Subject: Studies in the News 01-31


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Children and Family Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Disorder in urban neighborhoods
   Juvenile offenders' mental health needs
DEMOGRAPHY
   Births by county, 1970-2010
EDUCATION
   Promoting early education
   Early care and education issues
   States' kindergarten statutes
   Early Education Workforce
   Internet connections in schools
   Challenging failing schools
   Smaller, safer, saner schools
EMPLOYMENT
   Cost of raising a family
HEALTH
   Facts on teens, reproduction and health
   Both boys and girls enter puberty earlier
   Relationship between life satisfaction and violence
   Drug abuse treatment aiding teens
   Birth outcomes near landfill sites
   Folic acid impact on neural tube defects
   Children with special needs
   Dental care for children in Medicaid
   Antisocial behavior in young children
   Impact of community violence on children
   Parents' knowledge of Medicaid and SCHIP
   Serving children with special needs
   Incentives linked to Healthy Families
   Expansion of Healthy Families
   Inland Black infants at higher risk
   Indicators of infant health and care
   Caring for infants and children
   Teens and mental illness
   Preventing unintended pregnancy
   Births outside of marriage
HUMAN SERVICES
   Funding for state child care programs
   Listening to families
   Welfare reform and poverty
   Welfare reform and child welfare agencies
STUDIES TO COME
   Early learning in preschool classrooms
   Reducing children's exposure to inappropriate material
   Positive child care outcomes
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CRIME PREVENTION

Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods: Does It Lead To Crime? By Robert J. Sampson and Stephen W. Raudenbush, National Institute of Justice. Research in Brief. (The Institute, Washington, DC) February 2001. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.ncjrs.org/txtfiles1/nij/186049.txt

["Discussed in this Brief: The link between disorder and crime; specifically, whether manifestations of social and physical disorder, such as public drunkenness, graffiti, and broken windows, lead directly to more serious offenses. The study ... assesses the 'broken windows' thesis and its implications for crime control policy and practice."]

[Request #S2596]

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JUVENILE OFFENDERS

"Critical Challenges in Addressing The Mental Health Needs of Juvenile Offenders." By Daniel P. Mears, Justice Policy Center, Urban Institute. IN: The Justice Policy Journal: Analyzing Criminal and Juvenile Justice Issues and Policies, vol. 1, no. 2 (August 2001)[online].

Full Text at: www.cjcj.org/journal/vol1no1/mears

["The basic thrust of this paper is to argue for greater attention to comprehensive and systematic identification and treatment of the mental health need of youthful offenders. .... There is a need to enact legislation and programs that are well-designed and implemented and that draw on individualized, multiservice, and collaborative programming based on and guided by empirical assessment."]

[Request #S2597]

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DEMOGRAPHY

FERTILITY

Actual and Projected Births by County, 1970-2010, with Births by Age of Mother and Fertility Rates. By Nicola Standish and others, Demographic Research Unit, California State Department of Finance. (The Department, Sacramento, California) August 2001. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.dof.ca.gov/html/Demograp/01Births.htm

["This report presents calendar year births from 1970 through 2000 and projections to the year 2010 for California and 58 counties. The report also contains the corresponding historical and projected age-specific fertility rates, general fertility rates and total fertility rates for the state. These projections are updated annually and used in ... kindergarten through twelfth grade public school enrollment projections."]

[Request #S2598]

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EDUCATION

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Education for All Young Children: The Role of States and the Federal Government in Promoting Prekindergarten and Kindergarten. By Anne W. Mitchell, Foundation for Child Development. Working Paper Series. (The Foundation, New York, New York) April 2001. 31 p.

Full Text at: www.ffcd.org/mitchell.pdf

["Our first national education goal is for all young children to start school ready to achieve and succeed as learners.... Brain development research tells us that young children are learning from the earliest moments of life, and learning especially rapidly in their first five years.... All young children benefit from good preschool education, with disadvantaged children realizing greater gains." Electronic Policy Network (August 8, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2600]

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Early Care and Education Issues Rising to the Top: [Issue Theme.] State Education Leader. Vol. 19, No. 2 (Education Commission of the States, Denver, Colorado) Summer 2001. 16 p.

