Subject: Studies in the News 01-24

Studies in the News

California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

August 1851 - "Indian Affairs in Oregon -The trade now being carried on between this (Oregon) Territory and California is found to be highly advantageous to our people, and the miners and traders, who generally ascribe the late ... condition of affairs betweeen the whites and Indians in the mountains ... to a few unprincipled white men.... By means of an interpreter, (Oregon) Governor Gaines tendered to the Indians peace or war, as best suited their tastes. They gladly embraced the former and came to his camp in considerable numbers, say one hundred, amongst whom were eleven chiefs."  Alta Californian (August 14, 2001) 2.  

August 1851 - "The (Oregon) governor succeeded in concluding a treaty (with the Indians), which he thinks will be kept by them, provided an efficent Indian agent, aided by a small military force, are stationed there.... The Indians place themselves under the exclusive jurisdiction and protection of the Government of the United States, and bind themselves to restore all property at any time stolen from the whites. "  Alta Californian (August 14, 1851) 2.  

Contents This Week

   HIV testing of inmates
   Treatment of minority juveniles
   Roots of racial profiling
   Prisoner reentry
   Real price of prisons
   California's demographic characteristics
   World population shifts
   Latino middle class
   Mexican Indians increase in California
   Preliminary 2000 data for births
   International trade of biotechnology products
   California's economic profile
   Gambling as public health issue
   Cybercities' quality of life
   High-tech employment totals
   Bush energy plan campaign
   Jurisdiction over electric utilities
   Improving school accountability measures
   Federal versus state testing systems
   Charter school accountability
   School attendance policies
   View on Bush education plan
   Two year postsecondary school classification system
   For-profit degree granting institutions
   Hispanic job related deaths
   Employee sues employer on makeup policy
   Coordinating conservation plans
   Federal agency appropriations
   Climate change models
   Collapse of sea life habitat
   Wetlands protection
   Colorado River to save Mexican Delta
   African American reparations
   FPPC improves conflict of interest rules
   Fewer employers cover salary for jurors
   Electronic maps and redistricting
   Supplemental report of the 2001 budget act
   Supreme Court's new constitutional federalism
   Initiative to soften term limits
   Barriers to bicycle helmet use
   Breast and cervical cancer treatment
   Craving for cocaine never stops
   Hospital deaths due to medical errors
   Potential HUD hospital regulation
   Emerging nurse shortages
   Teens underestimate smoking risks
   Approaches to prevent teen pregnancy
   Uninsured in California
   HUD multi-family housing
   Profile of California housing
   Dads who don't pay support
   Promise and perils of welfare reform
   Personal experiences of welfare reform
   Federal funds for transportation projects
   California Capitol Hill Bulletin
   Newspaper industry decline
   Relationship between life satisfaction and violence
   American health care
   Housing costly for working families
   Predictors of hazardous seating in cars
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:



HIV Testing of Inmates. By Ann Dietrich, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 9, No. 35. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) August/September 2001. 2 p.

["HIV infection among prisoners is nearly five times higher than in the general population. Because incarceration provides a public health opportunity to test, treat and educate prisoners, state legislators are passing laws requiring or permitting HIV testing of prisoners.... Several of the states that require testing also require treatment and education."]

[Request #S2190]

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Disproportionate Minority Representation in the Juvenile Justice System. By Nicole Bonavita and Mary Fairchild, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 9, No. 30. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) June/July 2001. 2 p.

["Research shows that minority youth commonly receive harsher treatment than their white counterparts at every stage of the juvenile justice system.... Several states have enacted measures aimed at reducing disparate treatment of minorities.... Washington was the first state to pass legislation on disproportionate minority confinement."]

[Request #S2191]

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"The Roots of Racial Profiling." By Gene Callahan and William Anderson. IN: Reason (August-September 2001) pp. 1-3.

["While incidents of racial profiling are widely deplored today, there is little said about the actual root cause of the phenomenon. The standard explanations for racial profiling focus on institutional racism, but that idea runs contrary to the sea of change in social attitudes that has taken place over the last four decades. On the contrary, the practice of racial profiling grows from a trio of very tangible sources, all attributable to the War on Drugs."]

[Request #S2192]

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"Reentry Reconsidered: A New Look at an Old Question:[Special Issue.]" By Jeremy Travis and others. IN: Crime & Delinquency, vol. 47, no. 3 (July 2001) pp. 291-484.

