How Collaborative Efforts are Changing Education in America. By Neil Scott Kleiman, Center for an Urban Future. (The Center, New York, New York) July 12, 2001. 19 p.

Full Text at: www.nycfuture.org/education/building.htm

["It is the collaboration between public schools and higher education, also known as P-16, which stands for 'pre-kindergarten through 16th grade.' The model is aimed at removing obstacles in the education system that prevent students from progressing from one grade level to the next.... Over the past five years, it has become a national movement -- one that is being spearheaded by the education community itself."]

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Public Colleges Feel Impact of the Economic Downturn. By Sara Hebel. IN: The Chronicle of Higher Education. (July 20, 2001) p. A21.

["Public Colleges Feel Impact of the Economic Downturn: As states' legislative sessions wind down, the effect of tough fiscal times are beginning to show up on college campuses, mostly in the form of large tuition increases, program cuts and hiring freezes. In some states. lawmakers are still struggling to devise final budgets, although it is clear that those won't be good ones for higher education." Chronicle of Higher Education (July 20, 2001) A21.]

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EMPLOYMENT

DISPLACED WORKERS

$217 Million Recission of Dislocated Worker Funds in Senate Supplemental. And Update on Rescission of Dislocated Worker Funds. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief 01-35-35A. (FFIS, Washington, DC) July 17-23, 2001. 3 p.

["The dislocated worker funds have been targeted for a recission due to a projection of high levels of unexpended funds in states.... The proposal is expected to affect state programs for the program year that began July 1, 2001.... States with the most unexpended funds would receive the biggest cuts."]

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JOB CREATION

National Job Corps Study: Assessing Program Effects on Earnings for Students Achieving Key Program Milestones. By R. Mark Gritz and others. Prepared for U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration, Office of Policy Research, (Seattle, Washington) 2001. 84 p.

["Since its inception in 1964, Job Corps has been a central part of our country's efforts to improve the economic self-sufficiency of disadvantaged youths. A new study finds Job Corps is cost effective and makes a meaningful difference in participants' educational attainment and earnings." HandsNet (July 20, 2001) 1.]

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JOB TRAINING

National Job Corps Study. By The Mathematica Policy Research Inc. (Princeton, New Jersey) June 2001. Various pages.

[Includes: "National Job Corps Study;" "Does Job Corps Work;" "Assessing Program Effects on Earnings for Students Achieving Key Program Milestones;" "The Benefits and Costs of Job Corps;" Impacts by Center Characteristics;" "The Impacts of Job Corps on Participants Employment and Related Outcomes;"]

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MINORITIES

"Diversity." By Jeremy Kahn. IN: Fortune, vol. 144, no. 1 (July 9, 2001) pp. 114-127.

["Hiring and promoting minorities isn't optional anymore -- it's essential. And there's nothing like an economic crunch to prove it.... In the past corporate bean counters viewed diversity programs as luxuries -- something to be indulged in when times were flush but quickly eliminated when the going got tough.... A lot of companies, especially in consumer products and services, have started to see it as being in their own interest to have a diverse work force."]

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OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH

Poison Valley: [Series.] By Jim Fisher. (Salon.com, San Francisco, California) July 30-31, 2001. 19 p.

Full Text at: www.salon.com/tech/feature/2001/07/30/almaden1/print.html

[“Workers’ compensation statistics show that exposure to toxic chemicals – coded as ‘systemic poisoning’ in California – is twice as likely to be a cause of occupational illness in electronics workers as it is for workers in other manufacturing industries. National figures from the Bureau of Labor Statistics show that the percentage of work-loss injuries and illnesses in recent years (1992-1998) was consistently between three and four times higher for workers in the semiconductor industry than in manufacturing industries as a whole.”]

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WORKERS COMPENSATION

Clinical Severity in Workers' Compensation Inpatient Care. By the California Workers' Compensation Institute. (The Institute, Oakland, California) July 2001. 16 p.

["This study utilized multiple measures of severity to examine the assertion that a workers' compensation patient is somehow more clinically severe or more resource intensive than a patient in the group health or Medicare sectors. The results show just the opposite.... This research provides objective data that can be used to establish a 'fair price' for one of the major medical cost drivers in the California system."]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

ENERGY

Environmental Performance Report of California's Electric Generation Facilities. By the California Energy Commission. P700-01-001. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) July 2001. 81 p.

