Subject: Studies in the News 01-26

Studies in the News

California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

September 1851 - "Election Returns: The manner of counting the votes is so slow a one, and the tickets are so scratched, that it will require till to-morrow to finish.... The tenor of the news from such portions of the mines as are most accessible would seem to indicate that (Governor)Bigler's election is more probable than Reading's, although the southern and extreme northern portions of the State are generally expected to have gone with great unanimity for the latter gentleman."  Alta California (September 6, 1851) 2.  

September 1851 - "One of the first and most important duties which will devolve upon the new Legislature is the elction of an United States Senator, to fill the position formerly occupied by Col. Fremont, whose term of office expired on the 4th of March last.... The peculiar and isolated position of California ... and the small degree of sympathy she has power to excite, by reason of her insignificant numerical strength in Congress -- make it of the very highest importance that our State should not be without her full quota of Representatives in that body."  Alta California (September 6, 1851) 2.  

Contents This Week

   Drug case sentencing
   Felons barred from voting
   Gun makers not liable for crimes
   LAPD sued over protestor's rights
   Three strikes seven years later
   Census 2000 maps show diversity
   California fertility rates and patterns
   Retooling economic development policy
   California energy forecast
   Federal stem cell research support
   National concern over California's energy costs
   Power plant approval process audit
   Georgia admissions policy unconstitutional
   Schools granted detainment leeway
   Summit on early cognitive development
   Schools lack Asian studies
   Attitudes toward public schools
   STAR and Stanford test scores
    PSAT/NMSQT 2000 State summary reports
   Marine life protection
   Carbon emission control methods
   Greenhouse gas reduction
   Border patrol strategy
   Profiles of Mexican immigrants
   Latinos and party alignment
   2001 budget summary
   Federal election reform
   Federal spending bills
   President's management agenda
   Federal surplus disappearing
   Universities and local taxes
   Redistricting plan bolsters status quo
   MALDEF-WCVI California redistricting
   Asian coalition's redistricting proposal
   Analysis of final budget
   Colon cancer screening
   Santa Clara County insuring children
   Untreated hypertension
   Limiting right to end life support
   States' use of tobacco settlement
   Tobacco settlement and cigarette advertising
   Child-care aid and quality
   Kid-friendly cities
   Families faring better under welfare reform
   Energy assistance programs
   NAFTA dispute settlements
   Displaced populations
   Evaluation of NAFTA
   San Francisco Airport runways
   Cell phones and driving risks
   Vehicle safety during traffic stops
   Privacy in law and technology
   Understanding school droupouts
   Superfund monetary shortfalls
   Binational farmworker health survey
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:



Federal Drug Offenders, 1999 with Trends 1984-99. By John Scalia. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, DC) August 2001. 12 p.

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["Drug offenders spend a year more in prison on average than they did 15 years ago, and drug offenses now make up about one-third of federal criminal cases.... But criminal justice experts ... questioned whether more punitive prison terms would in reality deter drug crime if prevention and treatment do not also become a priority." Washington Post (August 20, 2001) A2.]

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The Truly Disfranchised: Felon Voting Rights and American Politics. By Jeff Manza, and others, Institute for Policy Research. Presented to the American Sociological Association. WP-00-21. (The Institute, Evanston, Illinois) August 16, 2001. 36 p.

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["To estimate expected turnout and vote choice among disfranchised felons, we combine legal sources with data series from the National Election Study, the Current Population Survey Voting Supplement, Surveys of State Prison Inmates, and National Corrections Reporting Program.... Our results suggest that felon disfranchisement played a decisive role in several U.S. Senate elections."]

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Marilyn Merrill et al., v. Navegar, Inc. Supreme Court of California. S083466. August 6, 2001. 36 p.

["Gun Makers Not Liable in Crimes, California Justices Say: In 5-1 ruling, state Supreme Court ruled that victims are barred from suing the maker of the weapon used in a rampage at a San Francisco Tower.... Justice Kathryn Werdegar, the sole dissenter, wrote ... 'gun makers, including makers of assault weapons banned in California, will apparently enjoy absolute immunity from the consequences of their negligent marketing decisions.'" Los Angeles Times (August 7, 2001) A1.]