[Includes: "Prisoner Reentry: Current Trends, Practices, and Issues;" "Incarceration and the Community: The Problem of Removing and Returning Offenders;" "Returning Captives of the American War on Drugs: Issues of Community and Family Reentry;" "Challenges Incarcerated Women Face as They Return to Their Communities: Findings From Life History Interviews;" "Health-Related Issues in Prisoner Reentry;" "Effective Services for Parolees With Mental Illness;" and "The Revolving Prison Door for Drug-Involved Offenders; Challenges and Opportunities."]

[Request #S2193]

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"Debt to Society: The Real Price of Prisons: Special Report." By Vince Beiser and others. IN: Mother Jones (July 10, 2001) pp. A1+.

Full Text at:

[Includes: "How We Got to Two Million? How Did the Land of the Free Become the World's Leading Jailer?" "Incubating Disease: Prisons are Rife with Infectious Illnesses -- and Threaten to Spread Them to the Public;" "Bad Investment: Take It From a Businessman: The War on Drugs Is Just Money Down the Drain;" "Incarceration Atlas;" "What's the Alternative?" "Breeding Violence: Locking People Up Is Supposed to Make our Streets Safer, But It May be Doing Just the Opposite;" "Left Behind: Tens of Thousands of Children Have a Parent Behind Bars: What Are the Social Costs of Their Loss?" and "Liberty and Justice For Some: Mass Incarceration Comes at a Moral Cost to Every American."]

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Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: And Profile of Selected Social Characteristics: 2000: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey Summary Tables: California. By the U.S. Census Bureau. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) August 2001. 6 p.

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["Just over one-quarter of Californians were born in another country.... California's population is an estimated 25.9 percent foreign-born, higher than any other state.... Nationally, the percentage of people born elsewhere hit an estimated 11.2 percent. [California] absorbed an estimated 3.3 million immigrants in the '90's and now is home to 8.6 million." San Francisco Chronicle (August 6, 2001) 1.]

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World Population Shifts: Boom or Doom? By Kevin McCarthy, Rand Labor and Population Program. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2001. 43 p.

["In the developed countries, the current annual rate of growth is less than 0.3 percent, while in the rest of the world the population is increasing almost six times as fast. These demographic differences, combined with widening economic disparities, are increasing the pressures of migration from the less-developed to the developed world.... This study discusses potential responses to these pressures." Population Matters Policy Brief (2001) 1.]

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The Latino Middle Class: Myth, Reality, and Potential. By Frank D. Bean, et. al., Thomas Rivera Policy Institute. (The Institute, Claremont, California) 2001. 48 p.

[“A substantial and prosperous Latino middle class has emerged in the United States. This report not only examines the most recent data about the Latino middle class, it also focuses on Latino economic mobility, its intergenerational underpinnings, and its prospects for future expansion.”]

[Request #S2195]

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"Hispanic Indians Increase in California, Part of New Workforce." By John Hubner. IN: San Jose Mercury News (August 6, 2001) A1+.

["In the past 10 years, California's American Indian population grew so fast the state displaced Oklahoma as home to the most Indians. That remarkable growth comes not from an upswing in Americans proudly claiming indian heritage or even from last year's more accurate census count, but from a more unlikely source: Indians immigrating in vast numbers from Mexico."]

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Births: Preliminary Data for 2000. By Joyce A. Martin and others, Division of Vital Statistics. National Vital Statistics Reports. Vol. 49, No. 5. July 24, 2001. 20 p.

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["This report presents preliminary data on births based on a substantial proportion of vital records for births occurring in 2000.... U.S. data on births are shown by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, and low birthweight are also presented.... The crude birth rate in 2000 was 14.8, an increase of 2 percent over the rate for 1999 (14.5) and a return to the level observed in 1995."]

[Request #S2196]

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International Trade of New Agricultural Products From Biochemistry. By David Naftzger and Steve Smith, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 9, No. 33. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) August/September 2001. 2 p.

["Biotechnology holds tremendous potential to combat disease, promote human health, fight hunger, increase crop yields and help the environment.... Negative public perceptions persist regarding its potential effects on the environment and human and animal health. These perceptions have spurred discussions about creating an international framework for the global market in biotechnology products."]

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Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey Summary Tables: California. By the U.S. Census Bureau. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) August 2001. 3 p.