Full Text at: www.energy.ca.gov/reports/2001-06-28_700-01-001.html

["This report ... responds to certain directives contained in Senate Bill 110 (Cal. Stats. 1999, Chapter 581). California's electricity supply system is comprised of a wide range of generating facilities located throughout the state, the western region of the United States, and in Canada and Mexico.... This initial report will focus only on the environmental performance and related impacts of California's in-state electric generation facilities."]

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ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION

EPA'S Science Advisory Board Panels, Improved Policies and Procedures Needed to Ensure Independence and Balance. By the U. S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-536. (The Office, Washington, DC) June 2001. 48 p.

["The scientists who advise the U.S. EPA on regulatory decisions often have ties to the very industries that would be affected by the regulations being assessed, according to a study.... In one case, seven of 17 members of a Science Advisory Board panel studying the cancer risks of a toxic chemical worked for chemical companies or for industry-affiliated research organizations; five of the other members had received consulting or other fees from chemical manufacturers." Washington Post (July 16, 2001) A1.]

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FUELS

Energy Research at DOE: Was It Worth It? By the Committee on Benefits of DOE R&D on Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, National Research Council. National Academy Press. (The Academy, Washington, DC) 2001. 415 p.

["The federal government's effort to advance fossil fuel and energy-efficient technologies have yielded significant economic, environmental and national security benefits, according to a study.... The report, urged the Energy Department to maintain an active and broad portfolio of research and development projects with a wide range of objectives, including economic, environmental and national security goals". Los Angeles Times (July 18, 2001) A6.]

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LAND USE

Anthony Palazzolo, Petitioner v. Rhode Island et al. Supreme Court of the United States. 99-2047. February 28, 2001. Various pagings.

["In a major victory for private-property owners nationwide, the U.S. Supreme Court has dramatically expanded the ability to receive government compensation when regulations impact the value or use of land…. The decision is expected to have broad ramifications for environmental and other land-use regulations. It marks the most explicit statement yet by the high court that even property owners who purchased land after regulations take effect may file suit for compensation." Christian Science Monitor (July 12, 2001)A1.]

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An Economist's Perspective on Urban Sprawl, Part II: Influences of the "Fiscalization of Land Use: and Urban-Growth Boundaries. By Robert W. Wassmer. Prepared for the California Senate Office of Research. (The Office, Sacramento, California) July 2001. 41 p.

Full Text at: www.sen.ca.gov/sor/SPRAWLtwo.htm

["While it has been assumed [that 'fiscalization of land use'] encourages urban sprawl - as 'big box stores,' auto malls and other high-volume retailers spring up on once-open lands - no one has studied whether the appropriate data does, indeed, show that fiscal considerations are driving many local land-use decisions. This paper shows that they are. The quest for local sales-tax revenue, in particular is statistically linked to retail activities on the urban fringes ever farther from the downtowns of California and other western states."]

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MANAGED GROWTH

Who Sprawls the Most? How Growth Patterns Differ Across the U.S. By William Fulton and others. The Brookings Institute (The Institute, Washington, DC) July 2001. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.brook.edu/es/urban/publications/fulton.pdf

["The study... found that many urban regions in the West have become more densely populated or maintained their densities in recent years, rather than thinning our in the classic suburban pattern.... High rates of immigration were found to correlate strongly with population density.... Cities surrounded by valuable agricultural land, such as Modesto, Stockton and Visalia, also had some of the highest urban densities in the nation.... California may pack its houses close together, but its suburbs are still characterized by a dependence on cars." Sacramento Bee (July 11, 2001) A1.]

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WATER

Testimony. By Gale Norton and others. Presented to the House Resources Subcommittee on Water and Power. (The Committee, Washington, DC) July 26, 2001. Various pagings.

["Secretary of the Interior Gale Norton testified, as did Thomas M. Hannigan, Director of the California Department of Water Resources... Secretary Norton... referenced certain concerns with such issues as the funding and governance provisions... Mr. Hannigan... had concerns with several aspects of the bill. Among those concerns are: provisions that appear to constrain State agencies and limit State control; and the South of the Delta water assurances language, which guarantees delivery of 65-70 percent of water contract amounts in a normal year." Capitol Hill Bulletin (July 27, 2001) 2.]

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ETHNIC, RACIAL & CULTURAL DIVERSITY

IMMIGRATION

Immigration From Mexico: Assessing the Impact on the United States. By Steven A. Camarota, Center for Immigration Studies. (The Center, Washington, DC) July 2001. 64 p.