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National Lawyers Guild, Los Angeles Chapter et al., v. City of Los Angeles. United States District Court, Central District of California. Complaint for Injunctive Relief, Declaratory Relief and Damages. August 9, 2001. 23 p.

["Demanding that Los Angeles police change their crowd-control tactics, the ACLU filed a federal lawsuit, charging that the department illegally and brutally stifled protesters' rights to free speech and assembly at last year's Democratic National Convention and follow-up demonstration in October." Los Angeles Times (August 10, 2001) 3.]

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Aging Behind Bars: "Three Strikes" Seven Years Later. By Ryan S. King and Marc Mauer, The Sentencing Project. (The Project, Washington, DC) August 2001. 13 p.

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["Another Strike Against A Bad Law: While the law has sent more people to prison for longer terms, it has failed to significantly impact crime, which has been dropping long before the law was passed.... The money spent to incarcerate older inmates could be better used to deter younger folks from the kinds of violent crimes they are much more prone to commit." San Francisco Chronicle (August 24, 2001) A26.]

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Mapping Census 2000: The Geography of U.S. Diversity. By the U.S. Census Bureau. Census 2000 Special Reports. CENSR/01-1 (The Bureau, Washington, DC) June 2001. 107 p.

["The Census 2000 data in this report are based on the U.S. Census Bureau Redistricting Summary File.... [It] provides a news-filled first look at diversity and change in population. The report presents maps ... showing the 2000 population distribution and corresponding 1990 to 2000 change in population."]

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New Trends in Newborns: Fertility Rates and Patterns in California. By Hans P. Johnson and others, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) August 2001. 11 p.

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["A survey shows that the children of foreign immigrants are giving birth at substantially lower rates than preceding generations. The lower birth rates have been most apparent among U.S.-born Latinas. They are having 2.5 children each compared to 4.0 children each for foreign-born Latinas." Sacramento Bee (August 28, 2001) A1.]

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Retooling State Economic Development Policy for the New Economy. By Monica Kearns, National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) July 2001. 37 p.

["The U.S. economy has experienced tremendous change during the last two decades.... Many state policymakers are concerned that the rise of the new economy has resulted in a mismatch between existing state economic development programs and the needs of today's businesses. This report is designed to help policymakers understand the new economy and the key legislative policy options that affect economic development under these new conditions."]

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California Energy Outlook: Electricity and Natural Gas Trends Report: Staff Draft. By California Energy Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento) August 22, 2001. 10 p.

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["California is so rapidly reversing its electricity shortfall that blackouts are unlikely next summer and supplies will far outstrip demand by 2004, according to a new state energy supply forecast. The outlook is so rosy that some officials say it calls into question the need for a new state power agency to be launched." Los Angeles Times (August 24, 2001) B12.]

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"Potential for Good?" IN: The Economist (August 16, 2001) X. "Scientists Divided on Limit of Federal Stem Cell Money." By Nicholas Wade. IN: New York Times (August 16, 2001) A1. And "President's Statement on Funding Stem Cell Research." By George W. Bush. IN: New York Times (August 9, 2001) A1.

["Scientists are better off than they were because the president's decision means that federal money for stem cell research will now be available to the large, skilled corps of academic scientists who depend on grants from the National Institutes of Health.... Scientists reservations pertain to whether the 60 lines of stem cells sanctioned by Mr. Bush are of high enough quality to be useful." New York Times (August 16, 2001)A1.]

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"Power Shift: [Series]." By Dan Morgan and others. IN: Washington Post (August 21-23, 2001) A1+

[Includes: "The New World of Electricity: Deregulating Utility Monopolies So Far has Created More Problems Than Benefits, Raising Fears that Other States Could Suffer California-style Energy Trouble;" "Bottlenecks on the Grid: The New Market Driven Electric-power System is Straining an Aging Transmission Grid That Was Not Built To Handle Such Heavy Traffic;" "The New Energy Merchants: A New Breed of Electricity Trader is Trying to Accelerate the Changes to the System Over the Powerful Objections of Old-line Utilities;" and others.]