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["The latest figures portray California as among the nation's leaders in families earning more than $200,000 a year and ... a place with above-average percentages of impoverished children.... California ranked second lowest among the 50 states in its percentage of families with incomes ranging from $35,000 to $75,000.... Both renters and homeowners ... devote a bigger share of their incomes to housing." Los Angeles Times (August 6, 2001) Part 2 p. 1]

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When the Chips Are Down: Problem Gambling in America. By Rachel A. Volberg. And Governing Gambling. By Alan S. Blinder. Prepared for the Century Foundation. (Century Foundation Press, New York, New York) 2001. Various pagings.

["Some 5.5 million Americans already are problem or pathological gamblers, which can have devastating effects not only on them but on their families.... Some 15 million American adults can be considered at risk for problem gambling. [The Century Foundation] ... argues that gambling should be considered a public health issue and recommends steps to improve monitoring, prevention, and treatment.” Electronic Policy Network (July 11, 2001) 1. NOTE: When the Chips ... is available for 3-day loan. The work is copyrighted and the Bureau may not photocopy.]

[Request #S2126]

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Cybercities: A City By City Overview of the High-Technology Industry. By AeA (formerly the American Electronics Association) and the Nasdaq Stock Market. (The Association, Washington, DC) December 5, 2000. 135 p.

["According to the AEA's recent Cybercities report, Orange County now has 93,585 high-tech workers, with 20,700 jobs added between 1993 and 1998 alone. It now ranks third in California, behind San Jose, the No.1 high-tech city with 252,888 workers.... the region is challenging its older sibling, Silicon Valley, for a larger chunk of California's technology pie." California Journal (June 2001) 1.]

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Cyberstates 2001: A State-By-State Overview of the High-Technology Industry. By the American Electronics Association. (The Association, Washington, DC) 2001. 136 p.

["Study Charts High Tech's Clout in 2000: For the first time since 1995, job growth in the high-tech sector dipped below 5 percent in 2000, showing the beginnings of the slowdown the industry is suffering through now.... High tech created 234,800 jobs in 2000." San Francisco Chronicle (June 6, 2001) B1. NOTE: Cyberstates 2001 ... is available for 3-day loan. The work is copyrighted and the Bureau may not photocopy.]

[Request #S1959]

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Power Struggle: The Campaign Behind the Bush Energy Plan. By Holly Bailey, Center for Responsive Politics. Money in Politics Alert. Vol. 6, No. 24. (The Center, Washington, DC) July 17, 2001. 2 p.

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["Bush's Energy Plan Backed By Big Money; Business Coalitions Bankroll Ad Campaigns Calling for Increased Power Production.... Big oil and energy firms are contributing heavily to political parties and pouring millions into expensive ads to boost their interests, hoping to swing support behind President Bush's embattled energy plan, a new study shows." San Francisco Chronicle (July 18, 2001) A14.]

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"Lessons From the California 'Apocalypse:' Jurisdiction Over Electric Utilities." By Nicholas W. Fels and Frank R. Lindh. IN: Energy Law Journal, vol. 22, no. 1 (2001) pp. 1-40.

["The focus of this article is on the issue of state versus federal jurisdiction that have been laid bare in the course of these events.... These events brought state and federal authorities into sharp conflict ... in the remedies that they proposed.... Those remedies, as we describe, have, in important respects, exceeded the state's jurisdiction, occupying areas reserved to the federal government under the Constitution."]

[Request #S2199]

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Improving School Accountability Measures. By Thomas J. Kane and Douglas O. Staiger. Working Paper 8156. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts). March 2001. 58 p.

["Despite an overall improvement in test scores, nearly every school in Texas and North Carolina would have been deemed 'failing' at some point between 1994 and 1999 under the school accountability scheme being negotiated by a congressional conference committee, according to a report by a team of educational researchers. The report, which analyzed standardized test scores in North Carolina and Texas between 1994 and 1999, found that 96 percent of the schools would have faced corrective action under the accountability plan passed by the House." Washington Post (July 24, 2001) A3.]

[Request #S2200]

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"State School Chiefs Fret Over U.S. Plan to Require Testing." By Jodi Wilgoren. IN: New York Times (July 17, 2001) A1+.

["State education officials across the country complain that the imminent federal requirement for annual reading and math tests threatens to undermine the testing systems virtually every state has fashioned over the last decade.... In interviews with top education officials in all 50 states, education leaders, from Wisconsin to Washington to West Virginia, said that the testing plan originally proposed by President Bush ignores the fact that virtually every state has developed comprehensive new standards and testing systems."]

