Subject: Studies in the News 01-32


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

October 1851 - "Hawaiian stamps made their first appearance ... in October, 1851.A letter from Honolulu to the Eastern United States with United States postage cost 17¢, including the prepaid Hawaii rate of 5¢. A letter to a San Francisco resident cost 6¢ per letter and one to a resident of inland California cost 5¢ per half ounce. Problems applying these rates are apparent in the recorded covers and in contemporary reports, letters and newspaper accounts. For example, Honolulu Postmaster Henry Whitney was unfamiliar with the 6¢ rate to San Francisco until March, 1852. Other errors and misunderstandings contributed to a general confusion over the new rates."  www.hawaiianstamps.com  

October 1851 - "Mail Going to Hawaii: Owing to the absence of a contract mail route between Honolulu and San Francisco, it was necessary for an agent to retrieve Hawaii bound letters from the San Francisco post office. Where the letter was handled in the official mail, the letter was picked up by the appointed Hawaiian agent. However, private forwarders in San Francisco were also used to arrange for delivery of letters to an appropriate vessel..... Few letters to other Pacific destinations have survived. These letters were usually handled privately but one was entered in the official mail."  www.hawaiianstamps.com  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CALIFORNIA READER
   Growth-related issues in Orange County
CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Sobriety checkpoints
   Animal abuse and youth violence
   Sentencing guidelines
DEMOGRAPHY
   Child mortality declines
   One in three households raising children
   Retirement population will double by 2030
   More mothers saying at home
ECONOMY
   International agricultural exports
   Electricity deregulation in other states
   Port of Oakland expansion plans
   Median income of women and foreign-born rise
   Regional reports on economic conditions
   The New York City investment fund
   FERC decision on gas pipelines
EDUCATION
   Hispanics earning bachelor's degrees
   Strategic roles for higher education
   Reauthorization of ESEA
   College preparation tracks
   Colleges and sunshine laws
   Opposition to school vouchers
   Congressional earmarks for higher education
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   States addressing climate change
   Impact of genetic engineering on agriculture
   Chromium, arsenic and lead in bottled water
   Using water effecient plumbing products
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Assessing election reform progress
   Analysis of Congressional stimulus package
   House and Senate budget outlook
   Year-to-date revenues below expectations
   House stimulus package analysis
   States' fiscal problems
   States grapple with budget shortages
   Public opinion on reforming term limits
HEALTH
   Little Hoover report on children's mental health
   Genetic privacy laws
   Employer costs for health benefits surged
   National health measures
   Hospitals surpass drugs as cost drivers
   HMO report card
   School health policies
   Counting the uninsured
HOUSING
   Twice minimum wage needed to rent apartment
   Racial disparities in home ownership
   Affordable homeownership through innovative mortgages
HUMAN SERVICES
   Poverty rate forecast figures shakey
   Falling poverty rate
   Income support and social services
   Family cap policy reduces benefits
   Federal spending insufficient for WIC
INTERNATIONAL READER
   NAFTA and agriculture
   Overview and history of U.S. trade policy
   Free trade negotiations
   Globalization pros and cons
NATIONAL READER
   Legislative responses to homeland security
   Status of state preparedness
TRANSPORTATION
   Civilian use of El Toro Airport
   Driver history records
   New car fuel economy at 20-year low
WASHINGTON READER
   FY 2002 appropriations
STUDIES TO COME
   America's policy on illegal drugs
   Long gas lines in a few years
   Survey of states' e-government
   Consequences of uninsurance
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CALIFORNIA READER

"PPIC Statewide Survey: Special Survey of Orange County." By Mark Baldassare, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institue, San Francisco, California) September 2001. 27 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org//publications/CalSurvey22/survey22.pdf

["The Survey found that growth-related issues top the list of priorities cited by Orange County residents. Population growth and development (21%), the El Toro Airport controversy (14%), housing issues (13%), and traffic and transportation (12%) are mentioned most often. In a significant shift from last year, only 5 percent think crime, last year's top issue is the county's most important problem." Captiol Hill Bulletin (September 27, 2001) 4.]

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CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

DRUNK DRIVING

Status Report: Sobriety Checkpoints Work But They Aren't Used Often. By the Insurance Institute For Highway Safety. Vol. 36, No. 6. (The Institute, Washington, DC) June 30, 2001. 8 p.