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California Energy Commission: Although External Factors Have Caused Delays in Its Approval of Sites, Its Application Process Is Reasonable. By California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) August 2001. 42p.

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["The state Energy Commission missed deadlines to approve new power plants nearly half the time over the last decade, but the delays were largely out of its control, according to a state audit... The commission missed its 12-month deadline for 10 out of the 23 plants approved since 1990, and on average, took 14 months to review plans, conduct hearings and issue the required permits." Sacramento Bee (August 21, 2001) A3.]

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Jennifer L. Johnson, et al., v. Board of Regents of the University of Georgia et al. United States Court of Appeal for the Eleventh Circuit. 99-00169-CV-4. August 27, 2001. 23 p.

["University of Georgia's Admissions Policy is Unconstitutional, Appeals Court Finds: In a major blow to affirmative action, a federal appeals court ruled that the University unconstitutionally used race in admissions by giving an arbitrary advantage -- one that its admissions director admitted was created 'out of the blue' -- to nonwhite students.... The court also questioned whether Regents of the University of California v. Bakke ... provided any real meaningful justification for using race in admissions decisions." Chronicle of Higher Education Daily News (August 28, 2001) 1.]

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The People v. Randy G. Supreme Court of California. S089733. August 13, 2001. 20 p.

["Schools Granted Detainment Leeway: School officials do not need reasonable suspicion to stop, question or investigate students, the state Supreme Court ruled.... That authority cannot, however, 'be exercised in an arbitrary, capricious or harassing manner,' the court said." Sacramento Bee (August 14, 2001) A4.]

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Early Childhood Cognitive Development: The White House Summit. By Rod Paige and Tommy Thompson. (The White House, Washington, DC) July 27, 2001. Various pagings.

["[The report focuses ...] on pre-reading skills that children acquire in the preschool period, and how these skills, or the absence of them, affect a child's later ability to learn to read.... Finally, [it describes]... three interventions that enhance pre-reading skills, each targeted for a different time span during the preschool period."]

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Asia in the Schools: Preparing Young Americans for Today's Interconnected World. By Namji Kim Steinermann and others, National Commission on Asia in the Schools. (Asia Society, New York, New York) June 21, 2001. 76 p.

["Schools Lack Of Asian Studies Threatens Future, Report Says: High school social studies and history teachers gloss over Asia because they don't have the training; the country's top colleges do not require Asia-related studies; and educators lack materials and textbooks to enhance their class experience. The commission is enlisting the help of U.S. governors to drum up awareness and lead school curriculum changes that emphasize international education and Asia-related classes." San Jose Mercury News (June 21, 2001) 15A.]

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"The 33rd Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools. By Lowell C. Rose and Alec M. Gallup. IN: Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 82, no. 13 (September 2001) pp. 41-58.

["Public Schools Earn Higher Marks in Poll: For the first time in 33 years, a majority of Americans answering an annual poll have awarded above-average grades to their local public schools.... A record 51 percent gave their local schools an A or B.... Reforms favored by most respondents included higher spending, particularly to raise teacher pay or to inject extra funds in failing schools." Sacramento Bee (August 23, 2001) A1.]

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2001 STAR Results: Eastin Announces Continued Gains In Student Achievement: News Release. And STAR Score Summaries Report: Sanford 9 Scores. By the California Department of Education. (The Department, Sacramento, California) August 15, 2001. 20 p.

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["Only three out of 10 California students meet the state's new language-arts standards, and many children struggle with their writing skills ... Scores continued to climb on a separate test, the Stanford 9 ... California students in grades 2 through 8 made modest gains for the third consecutive year ... the high school level was static." Sacramento Bee (August 16, 2001) 1.]