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A Study of Charter School Accountability: National Charter School Accountability Study. By Paul Hill and others, Center on Reinventing Public Education. Prepared for the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education. (The Center, Seattle, Washington) June 2001. 86 p.

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[This publication studies how school districts, states, universities or special state agencies are learning to oversee charter schools. The report contains recommendations for state legislators, teachers, parents and charter school supporters to improve charter school accountability." ECS e-Connection (July 30, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2202]

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School Attendance Policies. By Michelle Exstrom, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 9, No. 34. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) August/September 2001. 2 p.

["Many state legislatures continue to debate school attendance policies. During the 2001 legislative session, 21 states considered at least 40 bills amending these policies. Legislation lowering the minimum compulsory attendance age was introduced in 10 states.... Six states ... considered bills to increase the compulsory education age."]

[Request #S2203]

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Bush Education Plan -- Where Does It Take Us? By Doug Harris, Economic Policy Institute. Viewpoints. (The Institute, Washington, DC) July 18, 2001. 1 p.

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["The Bush education plan has been called a 'roadmap' to success -- the right destination and the roads to get us there.... The President says he wants to increase local control and flexibility. But the most striking feature of his plan is that it significantly increases federal regulation on testing and school report cards."]

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A Classification System for 2-Year Postsecondary Institutions. By Ronald A. Phipps and others, Institute for Higher Education Policy. Methodology Report. NCES 2001-167. (National Center for Educational Statistics, Washington, DC) June 2001. 70 p.

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["Report Proposes Classification System for 2-Year Colleges: The report's authors said that Associate's Colleges -- the only category for two-year institutions -- is 'limiting' because of 'the wide diversity of two-year institutions and the broad purposes they serve.' The report proposes seven categories in which to group two-year colleges: three categories for public institutions, two for private, for-profit institutions, and two for private, not-for-profit institutions." Chronicle of Higher Education (July 25, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2205]

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Meeting Needs and Making Profits: The Rise of For-Profit Degree-Granting Institutions." By Kathleen F. Kelly, Education Commission of the States. (The Commission, Denver, Colorado) July 2001. 71 p.

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["Education Commission of the States has made a comprehensive inventory of for-profit institutions, gathering information on their program offerings, enrollment, tuition and ownership; analyzed trends in accreditation and state regulation of for-profit institutions; and reviewed and summarized the research literature on the for-profit sector.... The report [also]examines these institutions from the viewpoint of the people who own and manage them, the teachers who work in them and the students who earn their degrees."]

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EPA'S Science Advisory Board Panels: Improved Policies and Procedures Needed to Ensure Independence and Balance. By the U. S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-536 (The Office, Washington, DC) June 12, 2001. 47 p.

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["The Bureau of Labor Statistics has found that Hispanics die at a higher rate from workplace related injuries than other workers. Job safety officials say that Hispanics, who are often unskilled and are here illegally, are over-represented in the most dangerous and most undesirable jobs in America because of discriminatory hiring, illegal status and language barriers." New York Times (July 16, 2001) 1.]

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Darlene Jesperson v. Harrah's Operating Company, Inc. United States District Court District of Nevada. Complaint and Jury Demand. July 6, 2001. 5 p.

["Fashion checklist: No blush, No Lipstick ... No Job: Ms. Jesperson filed suit against her former employee in U.S. district court, saying that being forced to wear mascara, lipstick, blush, and face powder to keep her job was not only humiliating but also gender discrimination.... Her case is setting up the latest test of how far companies can go in mandating what employees should look like on the job." Christian Science Monitor (July 18, 2001) 1.]

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Private Lands, Public Benefits: Principles for Advancing Working Lands Conservation. By the National Governor's Association. (The Association, Washington, DC) 2001. 57 p.

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["The report called for a better funded policy that would coordinate private, state and federal conservation efforts, but did not give a price tag.... The report urged the federal government to pay farmers the equivalent of a rental fee for their husbandry efforts to conserve the land. Farmers, ranchers and forest landowners manage about 70 percent of 1.4 billion acres of the contiguous 48 states." Rueters News Service (August 5, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2209]

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Special Report: House Energy & Water Appropriations and California Implications. By the California Institute for Federal Policy Research. (The Institute, Washington, DC) July 2, 2001. 11 p.