[Includes: "Financing Early Care and Education;" "Children Bridge the Digital Divide;" "Illinois' P-16 Partnership for Educational Excellence;" and "School Readiness Hard to Determine."]

[Request #S2601]

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State Statutes Regarding Kindergarten. Compiled by Jessica McMaken, Education Commission of the States. ECS State Notes. (The Commission, Denver, Colorado) August 2001. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/29/21/2921.htm

["[Listed for each state] Compulsory school age; Kindergarten Entrance Age; District Offering of Kindergarten; Pupil Attendance in Kindergarten (permissive or mandatory); Year Full Day Law Enacted; and Pupil Attendance in Full Day Kindergarten (permissive or mandatory)."

[Request #S2602]

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"The Child-Care and Preschool Workforce: Demographics, Earnings, and Unequal Distribution." By Bruce Fuller, University of California, Berkeley, and Annelie Strath, Stanford University. IN: Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, vol. 23, no. 1 (Spring, 2001) pp. 37-55.

["Working from a social ecology framework, this study aimed to learn more about local populations of early education organizations. This paper uses 1990 household census data aggregated to the zip-code level to report on features of the early education workforce nationwide.... We discuss the utility of 2000 census data to assess inequalities in the supply and quality of early education organizations and their staff, and modeling how economic and policy forces may shape organizational variability."]

[Request #S2604]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Connecting California’s Children: Is E-Rate Enough? By Julia Macias and others, Latino Issues Forum. (The Forum, San Francisco, California) July 2001. 32 p

Full Text at: www.lif.org/e_rate.pdf

["Research shows that children of low-income families are attending schools that still do not have updated or efficiently equipped technology in the classrooms.... This includes the lack of properly trained teachers, principals with no administrative support, inadequate funding for equipment, and poor communications or lack of involvement with the school district.... Though not the only problem, addressing the technological disparities in schools is a vital facet to improving learning and preparing children for the future."]

[Request #S2603]

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SCHOOL GOVERNANCE

"Challenging Failing Schools." By Norm Fruchter and others. IN: Shelterforce Online, (July/August 2001)[online].

Full Text at: www.nhi.org/online/issues/sf118.html

["Many groups choose to work from the inside, building relationships with staff in dysfunctional schools by providing various services.... Community-based organizations will face more such challenges as their involvement in school improvement campaigns grows. To succeed, they will need to learn from each other about the challenges they face, and the strategies that have worked."]

[Request #S2605]

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SCHOOL REFORM

Smaller, Safer, Saner, Successful Schools. By Joe Nathan and Karen Febey, Center for School Change, University of Minnesota. (The Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota) September 10, 2001. 68 p.

Full Text at: www.edfacilities.org/ir/ncefpubs/saneschools.pdf

["Schools Start Thinking Outside the Huge Box: The best ways for school districts to get their money's worth is to reduce the size of schools being built and share school facilities with other organizations, says a report.... Studies show that achievement is higher, graduation rates increase and discipline problems decline in smaller schools." USA Today (September 10, 2001) 7D.]

[Request #S2606]

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EMPLOYMENT

INCOME

Making Ends Meet: How Much Does It Cost to Raise A Family in California? By Kate Fisher and others, California Budget Project. (The Project, Sacramento, California) September 2001. 30 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/adobe/reports/r0109mem.pdf

["Middle Class Not So Well Off: Poverty Measure is Obsolete, Authors Say: Calling the national poverty line 'an obsolete measure that fails to take into account the reality of modern families' ... the report estimates that, on average, a California family of four ... needs a minimum of about $52,040 a year to cover basic costs." Sacramento Bee (September 24, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S2607]

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HEALTH

ADOLESCENCE

Facts at a Glance. By Child Trends. (Child Trends, Washington, DC) August 2001. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.childtrends.org/pdf/FAAG2001.pdf

[Includes "Teen Birth Rate;" "Birth Rates By Marital Status;" "International Teen Birth Rates;" "Teen Birth Rates By Race/Ethnicity;" "Smoking Among Teens;" "Teen Sexual Experience: Perception vs. Reality;" "Sexually Transmitted Infections Reported to CDC;" "Marriage Probability Among Unmarried Teens Who Become Pregnant;" and others.]