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PSAT/NMSQT 2000 State Summary Reports. By the College Entrance Examination Board. (The Board, New York, New York) July 24, 2001. 13 p.

["In the fall of 2000, students from the class of 2002 took the PSAT/NMSQT to help determine their level of readiness for college.... Characteristics, scores, and educational plans of college-bound students are summarized in the report.... Average scores for juniors were 48.3 (verbal), 49.5 (math) and 48.7 (writing skills). Compared with 1999, these averages represented no change in verbal, a 0.2 increase in math, and a 0.5 decrease in writing skills."]

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Marine Life Protection Act: Initial Draft Concepts. By the Marine Life Protection Act Planning Team, Department of Fish and Game/Ocean Conservancy. (The Department, Monterey, California) [2001.] Various pagings.

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["State Proposing Series Of 'No-Take' Coastal Reserves To Replenish Marine Species: Under the Marine Life Protection Act of 1999, a team of scientists at the state Department of Fish and Game has proposed 41 'state marine reserves' where all fishing and taking of living things and natural artifacts would be banned.... Also proposed are 'state marine parks' and 'state marine conservation areas' with lesser restrictions on fishing." San Francisco Chronicle (July 30, 2001)

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The Effect of Allowance Allocation on the Cost of Carbon Emission Trading. By Dallas Burtraw and others, Resources for the Future. Discussion Paper 01-30. (Resources, Washington, DC) August 2001. 54 p.

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["The report finds that under a cap and trade program to limit carbon dioxide emissions, costs to the natural gas and electric utility industries will be inexorably linked.... The three programs include: an auction where the government sells allowances to companies, and uses the revenue to offset costs...; grandfathering allowance based on historical emissions produced by a company or industry sector; and the generation performance standard." Natural Gas Week (August 6, 2001) 10.]

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Greenhouse Gas Reductions -- State Case Studies. By Christie Rewey, National Conference of State Legislatures. NCSL State Legislative Report. Vol. 25, No. 15. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) December 2000. 13 p.

["Regardless of which viewpoint on the changing climate is accurate, two major international accords now delineate plans to stem the production of greenhouse gases, especially CO2. Correspondingly, many states have created legislation relating to this issue. This state legislative report examines four states -- Oregon, New Hampshire, Wisconsin, and New Jersey -- that have taken legislative action to reduce CO2."]

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INS' Southwest Border Strategy: Resource and Impact Issues Remain After Seven Years. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-842. (The Office, Washington, DC) August 2001. 33 p.

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["Border Patrol Squeeze Pushes Immigrants Through Dangerous Terrain: Border Patrol strategy focused on keeping immigrants away from cities has forced more people to risk death by sneaking into the country over mountains, through deserts and across rivers, according to a congressional report.... From October 1997 through June 1, 2001, 1,013 migrants died crossing the border. Nearly 60 percent died from heat or cold exposure." Associated Press & Local Wire (August 3, 2001) 1.]

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Immigration From Mexico. By Steven A. Camarota. (Center for Immigration Studies, Washington, DC) July 2001. 64 p.

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["The study contains detailed information on the economic and demographic characteristics of Mexican immigrants at both the national and state level... It concludes that the influx of relatively unskilled workers has affected wages for 'native' workers in a negative way. The report recommends that the United States consider programs designed to improve the labor market skills of legal immigrants and the educational opportunities for their children."]

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A Critique of "Impossible Dream or Distant Reality?" Latinos and Party Alignment in the 21st Century: A Policy Statement. By the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute. (The Institute, Claremont, California) August 22, 2001. 6 p.

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["Our discussion will be based on data from two recent Tomas Rivera Policy Institute surveys -- the Hispanic Churches of American Public Life National Survey and a pre-election survey of Latino registered voters -- and the Washington Post/Kaiser/Harvard Latino Survey."]

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A Summary of the 2001 Budget Act: Final Action Report. By the Senate Committee on Budget and Fiscal Review. (The Committee, Sacramento, California) August 1, 2001. 156 p.