["The report is a quick analysis of the bill from a California perspective.... The bill provides a total of $23.7 billion in funding for the Bureau of Reclamation, the Army Corps of Engineers, the Department of Energy, and several other agencies."]

[Request #S2210]

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“Decreased Overflow From the Nordic Seas into the Atlantic Ocean Through the Faroe Bank Channel Since 1950.” By Bogl Hansen and others. IN: Nature, vol. 411 no. 6840 (June 21, 2001) pp. 927-930.

[“A growing number of scientists believe that sudden changes in climate are a possibility…. The possibility of sudden dramatic climate shifts means that, although there is a risk that current models are too pessimistic, there is also a substantial risk that they are too optimistic…. Research ... suggests that freshwater flows in the Nordic seas are increasing and may be slowing the crucial circulation of warm water.” Los Angeles Times (July 13, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S2211]

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Historical Overfishing and the Recent Collapse of Coastal Ecosystems. By Jeremy B. C. Jackson and others. IN: Science, vol. 293, no. 5530 (July 27, 2001) pp. 629-637.

["Centuries of excessive hunting on the high seas, besides devastating the populations of whales, sea turtles, sea cows and otters, has set in motion the collapse of kelp forests, coral reefs and other marine habitat essential for sea life...Steve Gains, director of the Marine Science Institute at UC Santa Barbara, believes that the scientists have pointed out a fundamental flaw in government attempts to manage fishing industries...'I don't think people realize how the ocean has changed historically,' Gains said, 'If you contrast what's out there now to what was there 200 years ago, it's just crumbs.'" Los Angeles Times (July 27, 2001) A6.]

[Request #S2234]

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Wetlands Protection. By L. Cheryl Runyon, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 9, No. 36. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) August/September 2001. 2 p.

["Our nation's wetlands are disappearing at an alarming rate. We have lost 50 percent of them since our nation's founding. Wetlands help control flooding, provide a home for wildlife, and maintain good water since they filter toxic pollutants. They also support fisheries, tourism and recreation. Concerned legislators in many states are attempting to protect the remaining wetlands from destruction and development. The Corporate Wetands Restoration Partnership of Coastal America is helping to provide funding and in-kind services to restore and preserve coastal wetlands."]

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Immediate Options for Augmenting Water Flows to the Colorado River Delta in Mexico. Jo Clark and others, David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Prepared for the International Boundary and Water Commission. (The Foundation, Los Altos, California) May 2001. 46 p.

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[“No Water Is Set Aside for Habitat Protection in the [Mexican] Delta: An extra 30,000 acre-feet of water needs to be set aside immediately for the delta's surviving wetlands and estuaries.... All the extra water would go to nurturing oases of wetlands and estuaries that have started to rebound following recent years of high Colorado runoff. Those places ... face the danger of drying up if drought spreads across the West.” Wall Street Journal (July 30, 2001) 1.]

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"Reparations Movement: Should Payments Be Made For Historical Wrongs?" By David Masci. IN: CQ Researcher, vol. 11, no. 24 (June 22, 2001) pp. 529-552.

["After the Civil War, efforts to compensate former slaves were blocked. Now calls are getting louder for payments to the ancestors of slaves to help the nation come to terms with the injustice of slavery.... Seeking reparations is not about money, they say, but about winning justice for the victims.... Other mistreated groups recently have picked up the call for reparations."]

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"FPPC Improves California's Conflict of Interest Rules. By John Wallace. IN: Western City, vol. 77, no. 4 (April 2001) pp. 10-11, 26-28.

["Phase One restructuring of the regulations was completed in October 1998.... On December 8, 2000, the commission completed Phase Two and adopted clarifying and, in some instances major revisions to key conflict of interest regulations.... The steps can help officials assess whether they may have a potential conflict of interest in connection with an official act."]

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"Many Pay for Doing Civic Duty: Jurors Frequently Foot the Bill as More Employers Offer No Paid Leave and Others Refuse to Cover Long Trials." By Caitlin Liu. IN: Los Angeles Times (July 18, 2001) B4+.

[“Jurors frequently dig into their own pockets to perform their civic duty because more and more businesses offer no paid leave and others refuse to cover salaries for lengthy trials. Figures show the number of employers paying workers nothing increased from 2.3 percent in 1995 to 13.5 percent last year.” Sacramento Bee (July 19, 2001) A5.]