["Thirty-seven states use sobriety checkpoints fo fight drunk driving, but fewer than a third of them do so routinely, according to a study. The study found that 11 states conducted checkpoints frequently, defined as at least once a week.... Twelve states said state laws barred them from setting up checkpoints, despite a U.S. Supreme Court ruling in 1990 that upheld the constitutionality of properly conducted check points." San Francisco Chronicle (August 30, 2001) A7.]

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JUVENILE JUSTICE

"Animal Abuse and Youth Violence." By Frank R. Ascione. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. IN: OJJDP Juvenile Justice Bulletin. September 2001. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/188677.pdf

["This Bulletin describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults.... Attention is focused on the prevalence of cruelty to animals by children and adolescents and to the role of animal abuse as a possible symptom of conduct disorder."]

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SENTENCING

Sentencing Guidelines: Reflections on the Future: Papers From the Executive Sessions on Sentencing and Corrections. By Robin L. Lubitz and Thomas W. Ross. Sentencing and Corrections: Issues for the 21st Century. No. 10. (National Institute of Justice, Washington, DC) June 2001. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/186480.pdf

["Through a series of Executive Sessions on Sentencing and Corrections ... practitioners and scholars foremost in their field, representing a broad cross-section of points of view, were brought together to find out if there is a better way to think about the purposes, functions, and interdependence of sentencing and corrections policies.... The papers are intended to distill their judgments about the strengths and weaknesses of current practices and about the most promising ideas for future developments."]

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DEMOGRAPHY

Deaths: Preliminary Data for 2000. By Arialdi M. Minino and others, Division of Vital Statistics, Centers for Disease Control. National Vital Statistics Reports. Vol. 49, No. 12. (The Centers, Washington DC) October 9, 2001. 40 p.

Full Text at: www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr49/nvsr49_12.pdf

["Life expectancy in the United States has climbed to an all-time high for nearly 77 years, while infant mortality has dropped to the lowest level on record, the government reported." Sacramento Bee (October 11, 2001) A8.]

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CENSUS 2000

Age: 2000: Census 2000 Brief. By the Census Bureau. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) October 2001. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-12.pdf

["While San Francisco boomed, it ended the decade with 4,100 fewer children under 18 than it had in 1990, passing Seattle to become the major American city least likely to have households with children, according to census data.... San Francisco is the only one of California's 10 largest school districts with a shrinking enrollment. Children live in fewer than one in five San Francisco households, compared with more than one in three households nationally, according to census data." New York Times (October 21, 2001) A24.]

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ELDERLY

The 65 Years and Over Population: 2000. Census 2000 Brief. By Lisa Hetzel and Annetta Smith. U.S. Census Bureau. (The Bureau, Washington, DC)October 2001. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-10.pdf

[“The U.S. Census Bureau projects the 65-and-older population will double to almost 70 million by 2030, and represent 20 percent of the nation's population then…. Census Bureau statistics show only about 4 percent of the 65-and-older population receive care in nursing homes -- many people's first image of old age. Most older people live at home or with family members -- and about 80 percent who need long-term care get it in their own homes or community settings and from family or friends. The remainder get something in between -- such as assisted-living or shared housing or other arrangements.” Ventura County Star (October 14, 2001) E1.]

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FERTILITY

Fertility of American Women: June 2000. By the U.S. Census Bureau. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) October 2001. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/p20-543.pdf

["For the first time since the U.S. Census began collecting such data in 1976, the labor force participation rate of mothers with infants up to a year old has dropped significantly, from a record high of 59 percent in 1998 to 55 percent in 2000, according to a census report." San Francisco Chronicle (Oct 18, 2001) A1.]

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ECONOMY

AGRICULTURE

California's Year 2000 International Agricultural Exports. By Nicolai V. Kuminoff and others, University of California Agricultural Issues Center. (The Center, Davis, California) September 2001. 6p.

Full Text at: aic.ucdavis.edu/pub/briefs/brief17.pdf

["Sales abroad rose 9 percent to $6.62 billion in 2000 from $6.06 billion the year earlier and marked a return to the export levels of 1998...Among the top 50 exports by value, more than half showed year-to-year gains, but the rebound was largely a result of dramatically improved performances by two of the state's highest valued export crops - cotton and oranges...In general, only 16 percent of California's agricultural products are sent abroad." Sacramento Bee (October 19, 2001) D2]

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ELECTRIC INDUSTRY

Electricity Deregulation Deadline Nears In Some States. By Greg McDonald, Stateline.org., Pew Center on the States. (The Center, Washington, DC) 1 p.