["The Final Action Report provides an overview of the budget and details actions taken on individual departments and agencies. The overview includes a discussion of the General Fund condition after the Governor's vetoes and lists the trailer bills. The detail by subcommittee ... lists the changes to the budget: actions taken by the Senate subcommittees, by the budget Conference Committee, or by veto."]

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To Assure Pride and Confidence in the Electoral Process. By The National Commission on Federal Election Reform. (The Commission, Washington, DC) August 2001. 106 p.

["Devil's In The Details In Election Reform; Politicians Agree System Flawed: The commission offered 13 specific recommendations including: moving a federal holiday -- perhaps Veterans Day -- to fall on election day; urging states to update and centralize their voter registration and vote-counting operations; and insisting that television networks not project winners until California and other Western states close their polling places." San Francisco Chronicle (August 1, 2001) 1.]

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An August Recess Update: Miles to Go Before They Sleep. By The Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief. 01-05. (FFIS, Washington DC) August 13, 2001. 4 p.

["This Budget Brief highlights the work done so far on the FY 2002 spending bills and some of the hurdles still facing legislators as the new fiscal year approaches. The House has passed nine of the 13 appropriation bills while the Senate has moved at a much slower pace, passing only five. This brief provides the most recent funding levels approved for many programs important to states."]

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The President's Management Agenda. By the Office of Management and Budget. (The Office, Washington D.C.)August 2001. 64 p.

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["In a report issued by the White House, Mr. Bush declared that it was time for more government reform. The first president to hold an MBA, from Harvard, Mr. Bush calls his program a 'management agenda' that intends to put more government services in competition with private-sector suppliers. The program would also make more use of what Mr. Bush calls 'electronic government' and clean up programs long plagued by fraud and mismanagement, including student aid and public housing." New York Times (August 26, 2001) A1.]

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The Disappearing 2001 Surplus: Tax Cuts, Budget Increases, and the Economy. By Richard Kogan and Robert Greenstein, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) August 22, 2001. 9 p.

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["The predicted surplus has practically disappeared. How did this happen? The quick answer is that the recently enacted tax-cut reduced revenues by $74 billion in 2001 and the economy slowed significantly, so that revenue collections fell below predicted levels.... To put the issue of program increases and tax cuts into context, this analysis also examines how the surplus projection for 2001 made by the Congressional Budget Office in July 2000 has changed over the course of the last 13 months."]

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"Universities and Local Taxes." By Joan Youngman. IN: State Tax Notes, vol. 21, no. 6 (August 6, 2001) pp. 431-437.

["The debate over the tax-exempt status of private universities in many ways mirrors similar controversies concerning non-profit organizations generally, but the special context of higher education adds a number of unique political and legal features.... Virtually every state exempts school, college, and university property from taxation.... The inherent ambiguity of many elements in this arrangement -- from the boundaries between educational and commercial activities to the distinction between taxes and fees -- provides ample scope for expression of underlying political tension."]

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Proposed California Congressional Districts. By the California Congressional Delegation. Proposed California Senate Districts. By the Senate Elections and Reapportionment Committee. Proposed Assembly Redistricting Plan. And Proposed Board of Equalization Districts. By the Assembly Committee on Elections, Reapportionment, and Constitutional Amendments. (The Committee, Sacramento, California) August 29, 2001. Maps; Various pagings.

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["Redisticting Plans Bolsters Status Quo: Like the Assembly and Senate proposals that preceded it, the Congressional plan would increase voter registration margins for both Democrats and Republicans, making it easier for incumbents of both parties to hold onto their seats. The plans must be voted on by the Legislature by September 14 and acted on by Governor Gray Davis by September 26." Sacramento Bee (September 1, 2001) A1.]]

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MALDEF-WCVI California Redistricting: Assembly, Senate, & Congressional. By The William C. Velasquez Institute. (The Institute, Los Angeles, California) July 31, 2001. Various pagings.