Full Text at: www.cis.org/articles/2001/mexico/mexico.pdf

["Mexican Immigrants A Drain On Region's Resources: Large-scale migration of Mexicans to Southern California and the United States undermines the economy, overtaxes schools and other services, and creates a permanent underclass of uneducated and unskilled poor, a nonpartisan think tank said in a report.... The organization, which advocates strict immigration controls, urged the President to scrap proposals for increased immigration from Mexico." Daily News of Los Angeles (July 13, 2001) N1.]

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LATINOS

Hispanics and the Internet. By Tom Spooner and Lee Rainie, Pew Internet & American Life Project. (The Project, Washington, DC) July 25, 2001. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.pewinternet.org/reports/pdfs/PIP_Hispanics_Online_Report.pdf

["More Latinos Online: Despite a dearth of Web sites in Spanish, the number of adult Latinos online continues to grow in the United States, reaching 50 percent in a survey.... More than 2 million Latinos logged on for the first time between March 2000 and February 2001." Sacramento Bee (July 26, 2001) D1.]

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NATIVE AMERICANS

Tribal Self-Governance and its Impact on States. By The Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief 01-40 (FFIS, Washington, DC) July 30, 2001. 5 p.

[Indian tribes are increasingly interested in operating their own portions of state federal programs.... This Issue Brief summarizes the possible impact of tribal self-governance on states. Tribal self-governance would result in a loss of federal funds going to states because tribes would receive federal funding directly. Presumably, states would face reduced demand for services as well.]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

AUDITS & INVESTIGATIONS

Department of Insurance Conservation and Liquidation Office: Stronger Oversight Is Needed to Properly Safeguard Insurance Companies’ Assets. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) July, 2001. 55 p.

Full Text at: http://www.lhc.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2001102.pdf

[“A highly critical audit of California’s beleaguered Department of Insurance found that it improperly managed nearly $2 billion in assets seized from financially troubled companies. State Auditor Elaine Howle said the department often hired contractors without seeking competitive bids, employed workers who did not meet the minimum qualifications for the job and wasted $6 million on a computer system that does not work.” (Los Angeles Times, August 1, 2001) A1.]

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Employment Development Department: Although New Telephone Services Have Enhanced Customer Access to the Department's Unemployment and Disability Insurance Programs; Customers Encounter Difficulties During Peak Calling Periods. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits. 99031. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) July 2001. 49 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/99031.pdf

["Our review indicates that the department's efforts have improved customer service and increased the public's access to the programs. However, during peak service periods, callers may encounter busy signals, hear instructions to call back later, or endure lengthy wait times if the customers ask to speak to a customer service representative."]

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CAMPAIGN FINANCE

The Purposes and Beneficiaries of Party Soft Money Spending. By the Brinnan Center for Justice. (The Center, Washington, DC) July 2001. Various pagings.

["The study ... revealed that the political parties are spending only a small fraction of their funds on activities such as voter education, phone banks and other party-building tactics.... Instead, the authors contend, more than one-third of the money went to television and radio advertising, most of which mentioned specific candidates." Chicago Tribune (July 4, 2001) 9.]

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"Measuring Overbreadth: Using Empirical Evidence to Determine the Constitutionality of Campaign Finance Laws Targeting Sham Issue Advocacy." By Richard L. Hasen. IN: Minnesota Law Review, vol. 85, no. 6 (June 2001) pp. 1773-1808.

["Using empirical evidence from a dataset of 1998 and 2000 political advertisements, this Essay examines the extent of overbreadth created by bright-line tests. This Essay concludes from the empirical analysis that there is a strong case to be made that bright-line tests are constitutional, but such a conclusion rests not only on empirical evidence but also on a balancing of the costs and benefits of particular campaign finance regulations."]

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PUBLIC OPINION

PPIC Statewide Survey: Californians and Their Government--July 2001. By Mark Baldassare, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) July 2001. 27 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/publications/CalSurvey19/survey19.pdf

["Despite their concern about the state's energy crisis, Californians remain more dedicated than Americans as a whole to protecting environmental quality: 68% of state residents - compared to 57% of Americans - say that we must protect the environment, even if it means higher prices for gasoline and electricity."]