Full Text at: www1.stateline.org/print_story.do?storyId=202919

["As of now, 24 states have either completed deregulation or are moving ahead cautiously with their efforts.... January marks the deadline for opening up electric competition in New York, Texas and Virginia. Illinois is slated to provide all electric customers with freedom of choice by May and Maryland is expected to complete deregulation of all shareholder-owned utilities by July of 2002."]

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NORTHERN CALIFORNIA

Port of Oakland: Despite Its Overall Financial Success, Recent Events May Hamper Expansion Plans That Would Likely Benefit the Port and the Public. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits. 2001-107. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) October 2001. 63 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2001107.pdf

["Overall, the Port effectively managed it assets, and its $1.7 billion capital improvement program should benefit the public and allow it to remain competitive.... A new internal review determined that it had significantly underestimated the cost of the expansion, a problem that could be compounded by a recent court decision ordering it to prepare a new supplemental environmental impact report before beginning contruction on affected capital improvement projects."]

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PERSONAL INCOME

Money Income in the United States: 2000. By theU.S. Census Bureau. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) September 2001. 26 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/p60-213.pdf

[" Nation's Household Income Stable in 2000: Family households maintained by women with no husband present experienced a 4.0 percent increase in real income between 1999 and 2000, to $28,116.... The median income of foreign-born households with a householder who was not a U.S. citizen increased by 9.8 percent in real terms between 1999 and 2000 to $35,413..... The data are from the annual income supplement to the Current Population Survey and are not from Census 2000." M2 Presswire (September 25, 2001) 1.]

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U.S. ECONOMY

Summary of Commentary on Current Economic Conditions by Federal Reserve District. By the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. (Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC) October 24, 2001.

Full Text at: www.federalreserve.gov/FOMC/BeigeBook/2001/20011024/FullReport.htm

["Business activity nose-dived in the immediate aftermath of the attacks and has not fully rebounded since, the Fed said in its report card on regional economic conditions issued once every six weeks...The report, known as the Beige Book, is based on surveys of businesses conducted by the Fed's 12 regional banks. It is a compilation of anecdotes and impressions gathered across the country and doesn't calculate whether the economy is actually growing or shrinking. But the report's findings are consistent with the view of most economists." San Francisco Chronicle (October 25, 2001) D1]

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URBAN AREAS

The New York City Investment Fund: An Emerging Model for Corporate Engagement in Urban Development. By Peter Plastrik and Kathryn Wylde, New York Center Investment Fund. Prepared for the Brookings Intitution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy and Harvard University Joint Center for Housing Studies. Capital Xchange. (The Institution, Washington, DC) October 2001. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/es/urban/capitalxchange/article7.htm

["In this article, we look closely at the Fund's network development and the way the Fund has addressed commercial and social bottom-lines; developed large scale sectoral investment strategies; and linked investment approaches to public policy development.... We also discuss lessons learned from establishing and implementing the Fund."]

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UTILITIES

Public Utilities Commisssion of the State of California v. El Paso Natural Gas Co.,et al. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. RP00-241-000. October 9, 2001. 42p.

Full Text at: www.ferc.fed.us/electric/bulkpower/IDRP00-241.pdf

["There's no proof that a Texas energy company unfairly drove up natural gas prices in California, but two subsidiaries did improperly share information to control a lucrative pipeline, a regulatory judge concluded. The judge urged the five-member Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to dismiss complaints by California utilities and regulators that El Paso Corp. used its 'market power' to manipulate prices." Sacramento Bee (October 10, 2001) A3.

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EDUCATION

HIGHER EDUCATION

Goal To Double the Rate of Hispanics Earning a Bachelor's Degree. By Georges Vernez and Lee Mizell. Prepared for the Hispanic Scholarship Fund. Rand. (Rand, Santa Monica, California) 2001 48 p.

["The low average level of education of Hispanics has implications for the economy. In 2000, one of every five new entrants into the workforce was Hispanic - and that number is growing. Recognizing the risks posed by these trends, the Hispanic Scholarship Fund set the goal of doubling the rate at which Hispanics earn a bachelor's degree.... The study found that a combination of strategies focusing on all levels of education could double the college graduation rates of Hispanics and that the benefits of achieving this goal would far outweigh the cost of accommodating the increase in school and college enrollment."]

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Where We Go From Here: State Legislative Views On Higher Education In The New Millenium: Results of the 2001 Higher Education Issues Survey. By Sandra Rupert, Educational Systems Research. (The Systems, Litteton, Colorado) [2001.} 56 p.; Appendices.