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Bushmanders and Bullwinkles: How Politicians Manipulate Electronic Maps and Census Data to Win Elections. By Mark S. Monmonier. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois) April 2001. 219 p.

["A real cartographer, Syracuse University geography professor explains what happens in a new book which he describes as 'an examination of how legislators, redistricting officials and constitutional lawyers use maps as both tools and weapons.' Along the way, he touches several times on the relatively new role of judges as map-makers." Sacramento Bee (April 25, 2001) B7. NOTE: Bushmanders and Bullwinkles ... will be available for 3-day loan. The item is copyrighted and the Bureau may not photocopy.]

[Request #S1960]

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Supplemental Report of the 2001 Budget Act 2001-02 Fiscal Year: Containing Statements of Intent or Requests for Studies Adopted by the Legislature. By the Legislative Analyst's Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) July 30, 2001. 120 p.

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[Includes: "Legislative, Judicial, Executive;" "State and Consumer Services;" "Business, Transportation and Housing;" "Trade and Commerce Agency;" "Resources;" "Health and Social Services;" "Youth and Adult Correctional;" "Education;" "General Government;" and "Capital Outlay."

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"The Supreme Court's New Constitutional Federalism: Implications for Public Administration." By Charles R. Wise. IN: Public Administration Review, vol. 61, no. 3 (May/June 2001) pp. 343-358.

["Since the early 1990s, the Supreme Court has been issuing decisions that, taken together, constitute a new judicial federalism.... This article analyzes the principal constitutional bases for the Court's actions and gauges the balance of this new judicial federalism. It then sorts out the implications for public administration and projects where the Court may be going with this doctrine in the future."]

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Legislative Term Limits. Local Voter Petitions. Initiative Constitutional Amendment. By Howard Owens. Submitted to the Office of the California Secretary of State. (The Office, Sacramento, California) 2001. 1 p.

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[“A proposed constitutional amendment would amend the state’s 11-year-old term limits law by allowing lawmakers to serve an additional four years in the Assembly and the Senate…. Under the proposal, a lawmaker about to be termed out could be placed back on the ballot by obtaining signatures from 20 percent of the registered voters who cast ballots in the last election in that district.” Sacramento Bee (August 2, 2001) B3.]

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"Barriers to Bicycle Helmet Use." By Jonathan T. Finnoff and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 108, no. 1 (July 2001) pp. e1-e4.

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["Two survey areas were chosen for this study: local public schools and paved bicycle trails.... A total of 2970 surveys were distributed.... 69% were returned for analysis.... The prevalence of bicycle helmet use remains low despite research indicating the high level of head injury risk when bicycling without a helmet...With the information provided by this survey, a well-designed intervention to increase the use of bicycle helmets can be implemented."]

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Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment. By Stephanie Wasserman, National Conference of State Legislatures. NCSL State Legislative Report. Vol. 26, No. 7. July 2001. 16 p.

["Detecting breast and cervical cancer in their earliest stages greatly improves women's chances for survival in most cases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sponsors a screening program for breast and cervical cancer, but it does not cover treatment costs.... This report examines the CDC screening program and the new state Medicaid option to cover women in need of breast or cervical cancer treatment."]

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Neuroadaptation: Incubation of Cocaine Craving After Withdrawal. By Jeffrey W. Grimm. IN: Nature vol. 41 no. 2 (July 2001) pp. 141-142.

["New research shows that even after users quit taking cocaine, craving for the drug increases, rather than decreases, over time.... 'This phenomenon helps explain why addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease,' said NIDA Director Alan I. Leshner. 'Craving is a powerful force for cocaine addicts to resist, and the finding that it persists long after last drug use must be considered in tailoring treatment programs.'" Join Together (July 16, 2001) 1.]

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"Estimating Hospital Deaths Due to Medical Errors: Preventability is in the Eye of the Reviewer." By Rodney A. Hayward and Timothy P. Hofer. IN: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 286, no. 4 (July 25, 2001) pp. 415-416.

["Medical errors are a major concern regardless of patients' life expectancies, but our study suggests that previous interpretations of medical error statistics are probably misleading. Our data place the estimates of preventable deaths in context, pointing out the limitations of this means of identifying medical errors and assessing their potential implications for patient outcome."]

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Potential HUD Hospital Regulation. By The Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief. 01-41. (FFIS, Washington, DC) July 31, 2001. 2 p.