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REDISTRICTING

2001 Redistricting: Hearing held at the Hugh Burns State Building, Fresno, California. By the California Senate Committee on Elections and Reapportionment. (The Committee, Sacramento, California) May 22, 2001. 111 p.

["Valley Leaders Again Pitch For Own Districts: Senators from the committee were told to keep urban districts separate from rural districts, because each has distinct needs.... The most impassioned testimony was saved for the end, when several Hispanics spoke of the need to give the region's Hispanic community a voice that equals its population." Fresno Bee (May 23, 2001) A14.]

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STATE BUDGET

Major Features of the 2001 California Budget. By the Legislative Analyst's Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) July 27, 2001. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2001/bud_features/072701_bdgt_features.pdf

["Revenues are projected to fall by 3.7 percent from 2000-01.... The decline is related to the general slowdown in statewide eocnomic activity, as well as a sharp drop in revenues from capital gains and stock options in 2001. The Governor vetoed $554 million of total spending out of the budget approved by the Legislature. These vetoes were concentrated in higher education, K-12 education, and health and human services."]

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HEALTH

DISABILITIES

States Plan Responses to Olmstead Decision. By the Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief 01-33. (FFIS Washington, DC) July 13, 2001. 1 p.

[Some states have completely eliminated the use of institutional services and others have continued to rely heavily on institutions to care for people with disabilities. Nationwide, it is estimated that 38 percent of people with mental retardation and/or developmental disabilities live in institutional settings.... Some states may be faced with financing dual systems during preliminary stages of deinstitutionalization: operating institutions with reduced populations while at the same time increasing community-based services."]

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HOSPITALS

Questionable Hospitals: 527 Hospitals That Violated the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act: A Detailed Look at "Patient Dumping." By Kaija Blalock and Sidney M. Wolfe, Public Citizen's Health Research Group. (The Group, Washington, DC) July 12, 2001. 143 p.

Full Text at: www.questionablehospitals.org

["10% of ERs Rejected Patients, Study Finds; Health: Hundreds, including 77 in state, broke law requiring treatment regardless of ability to pay.... Federal law requires hospitals to screen without delay all emergency room patients by giving them examinations and tests to make diagnoses.... The law means that hospitals and on-call physicians must provide services first and worry about payment later." Los Angeles Times (July 13, 2001) A1.]

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MEDICAID

States Expand Medicaid in the Face of Rising Costs. By The Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief 01-37. (FFIS, Washington, DC) July 18, 2001. 4 p.

["Total Medicaid spending in federal fiscal year 2002 is projected to increase 7 percent, to $250 billion, continuing the growth rate of the late 1990s.... States cite prescription drug increases and the cost of treating the disabled as the primary factors driving current cost increases.... A number of states created innovative structures to better serve or better control costs."]

[Request #S2171]

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PHYSICIANS

Complaints with Managed Care Plans. By the California Medical Association. (The Association, San Francisco) July 2001. 9 p.

["More than half of California's doctors say they are so frustrated with managed care they will quit, retire early or leave the state within three years... If even half the physicians who say they will retire early or leave do so, we will have unprecedented crisis in access to care. Respondents cited low payments from HMOs for their services and bureaucratic hassles as the primary source of frustration." Fresno Bee (July 17, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S2172]

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SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

Scientific Evidence on Condom Effectiveness for Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention: Workshop Summary. By the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services. (The Institute, Herndon, Virginia) July 20, 2001. 46 p.

Full Text at: www.niaid.nih.gov/dmid/stds/condomreport.pdf

["A federal report ... concludes that there is insufficient evidence that condoms prevent the spread of most sexually transmitted diseases.... Although condoms are effective for preventing pregnancy and HIV infection, as well as gonorrhea in men, the report said more research is needed both on condoms and on 'behavioral interventions' such as abstinence to determine the most promising methods for preventing other sexually transmitted diseases." Washington Post (July 20, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S2173]

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SMOKING

Table Bluff Reservation (Wiyot Tribe) et al., v. Philip Morris, Inc. et al. United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. No. 00-15080. D.C. No. CV-99-02621-MHP. July 16, 2001. 14 p.

["Tribes Lose On Appeal In Bid For Tobacco Money: A group of American Indian tribes do not have the legal right to sue the tobacco companies for a share of the $206 billion settlement the industry reached with 46 states, a federal appeals court decided.... The tribes contended that the nation's 2 million American Indians were included in census data used to determine how much money each state should receive, but they were excluded from the payouts." San Francisco Chronicle (July 17, 2001) A2.]