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["Hispanic Groups Submit Redistrcting Proposal to State: A pair of Hispanic advocacy groups submitted a reapportionment plan that called for a new Congressional district in the San Joquin Valley and the redrawing of some existing districts to better reflect the rapid growth of the state's Hispanic population." AP Wire (July 17, 2001) 1.]

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Coalition Of Asian Pacific Americans for Fair Redistricting Redistricting Plan. Redistricting Priorities. And Assembly District Redistricting Profiles. By the Coalition. (The Coalition, Los Angeles, California) August 8, 2001. Maps; Various pagings.

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Asian-Pacific Islander Alliance Proposes Redistricting Map: Under a proposal submitted by the Coalition more than a dozen Assembly districts across the state would be reshaped to provide Asian and Pacific Islander candidates a better chance of getting elected.... Asian Americans hold four seats in the 80-seat Assembly and none in the state Senate, which has 40 members." San Francisco Chronicle (August 15, 2001) A4.]

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Governor Davis Signs 2001-02 Budget. By the California Budget Project. Budget Watch. Vol. 7, No. 3 (August 2001) 8 p.

[Includes: "Storm Clouds on the Horizon;" "The California Economy: A Significant Slowdown;" "Be Careful About What You Ask for...;" "Winners and Losers;" and "Social Services."]

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Screening for Colon Cancer - Can We Afford Colonoscopy? By Allan S. Detsky. IN: New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 345, no. 8 (August 23, 2001) pp. 607-608.

["Colonoscopy proved far superior to other common tests for colon cancer in a study that could put pressure on more insurance companies to cover colonoscopy, an expensive screening method.... Costing at least $1,000, colonoscopy is considered about 95 percent accurate and is only needed once every 10 years, starting around age 60 for people with no family history of colon cancer. Sigmoidoscopy, which costs $100 to $200, uses a less-advanced viewing tube and cannot probe the colon's top two-thirds, where growths become more common, dangerous and hard to detect with age." New York Times (August 23, 2001) A1.]

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"Santa Clara County Plan to Insure All Children is Going Gangbusters." IN: State Health Notes, vol. 21, no. 315 (August 13, 2001) pp. 1-2.

["Since January 1, when Santa Clara County, California launched a first-of-a-kind universal health insurance program for children, the number of uninsured kids has fallen by 15,500. Will other counties follow its lead?"]

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"Characteristics of Patients With Uncontrolled Hypertension in the United States." By David J. Hyman and Valory N. Pavlik. IN: New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 7 (August 16, 2001) pp. 479-486.

["High Blood Pressure Cases Go Untreated, Study Finds: Several million Americans could lower their risk of heart disease and stroke if they were simply treated correctly for their high blood pressure, according to a new study.... An estimated 42 million Americans have high blood pressure.... Of those, only 10 million are successfully treating it."]

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Rose Wendland v. Florence Wendland et al. Supreme Court of California. S087265. August 9, 2001. 49 p.

["California Justices Limit Families' Right to End Life Support: The justices [found] that families have no right to stop life support for conscious patients who are not terminally ill, and who have not left explicit instructions allowing them to do so or formally appointed anyone to make health care decisions in the event of incapacity." New York Times (August 10, 2001) 1.]

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Tobacco Settlement: States' Use of Master Settlement Agreement Payments. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-851. (The Office, Washington, DC) June 2001. 74 p.

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["Little Of Settlement Money Is Spent On Tobacco Control: The General Accounting Office found that states were using 'about 7 percent' of settlement money for new or expanded tobacco programs. The amounts fell well short of recommendations by the Centers for Disease Control that states use at least 19 percent of their tobacco money annually for tobacco-control programs." New York Times (August 11, 2001) A11.]

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"The Master Settlement Agreement with the Tobacco Industry and Cigarette Advertising in Magazines." By Charles King and others. IN: New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 7 (August 16, 2001) pp. 504-511.