["The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) provides mortgage insurance to assist hospitals in obtaining lower cost capital. Provisions in the fiscal year (FY) 2002 Senate reported appropriations bill for the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) would give the Secretary of HUD the authority to establish licensure standards and certificate-of-need authority for hospitals to be eligible for such insurance."]

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Nursing Workforce: Emerging Nurse Shortages Due to Multiple Factors. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-944. (The Office, Washington, DC) July 2001. 15 p.

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["Current problems with the recruitment and retention of nurses are related to multiple factors. The nurse workforce is aging, and fewer new nurses are entering the profession to replace those who are retiring or leaving... Nurses report unhappiness with many aspects of the work.... According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, as of June 2001, legislation to address nurse shortage issues had been introduced in 15 states."]

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"Do Adolescents Appreciate the Risks of Smoking? Evidence From a National Survey." By Daniel Romer and Patrick Jamieson. IN: Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 29 no. 1 (July 2001) pp. 12-21.

["More than 400,000 adults die of smoking related causes per year and an estimated third of all adolescent smokers will die of smoking-related causes if they continue to smoke at the same rate as previous generations.... Approximately 25% of smokers and 32% of nonsmokers made accurate estimates of death rates owing to smoking. However, approximately 41% of smokers and 27% of nonsmokers either underestimated the true mortality rate of lifetime smoking or indicated they did not know the rate."]

[Request #S2225]

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Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy. By Douglas Kirby, National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. (The Campaign, Washington, DC) June 2001. 200 p.

["Common sense would suggest that making contraceptive know-how available would be taken as a green light for sex by teens. But a survey of some 250 prevention-related programs by a nonprofit group, the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, finds that sex education that includes contraception instruction does not ‘hasten the onset' of sexual activity, or increase such activity." Christian Science Monitor (June 8, 2001) B3.]

[Request #S2019]

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Uninsured Californians in Assembly and Senate Districts, 2000. By Richard Brown and others, UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) May 22, 2001. 155 p.

["UCLA Study Finds Many Lack Health Insurance: Underscoring the degree to which Californians lack health insurance, a study has found that three-fourths of the state's legislative districts have uninsured rates exceeding the national average. Districts with higher uninsured rates were mainly in Los Angeles, Inyo, Kern, San Bernardino, Orange, Riverside, Imperial and San Diego counties. The San Joaquin Valley and the South San Francisco Bay area also had higher rates." Los Angeles Times (May 23, 2001) 7.]

[Request #S2226]

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HUD Multifamily Housing: Improved Follow-up Needed to Ensure That Physical Problems Are Corrected. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-688. (The Office, Washington, DC) June 2001. 49 p.

Full Text at:

["Our site visits identified a variety of uncorrected problems, including exigent health and safety violations such as exposed electrical wiring. We found these problems because in some instances HUD's field staff classified properties as repaired without obtaining a detailed repair plan and a written certification form the owner that all physical deficiencies had been corrected.... This report makes recommendations to the Secretary of HUD designed to improve the effectiveness of HUD's processes for ensuring that owners of properties in substandard condition correct all physical deficiencies and HUD has accurate information on the status of repair work at these properties."]

[Request #S2228]

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Profile of Selected Housing Characteristics: 2000: Census 2000 Supplementary Survey Summary Tables: California. By the U.S. Census Bureau. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) August 2001. 3 p.

Full Text at:

["More than one of five California families that rent a place to live ... spend at least half their gross income on rent and utilities.... The number ... who paid at least $1,000 a month for rent more than tripled, from 451,244 in 1990 to 1,263,744 in 2000. The survey also found that about 11 percent of homeowners ... spent half or more of their income on mortgage, insurance, real estate tax and home equity loans." San Jose Mercury News (August 6, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2241]

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Poor Dads Who Don't Pay Child Support: Deadbeats or Disadvantaged? By Elaine Sorensen and Chava Zibman, Urban Institute. National Survey of America's Families. Series B, No. B-30. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2001. 7 p.

Full Text at:

["Two and a half million nonresident fathers who do not pay child support are poor themselves.... Limited education is the most common employment barrier, with 43 percent of each group (nonpaying fathers and nonreceiving mothers) lacking a high school diploma or its equivalent.... If we expect nonresident fathers to pay child support, we should consider making employment-related services more available to them."]