[Request #S2608]

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ADOLESCENTS

“Have the Onset and Tempo of Puberty Changed?” IN: Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 155 no. 9 (September 2001) pp. 988-989.

[“A new study suggests that boys in the United States, like girls, are entering puberty slightly earlier then previously thought, with African Americans the most likely to develop the first signs by age 10…. Potential reasons for earlier development include rising obesity rates, better nutrition, exposure to environmental chemicals that can mimic sex hormones and use of infant formula and other products containing soy, which also can mimic sex hormones.” Sacramento Bee (September 14, 2001) A7.]

[Request #S2505]

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"Relationship Between Life Satisfaction and Violent Behaviors among Adolescents." By Robert F. Valois and others. IN: American Journal of Health Behavior, vol. 25, no. 4 (July/August 2001) pp. 353-366.

["Researchers found that carrying a weapon; carrying a gun; carrying a weapon at school; physical fighting; physical fighting at school; physical fighting that required physician treatment; drinking and driving; riding with a drinking driver; having property stolen/damaged at school; feeling unsafe while at, going to or returning from school; and being injured/threatened with a weapon were associated with reduced life satisfaction.... Measures of life satisfaction as a component of comprehensive assessments of adolescent violence/aggression in fieldwork, research, and program-evaluation efforts should be considered."]

[Request #S2609]

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ALCOHOL & DRUG USE

"An Evaluation of Drug Treatment for Adolescents in Four U.S. Cities." By Dr. Yih-Ing Hser, University of California, Los Angeles. IN: Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 7 (July 2001) pp. 689-695.

Full Text at: www.archpsyc.ama-assn.org.

["The first large-scale study designed specifically to evaluate drug abuse treatment outcomes among adolescents found that community-based treatment programs can reduce drug and alcohol use, improve school performance, and lower involvement with the criminal justice system.... Weekly or more frequent marijuana use dropped from 80.4 percent to 43.8 percent. Heavy drinking dropped from 33.8 percent to 20.3 percent." NIH News (July 12, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2073]

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Underage Drinking: Information on Federal Funds Targeted at Prevention. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-503. (The Office, Washington, DC) May 2001. 30 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?rptno=GAO-01-503

["Our objectives were to identify the amount of appropriated fiscal year 2000 federal funds that addressed prevention of underage drinking, and fiscal year 2000 funded program activities that included media components to publicize the problem of underage drinking."]

[Request #S2610]

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BIRTH DEFECTS

"Does Exposure to Landfill Waste Harm the Fetus?" By R. McNamee and H. Dolk. And "Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes in Populations Living Near Landfill Sites." By Paul Elliott and others. IN: British Medical Journal, vol. 323, no. 8(August 18, 2001) pp. 351-352; 363-368.

["We found small excess risks of congenital anomalies and low and very low birth weight in populations living near landfill sites. No causal mechanisms are available to explain these findings, and alternative explanations include data artifacts and residual confounding. Further studies are needed to help differentiate between the various possibilities."]

[Request #S2611]

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"Impact of Folic Acid Fortification of the U.S. Food Supply on the Occurrence of Neural Tube Defects." By Margaret A. Honein and others. And "Food Fortification to Prevent Neural Tube Defects." By James L. Mills and Lucinda England. IN: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 285, no. 23 (June 20, 2001) pp. 2981-2986; 3022.