["Are Tobacco Firms Still Targeting Youngsters? Ads from three of the four major tobacco companies continue to appear in magazines such as Rolling Stone, People, Entertainment Weekly, Sports Illustrated and TV Guide.... A study ... reports the settlement appears to have had little effect on cigarette advertising in magazines and on the exposure of youths to those advertisements." Sacramento Bee (August 15, 2001) D1.]

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Child-Care Aid and Quality for California Families: Focusing on San Francisco and Santa Clara Counties. By Bruce Fuller and others. Prepared for the Growing Up in Poverty Project. Working Paper Series 01-2. (Policy Analysis for California Education, Berkeley, California) August 2001. 30 p.

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["Child Care Study Has Surprising Results: For moms moving from welfare to work, poor neighborhoods have higher-quality child care in subsidized day care centers than is found in slightly better-off working class neighborhoods, according to a recent study.... Bay Area child care advocates said the study shows that with government aid, child care centers can provide rich environments that prepare low-income children for school." San Francisco Chronicle (August 6, 2001) A13.]

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Kid-Friendly Cities. By Zero Population Growth. (The Organization, Washington, DC) August 2001. 24 p.

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["Los Angeles was rated among the least-friendly cities for children, ranking 19th out of the nation's 25 major cities, according to a national study. The overall grade for Los Angeles was a C-minus, compared with an A-plus for Thousand Oaks, an A-minus for Pasadena and a B for Simi Valley, according to the survey. The study found that Los Angeles children are breathing dirtier air and studying in more crowded classrooms than kids in other major U.S. cities." Los Angeles Daily News (August 21, 2001) N1.]

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Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress. By the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (The Department, Washington, DC) 2001. Various pagings.

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[Report Shows Families Better Off Under Welfare Reform: The report shows that the poverty rate has fallen, more former welfare recipients are working and the number of Americans dependent on Temporary Assistance for Needy Families is down.... Since August 1996, the welfare caseload has fallen from 12.2 million recipients to 5.8 million -- the largest decline in history and the lowest percentage of the population on welfare since 1965." U.S. Newswire (August 21,2001) 1.]

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Residential Energy Assistance. Effectiveness of Demonstration Program as Yet Undetermined. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-536. (The Office, Washington, DC) August 2001. 72 p.

["By the end of fiscal year 2000, OCS had awarded $30 million in REACH grants to 24 states and 12 tribal organizations to fund 54 separate projects intended to help meet the home energy (heating and cooling) needs of low-income households in a variety of ways.... This report addresses (1) grant recipients, amounts, and project activities; (2) the goals of the REACH program; (3) the methodologies and results of states' project evaluations; and (4) plans to communicate lessons learned from REACH projects and to foster the further use of successful approaches."]

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North American Free Trade Agreement: U.S. Experience With Environment, Labor, and Investment Dispute Settlement Cases: Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Trade, Committee on Way and Means, House of Representatives. By the United States General Accounting Office. GAO-01-933. (The Office, Washington, DC) July 2001. 67 p.

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["In this report, we provide information on the institutional structure, principles, process, cases, and outcomes associated with NAFTA's investor-state dispute settlement mechanism. In addition, this report includes information on fines and trade sanctions under the side agreements."]

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Internally Displaced Persons Lack Effective Protection. By U. S. General Accounting Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) August 2001. 61 p.

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["They are victims of the post-Cold War era -- more than 20 million people driven from their homes by ethnic war, famine or oppression but unable to reach the relative safety of a neighboring country.... They are 'among the most at-risk, vulnerable populations in the world.' Yet there is no U.N. or U.S. government agency responsible for helping them, the General Accounting Office noted in the report." Los Angeles Times (August 17, 2001) A8.]

[Request #S2340]

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NAFTA At Seven: Its Impact on Workers in All Three Nations. By the Economic Policy Institute. Briefing Paper. (The Institute, Washington, DC) April 2001. 29 p.

Full Text at:

["These reports, based in part on more comprehensive labor market surveys in all three countries, show that the impact on workers in each nation has been different according to their circumstances.... In the United States NAFTA has eliminated some 766,000 job opportunities.']