[Request #S2229]

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"Welfare Reform Florida, Minnesota Experiences Point Up Promise and Perils." By Anna Spencer. IN: State Health Notes, vol. 22, no. 354 (July 30, 2001) pp. 1, 5.

["Though the cash assistance rolls have fallen dramatically and work effort is up, concerns about the families persist. A review of programs in Florida and Minnesota shed light on the promise and perils of reform."]

[Request #S2230]

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Faces of Change: Personal Experiences of Welfare Reform in America. By the Alliance for Children and Families. (The Alliance, Milwaukee, Wisconsin) 2001. 240 p.

["The Alliance, in partnership with the Community Service Society of New York, has conducted important research on the experiences of individuals affected by welfare reform. The study contains first-hand accounts from 100 current and former welfare recipients detailing their experiences in six primary areas: employment, child care, public benefits, health care, job training and transportation." NOTE: Faces of Change ... is available for 3-day loan. The work is copyrighted and the Bureau may not photocopy.]

[Request #S1859]

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Special Report: House Transportation Appropriations and California Implications. By the California Institute for Federal Policy Research. (The Institute, Washington, DC) July 5, 2001. 9 p.

["The report is a quick analysis of the bill from a California perspective.... The bill would provide $17,118,121,000 in new budget (obligation) authority for the programs of the Department of Transportation and related agencies."]

[Request #S2231]

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California Capitol Hill Bulletin. By the California Institute for Federal Policy Research. Volume 8, Bulletin 25. (The Institute, Washington, DC) August 2, 2001. 8 p.

Full Text at:

[Includes: "House Defeats MTBE Waiver; Californians Unite In Support;" "Senate Passes Transportation Appropriations with Mexican Truck Restrictions;" "Federal Task Force To Draft Southern California Comprehensive Regional Transportation Plan;" "State Funds to Combat Pierce's Disease; Officials Spray in San Jose;" and others.]

[Request #S2232]

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[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]



Taking Stock: Journalism and the Publicly Traded Newspaper Company. By Gilbert Cranberg and others. (Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa) May 2001.

[“About 40 years ago … newspaper companies began to go public. ‘Staffs are leaner and there is a lot less investigative reporting. The quality of newspapers has degraded…’ The consequences of the change are felt throughout the news operation: In overburdened copy desks … undertrained and poorly paid reporters … the amount of news in your paper and the degree to which it is locally produced … the degree of editorial independence and the choices made by editors.” Sacramento Bee (August 5, 2001) p. L5]

[Request #S2233]

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“Effectiveness of Compliance with Pediatric Preventive Care Guidelines Among Medicaid Beneficiaries.” By R.B. Hakim and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 108 no. 1 (July 2001) pp. 90-97.

[“Relationship Between Life Satisfaction and Violent Behaviors among Adolescents.” By Robert F. Valois and others. IN: American Journal of Health Behavior, vol. 25 no. 4 (July/Aug 2001) pp. 353-366.

[Request #S2235]

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American Health Care: Government, Market Processes and the Public Interest. Edited by Roger D. Feldman. (The Independent Institute, Oakland, California) [2001.] 392 p.

["The book examines why harmful consequences too often follow when government sets out to direct health care.... [It] contrasts government and market options to supply health services, showing that the market can go further in performing critical functions in health care."]

[Request #S2236]

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Paycheck to Paycheck: Working Families and the Cost of Housing in America. By National Housing Conference. (The Conference, Washington, DC) 2001.

[“A new analysis … describes the overall number and characteristics of working families with critical housing needs, defined as paying more than 50% of income for housing costs or living in a severely dilapidated unit. An occupational wage analysis examines whether working families who earn prevailing wages for selected occupations are able to pay reasonable costs for housing in the communities in which they live. Retail salespersons can afford to rent a one-bedroom apartment on 30% of their income in only 3 of 60 localities studied.” HandsNet (July 6, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2227]

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"Predictors of Hazardous Child Seating Behavior in Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes: 1990 to 1998." By Eve Wittenberg and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 108, no. 2 (August 2001) pp. 438-442.

["Nearly a third of drivers with young children in their vehicles allow then to ride in the front seat despite warnings that it can put them at risk of air bag injuries, a study found.... It found that the proportion of vehicles carrying children 12 and under in the front seat had declined in the period from 42 percent to 31 percent." San Francisco Chronicle (August 6, 2001) A5.]

[Request #S2237]

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