[Request #S2174]

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VACCINES

States Expand Use of Federal Vaccines. By The Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief 01-36. (FFIS, Washington, DC) July 17, 2001. 1 p.

[State use of vaccines provided through the federal Vaccines for Children (VFC) program is expanding rapidly.... Half the states project VFC increases in federal fiscal year 2001 of 50 percent or more.... The administration's proposal to substantially expand Community Health Centers will make underinsured children served through such centers categorically eligible for VFC."]

[Request #S2175]

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WOMEN

The Health of Poor Urban Women: Findings from the Project on Devolution and Urban Change. By Denise F. Polit and others, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. (The Corporation, New York, New York) May 2001. 283 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/Reports2001/NGChildSynth/NG-ChildSynth.pdf

["Health Woes Keep Poor Women Off Job Rolls: A study of nearly 4,000 poor women in Los Angeles and three other big cities shows that welfare recipients suffer more severely than previously thought from multiple health problems that make it difficult for them to get and hold jobs. The findings ... point to serious barriers for women under pressure from welfare reform to become self-sufficient and those employed in low-wage jobs struggling to maintain a foothold in the labor market." Los Angeles Times (July 18, 2001) 6.]

[Request #S2176]

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HOUSING

FEDERAL HOUSING PROGRAMS

Federal Housing Programs: What They Cost and What They Provide. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-901R. (The Office, Washington, DC) July 18, 2001. 52 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d01901r.pdf

["We analyzed six programs: Housing Voucher; Low-Income Housing Tax Credit; HOPE VI; Section 202; Section 811; [and] Section 515. We compare the total per-unit costs of providing housing under these six programs and, for each program, identify the share of the total per-unit cost borne by the federal government; the assisted household; and other sources, including state and local governments and private organizations."]

[Request #S2177]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

Financing Child Care in the United States: An Expanded Catalog of Current Strategies. By The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. (The Foundation, Kansas City, Missouri) 2001. 195 p.

["The question of how to pay for quality child care is a concern many working parents face. In virtually every community across the US, one year of child care costs more than annual tuition at a public university -- in some cases twice as much, according to one recent study…. Those in two-parent households may work different shifts to avoid expenses. And some ultimately place their children in care they consider unsatisfactory, because other arrangements are too expensive, the report writes." The Christian Science Monitor (July 16, 2001) 11 p.]

[Request #S2178]

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CHILDREN

America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being 2001. By the Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (The Forum, Washington, DC) 2001. 141 p.

Full Text at: www.childstats.gov/ac2001/pdf/ac01.pdf

["According to the report, adolescents' cigarette use is declining. Alcohol and illicit drug use did not change substantially, with about 30 percent of seniors reporting that they had at least five drinks in one sitting during the previous two weeks and about 25 percent of them reporting drug use in the previous month.... In 1999, 16 percent of the nation's children lived in families below the poverty line -- the lowest rate in two decades." New York Times (July 19, 2001) A14.]

[Request #S2179]

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FAMILIES

Hardships in America: The Real Story of Working Families. By Heather Boushey and others, Economic Policy Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2001. 119 p.

Full Text at: www.epinet.org/books/hardships.pdf

["Study Estimates 1/3 of State Families Living in Poverty: A third of California families live in poverty based on their incomes and the cost of rent, food and basic necessities.... The study ... sets a family income of $38,780 a year as the real poverty line in the Los Angeles-Long Beach area -- more than twice the federal government standard.... The report surveyed living costs in 200 cities nationwide." Long Beach Press-Telegram (July 24, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2180]

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HUNGER

Hunger Doesn't Take A Vacation: Summer Nutrition Status Report. By Doug Hess and others, Food Research and Action Center. (The Center, Washington, DC) July 2001. 17 p.

Full Text at: www.frac.org/html/publications/summer00.pdf

["When school lets out for the summer, millions of low-income children lose access to school breakfasts, lunches and afterschool snacks.... The Summer Nutrition Programs discussed in this report are key to filling this vacuum.... Summer nutrition programming is among the largest of federal efforts to provide care for children when school is out."]

[Request #S2181]

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SINGLE PARENT FAMILIES

Unmarried Parents, Fragile Families: New Evidence from Oakland. By Maureen R. Waller, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) 2001. 108 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/publications/PPIC150/ppic150.full.pdf

["Drawing on two waves of surveys with parents, this report characterizes the stability of unmarried parents' relationships in the first year of their child's life and tracks their transitions toward increased and decreased involvement. It also examines open-ended interviews with parents to analyze economic, personal, and relationship issues that parents faced."]