[Request #S2341]

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Trade Adjustment Assistance, Experiences of Six Trade-Impacted Communities. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-838. (The Office, Washington, DC) August 2001. 78 p.

Full Text at:

["Trade adjustment assistance programs provide federal assistance to dislocated workers, firms, and communities. Economic adjustment assistance programs are also available for distressed communities, regardless of what has caused the adverse economic condition."]

[Request #S2342]

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Potential Future Contribution of Air Traffic Management Technology to the Capacity of San Francisco International Airport. By William Cotton and others. Prepared for San Francisco International Airport and the San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission. (The Airport, San Francisco) August 2001. 64 p.

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["New high-tech airplane tracking systems could reduce maddening bad-weather delays at San Francisco International Airport, an independent panel announced. But the panel warned that the new technology is neither a quick fix nor a long-term solution to San Francisco International's notorious delays." San Francisco Chronicle (August 14, 2001) A11.]

[Request #S2343]

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"Does Cell Phone Conversation Impair Driving Performance?" IN: Injury Insights (August/September 2001)3p.

["Hands-free devices for cell phones do not appreciably reduce driver distraction, according to a study that suggests laws mandating the use of such devices may be ineffective. The study, conducted by University of Utah researchers, concluded distractions are caused by concentrating on the conversation, rather than dialing or holding the phone." Associated Press (August 17, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2344]

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Cecelio Lugtu et al., v. California Highway Patrol et al. Supreme Court of California. S088116. August 16, 2001.

["Court Allows CHP Suit To Proceed: Law enforcement officers have a legal duty to ensure the safety of motorists during traffic stops, the court ruled.... The court allowed a man and three children who were seriously injured during a speeding stop to seek compensation from the California Highway Patrol." Sacramento Bee (August 17, 2001) A5.]

[Request #S2346]

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[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]



The Unwanted Gaze: The Destruction of Privacy in America. By Jeffrey Rosen. (Random House, New York, New York) June 2001. 274 p.

["In 'The Unwanted Gaze,' Jeffrey Rosen tackles one of our most daunting problems: how to preserve privacy in a world where law and technology have conspired to make it increasingly difficult to shield our affairs from intrusion by others. In a culture of fleeting attention spans, Rosen observes, 'privacy is a form of opacity, and opacity has its values. We need more shades and more blinds and more virtual curtains.'" New York Times (July 2, 2001) 1. NOTE: The Unwanted Gaze ... will be available for 3-day loan. The work is copyrighted and the Bureau may not photocopy.]

[Request #S2347]

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Understanding Dropouts: Statistics, Strategies, and High-Stakes Testing. Edited by Alexandra Beatty and others, Committee on Educational Excellence and Testing Equity, National Research Council. (National Academy Press, Washington, DC) 2001. 66 p.

Full Text at:

["Debates about the effects of testing and other reforms have been significantly complicated by the lack of clarity in dropout statistics. Moreover, data on several important aspects of school completion are not currently collected. The committee has considered this situation and offers five recommendations regarding data collection.... We conclude that there is no substitute for reliable information about these issues."]

[Request #S2308]

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Superfund's Future: What Will It Cost? By Katherine N. Probst and David M. Konisky, Resources for the Future. (Resources for the Future, Washington, DC) July 2001. 328 p.

["(This report)... found that the EPA classified 48 of 99 Superfund sites as cleaned up despite its own evidence to the contrary. The report also warned that the cost of cleaning up Superfund sites won't drop significantly anytime soon." Sacramento Bee (July 10, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S2318]

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The Binational Farmworker Health Survey. By Rick Mines and others, California Institute for Rural Studies. (The Institute, Davis, California) 2001.

["This report provides new and vital information on how immigrant agricultural workers in the United States cope with the many healthcare challenges they face.... The investigation involved a detailed survey and extensive field observations among current and former U.S. farmworkers and health-care professionals in Mexico and the United States." Rural California Report (Summer 2001) 11.]

[Request #S2348]

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