["Fortified Foods Credited With Birth-Defect Decline: Fortifying flour, rice, cornmeal, pasta and other enriched grain products with folic acid appears to be doing what it was designed to do: help prevent a class of devastating birth defects, including spina bifida.... Studies suggest that folic acid supplementation could prevent as many as 50 to 75 percent of such neural tube defects." Sacramento Bee (June 20, 2001) A8.]

[Request #S2612]

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CHILDREN

"Changing the Lives of Children With Special Needs Through Medicaid Managed Care." By Kamala D. Allen and Margaret L. Oehlmann. IN: Healthplan, vol. 42, no. 3 (2001) pp. 18-24.

["It is estimated that about 17 percent of low-income uninsured children who qualify for Medicaid have a special health care need.... Some health plans have developed comprehensive programs targeted to a specific group of children with special needs.... They have designed innovative programs that work.... That lesson to other health plans: It can be done."]

[Request #S2613]

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Dental Care for Children in Medicaid. By Shelly Gehshan, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 9, No. 39. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) October 2001. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/legis/lbriefs/LEGIS939.htm

["Despite the need for preventive and restorative dental care, many low income children do not receive it. Under federal law, state Medicaid agencies are required to provide dental service to all enrolled children under age 21.... Health officials and policymakers have been making presentations to state dental societies, advertising in their journals, and meeting with members to hear their concerns and recruit them to be Medicaid providers."}

[Request #S2614]

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"'I Got Some Swords and You're Dead!': Violent Fantasy, Antisocial Behavior, Friendship, and Moral Sensibility in Young Children." By Judy Dunn and Claire Hughes. IN: Child Development, vol. 72, no. 2 (March/April 2001) pp. 491-505.

["Relations between an early interest in violent fantasy and children's social understanding, antisocial and emotional behavior, and interactions with friends were investigated in 40 'hard-to-manage' preschoolers and 40 control children matched for gender, age, and school and ethnic background.... The evidence indicates that the focus on the themes of children's pretend play highlights a characteristic of children that is significant for their relationships with peers and for their later moral sensibility."]

[Request #S2615]

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"A Mediational Model for the Impact of Exposure to Community Violence on Early Child Behavior Problems." By L. Oriana Linares and others. IN: Child Development, vol. 72, no. 2 (March/April 2001) pp. 639-652.

["This study examined how maternal distress mediates the link between exposure to community violence and the development of early child behavior problems. Research was conducted among 160 children, 3 to 11 in age, who resided in high-crime neighborhoods.... This study highlights the importance of considering the maternal role when examining factors associated with exposure to community violence."]

[Request #S2616]

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How Familiar Are Low-Income Parents with Medicaid and SCHIP? And Why Aren't More Uninsured Children Enrolled in Medicaid or SCHIP? By Genevieve Kenney and others. Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies. Series B, Nos. B-34 and B-35. (The Institute, Washington, DC) May 2001. 14 p.

Full Text at: newfederalism.urban.org/

["For this brief, new questions on the 1999 National Survey of America's Families were used to assess the familiarity of low-income families with Medicaid and SCHIP programs.... This analysis shows that knowledge gaps constituted a primary barrier to enrolling a third of low-income uninsured children and that administrative hassles were a primary barrier to enrolling another 10 percent of low-income uninsured children."]

[Request #S2617]

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Are We Responding to Their Needs? States' Early Experiences Serving Children with Special Health Care Needs under SCHIP. By Ian Hill, Urban Institute, and others. Occasional Paper Number 48. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2001. 40 p.

Full Text at: newfederalism.urban.org/pdf/occa48.pdf

["Children with disabilities and chronic illnesses may make up 17 percent of low-income uninsured children.... Understanding the implications of this potentially high prevalence ... it is reasonable to ask how, or how well, SCHIP will respond to the needs.... This study begins to answer this question, based on a qualitative analysis of the implementation experiences of an 18-state sample."]

[Request #S2618]

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HEALTHY FAMILIES

How Will the Proposed Expansion of Healthy Families Change Work and Marriage Incentives for California Parents? By Sarah Staveteig, Urban Institute, and others. Prepared for the Medi-Cal Policy Institute. (The Institute, Oakland, California) September 2001. 18 p.