[Request #S2182]

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WELFARE REFORM

Welfare Issues and Updates. By the Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief 01-38. (FFIS, Washington, DC) July 19, 2001. 4 p.

["Many states are now taking advantage of TANF flexibility and funding and have invested in a wide range of benefits and services for needy families, such as transportation, child care, education and job training.... While it is unlikely that congressional action to reauthorize TANF will occur prior to 2002, policymakers are beginning to focus on reauthorization and develop proposals and strategies."]

[Request #S2183]

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WASHINGTON READER

California Capitol Hill Bulletin. By the California Institute for Federal Policy Research. Volume 8, Bulletin 24. (The Institute, Washington, DC) July 27, 2001. 7 p.

[Includes: "House Resources Considers CALFED Bay-Delta Reauthorization;" "Administration To Deliver Base Closure Bill Before August Recess;" "Senate Governmental Affairs Holds Hearing on Media Ratings;" "State Coalition Report: Framework for the future of Agriculture;" and others.]

[Request #S2184]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

ECONOMY

BIOINDUSTRY

Heart of Gold: The Bioscience Industry in Southern California. By K. Lynn Farris and others, Los Angeles Regional Technology Alliance. (The Alliance, Los Angeles, California) July 19, 2001. 6 p.

["Greater L.A, Lags Behind in Biomedical Field; Science: Report Says Region Has Large Obstacles To Overcome To Catch Growth in Bay Area, San Diego: The Bay Area is the world's leading biotech center, and San Diego ranks third nationally, behind Boston. Los Angeles is variously ranked fifth or sixth nationally in a race for prominence with emerging centers in North Carolina, Maryland and Northern Virginia.... The purpose of the study is to promote discussion that could lead to a game plan for biotech development in the region." Los Angeles Times (July 16, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2185]

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EDUCATION

SCHOOL CHOICE

The School Choice Wars. By John Merrifield. (Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Maryland) May 15, 2001. 224 p.

["Opponents of parental choice have muddied its definition, misleading parents and educators and drawing public debate away from the core issues.... Merrifield clarifies the proposals in existence today, defining the key concepts related to choice. Arguing for a competitive education industry, he discusses policy and political strategy mistakes while suggesting corrections. This book covers government regulation issues, typical fallacies, diversity issues, private voucher initiatives, and experiments and empirical evidence about competition."]

[Request #S2186]

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WOMEN IN SCIENCE

Balancing the Equation: Where Are Women & Girls in Science, Engineering & Technology? By Mary Thom, National Council for Research on Women. (The Council, New York, New York) July 2001.

["Report Urges Educators to Improve the Representation of Women in the Sciences: It urges policy makers and educators alike to help remove the lingering barriers to the advancement of women in math, science, and engineering. It also recommends that they increase women's interest in those fields by diversifying the curriculum.... The report also notes that while women made up 46 percent of the work force in the United States as of 1996, they held just 12 percent of the science and engineering jobs in the nation's businesses." Chronicle of Higher Education (July 18, 2001) 2.]

[Request #S2187]

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ENVIRONMENT

GLOBAL WARMING

Summary for Policymakers Climate Change 2001. Mitigation, Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. A Report of Working Group 1 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (The Panel, Geneva, Switzerland) 2001. Various pagings.

["The scientists gave their unqualified support to the view that global warming is real. Furthermore, they said, since their last report was published six years ago, they found they had vastly underestimated the rate at which global temperatures are rising…. This is likely to lead to crop failures, water shortages, increased disease and disasters for towns and cities from flooding, landslides and sea storm surges, they believe, with the poor developing countries likely to be hit the hardest." The Independent (July 12, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S2188]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

Getting There, Getting Care: Transportation and Workforce Barriers to Child Health Care in America. By Children's Health Fund. (The Fund, New York) 2001 Various pagings.

["Lack of Transportation Creates Barrier to Health Care for Low-Income Children, Study Finds. One of every five children from poor families has missed a doctor's appointment because of a lack of transportation, according to findings from a Children's Health Fund survey…. While Medicaid covers the cost of transportation, about 60% of parents with children enrolled in the program were "unaware of [the] subsidies." New York Times (July 12, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S2189]

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