Full Text at: admin.chcf.org/documents/mcpi/UIbriefHFPWorkAndMarriageIncentives.pdf

["This paper explores one important aspect of the proposed expansion of Healthy Families: its effect on work and marriage incentives.... We briefly discuss the current Healthy Families program and its proposed expansion.... We analyze the effects of Healthy Families on work and marriage incentives for Californians of different income levels, family structures, and counties."]

[Request #S2619]

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Expansion of Healthy Families: Design Issues and Marginal Tax Rates. By Kenneth Finegold, Urban Institute, and others. Prepared for the Medi-Cal Policy Institute. (The Institute, Oakland, California) September 2001. 75 p.

Full Text at: admin.chcf.org/documents/mcpi/UIreportHFPWorkAndMarriageIncentives.PDF

["As currently designed, the combination of Healthy Families, Medi-Cal, and other social programs creates marginal tax rates suficiently high that more work can acutally yield fewer resources for some families.... Most of the prototypical low-income families we analyzed had the potential at some levels to become worse off financially."

[Request #S2620]

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INFANT MORTALITY

"Inland Losing Black Infants at Higher Rate: More Die in Their First Year Than Babies of Whites or Latinos. But, Experts Ask Why?" By Louis Rom and Ben Goad. IN: Press-Enterprise (August 5, 2001) A1+.

Full Text at: www.inlandempireonline.com/de/infantmortality/mort080501.shtml

["Black mothers in the inland area are twice as likely to bury their babies before their first birthdays as white mothers, and about three times as likely to do so as Latinas, according to a Press-Enterprise survey of California Department of Health Services statistics."]

[Request #S2621]

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INFANTS & CHILDREN

The Right Start: Conditions of Babies and Their Families Across the Nation and in America's Largest Cities. By Child Trends. Prepared for the Anne E. Casey Foundation. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) February 20, 2001. Various pagings.

[“By the end of the 1990s, Los Angeles showed significant declines in the number of babies born to high-school dropouts, and among mothers who lacked prenatal care, according to a report.... The report rated the well-being of the country's newborns by looking at seven key indicators of infant health and care.... Births among unmarried women dropped from 45.3% in 1990 to 40.1% in 1998, in contrast to an increase in the 50-city average. That figure increased from 40.8% to 43.3%." Los Angeles Times (February 20, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S1408]

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Caring for Infants and Toddlers: Issues and Ideas: Guide for Policy Makers. The Future of Children. (David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Los Altos, California) October 2001. 35 p.

Full Text at: www.futureofchildren.org/usr_doc/foc11%2D1g%2Epdf

["For many children, regular nonparental care begins during the first year of life.... Even with so many mothers working, many children live in poor families.... Welfare reform, with its strict work requirements, is spurring parents into the workforce."]

[Request #S2632]

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MENTAL HEALTH

"Teens and Mental Illness: [Series.]" By Steve Twedt. IN: Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (July 16-18) A1+.

Full Text at: www.post-gazette.com/headlines/20010715juvenilejp1.asp

[Includes: "Lack of Options Keeps Mentally Disturbed Youth Locked Up;" "Juvenile Justice and Mental Health: As Two Worlds Collide, Teens Suffer;" "Juvenile Justice Faces Growing Crisis: What Can We Do About the Girls?" and "Wrapping Troubled Teens in a Blanket of Support."]

[Request #S2622]

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PREGNANCY

Leveraging Youth Employment Systems to Prevent Unintended Pregnancy. By Marie Cohen, Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) May 2001. 77 p.

["The report is the first effort to identify whether youth employment programs around the country view unintended pregnancy as an issue for their programs and their clientele; to describe a handful of initiatives from different youth employment networks around the country; and to learn what actions youth employment programs believe would help in meeting the challenge of reducing unintended pregnancy."]

[Request #S2623]

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Births Outside of Marriage: Perceptions vs. Reality. By Elizabeth Terry-Humen and others. Child Trends Research Brief. (Trends, Washington, DC) April 2001. 8 p.

["The increase in child-bearing outside of marriage -- nonmarital childbearing - was even under way at least since the 1940s. Rates of nonmarital childbearing remain high, as have concerns about what this means for children, families, and the larger society. Indeed, the high rate of nonmarital childbearing is one of the factors that led to welfare reform."]

[Request #S2624]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

The Impact of TANF Funding on State Child Care Subsidy Programs. By Rachel Shumacher and others, Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 2001. 60 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/pubs/childcare/TANFChildCareFullReport.pdf

["A Mass of Newly Laid-Off Workers Will Put Social Safety Net to the Test: Many more job-seekers ... have expanded access to child care and transportation. State bureaucracies have gotten better at helping the poor find work.... In theory, if some people return to welfare, states should have the money to help them. States still get the same amount of federal welfare money as they did six years ago -- $16.5 billion a year -- though they serve fewer than half as many clients..... The largest amounts have gone for child care. " New York Times (October 8, 2001) A12.]

[Request #S2630]

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FAMILIES

Listening to Families: The Role of Values in Shaping Effective Social Policy. By Kathleen Sylvester, Social Policy Action Network. (The Network, Washington, DC) [2001.] 40 p.

Full Text at: www.span-online.org/listening_to_families.pdf

["On issues ranging from family and medical leave to health care and child care, advocates have begun to craft initiatives that acknowledge the responsibility of the family for supporting and nurturing children. In shaping these initiatives, advocates take care to respect the family's right to decide how to care for and educate their children -- especially in the early years."]

[Request #S2625]

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WELFARE REFORM

Welfare Reform and Poverty. Ron Haskins and Wendell Primus, Brooking Institution. (The Institution, Washington, DC) 2001. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/wrb/publications/pb/pb04.pdf

["Congress must reauthorize the 1996 welfare reform legislation by October 1, 2002, and child poverty is expected to be a major issue.... We address a number of policies aimed at reducing child poverty that we expect to dominate the reauthorization debate."]

[Request #S2631]

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Welfare Reform and Opportunities for Collaboration between Welfare and Child Welfare Agencies. By Jennifer Ehrle and others, Urban Institute. Occasional Paper No. 53. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 39 p.

Full Text at: newfederalism.urban.org/pdf/occa53.pdf

["The Institute conducted in-depth case studies in 12 states and many local sites in 1999 to assess collaboration between welfare and child welfare agencies. Researchers conducted semistructured in-person interviews with a broad range of welfare and child welfare stakeholders.... This report looked at three types of collaborative efforts: Casework practice; Program development and Organizational infrastructure."]

[Request #S2633]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

EDUCATION

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Preparing the Workers of Tomorrow: A Report on Early Learning. By the Child Care Action Campaign. (The Campaign, Washington, DC) 2001.

["Researchers have found that children's language skills can be improved through practices commonly found in quality child care and preschool classrooms. These practices help young children learn how to ask questions, request, get attention, describe, create extended narratives and explanations, and use conversation."]

[Request #S2637]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Nontechnical Strategies to Reduce Children's Exposure to Inappropriate Material on the Internet: Summary of a Workshop. By the National Research Council (National Academy Press, Washington, DC) 2001.

[Includes: "The Context of Strategy Development: The Needs of School and Parents;" "Creating a Framwork for Developing Effective Nontechnical Strategies;" "Nontechnical Strategies;" "Research, Policy, and Practice: Future Directions;" and others. NOTE: Nontechnical Strategies ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S2628]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

Getting to Positive Outcomes for Children in Child Care: A Summary of Two Workshops. By the National Research Council. (The Council, Washington, DC) 2001.

[Includes: "Steps Toward Developing Performance Measures;" "Involving Stakeholders;" "Cultural Diversity;" "Lessons Learned From Other Policy Domains;" "Head Start Performance Standards and Measures;: and others. NOTE: Getting to Positive Outcomes ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S2629]

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