["When asked to identify their state's most important strategic needs ... state legislators framed their responses in terms of the state's economic development interests and emphasized that higher education must contribute directly to these efforts. Legislators highlighted three key roles for higher education: strengthen and diversify the economy; prepare and train a high-skill, high-wage workforce; [and] raise the level of educational attainment of the state's population."]

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K-12 EDUCATION

NCSL Letter to Congressional Conferees Regarding the Re-Authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. By the Education, Labor and Workforce Development Committee, National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) September 26, 2001. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/statefed/ESEA.htm

["State Legislators List 9 Objections to Bill's Key Issues: The National Conference of State Legislatures has issued a stinging letter criticizing central aspects of President Bush's education plan as 'seriously and perhaps irreparably flawed.'... The conference's primary allegation is that the federal government is usurping state authority over education." Pittsburgh Post Gazette (October 2, 2001) A4.]

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Raising Our Sights: No High School Senior Left Behind. By the National Commission on the High School Senior Year (The Commission, Washington, DC) October 2001. 56 p.

Full Text at: www.commissiononthesenioryear.org/Report/FINAL_PDF_REPORT.pdf

["While 70 percent of today's high-school graduates go on to enroll in some form of postsecondary education, only half of those who enroll at four-year institutions leave with a degree.... Although 90 percent of freshmen say they expect to complete college, the study's authors say that only 44 percent have taken a college-preparatory curriculum in high school that positions them successfully to do so." The Chronicle of Higher Education (October 5, 2001)]

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SCHOOL BOARDS

"Public Colleges and News Media Increasingly Clash over Sunshine-Law Issues." By Peter Schmidt. IN: Chronicle of Higher Education (October 5, 2001) 5 p.

Full Text at: chronicle.com/free/v48/i06/06a02101.htm

["Lawsuits alleging violations of state freedom-of information acts are pending against public colleges, or public college foundations in four states.... Many public-college officials ... contend that they welcome public strutiny but simply cannot offer access to certain records without significantly harming, their intitution's interests.... Most are seeking to block access to specific types of information: the identities of donors to colleges; details of proprietary research; and access to student records.... In many cases, their arguments are winning over state legislatures and courts."]

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SCHOOL CHOICE

False Choices: Vouchers, Public Schools, and Our Children's Future. By Priscilla Pardini and others, Rethinking Schools (Rethinking Schools Online, Milwaukee, Wisconsin) September, 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.rethinkingschools.org/SpecPub/voucher.htm

[Includes: "Why Vouchers Aren't Just Being Pushed for Low-Income Families," "Vouchers: Church/State Complexities," "A Visit to a Religious Elementary School," "Vouchers and Public Accountability," "Edison Loses Millions -- Again," and others.]

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SCHOOL FINANCE

"How the States Rank in Pork for Higher Education."By Jeffrey Brainard and others. IN: The Chronicle of Higher Education, (August 10, 2001) [online].

[Includes: "A Record Year at the Federal Trough: Colleges" "Feast on $1.67-Billion in Earmarks: Budget Surplus Feeds Congress' Pork-Barrel Spending, Intensifying Criticism;" "Separating Fact From Myth About Pork-Barrel Spending and Academe;" "How the States Rank in Pork for Higher Education;" "Top Sponsors of Pork in the Education Deparment;" and "Earmarks That Make You Scratch Your Head."]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

CLIMATE CHANGE

Climate Change: A Strategy for The Future. By Eileen Claussen, President, Pew Center on Global Climate Change. Presented at the Honors Colloquium on a Just and Sustainable Future, University of Rhode Island. (The Author, Arlington, Virginia) September 25, 2001. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.pewclimate.org/media/transcript_09262001.doc

["Our goal must be to facilitate the arrival of a second industrial revolution. And this means doing all we can to accelerate the development of new technologies that will move us closer to a low-carbon world economy.... We are also beginning to see real movement on this issue from a number of states.... Many states are experimenting and beginning to implement different approaches to addressing the climate change issue."]

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GENETIC ENGINEERING

California at the Crossroads: The Impacts of Genetic Engineering on California'a Agriculture. By Doreen Stabinsky. (Greenpeace, Washington, DC) 2000. 19 p.; Appendices.

["Genetic Crops Present Risks; Environmentalists Say The Process Threatens Markets For Exports: California's multibillion-dollar export market could sour if the state's farmers turn to the controversial use of genetically engineered crops.... The Greenpeace report has identified continuing genetic research involving five crops: lettuce, rice, strawberries, walnuts and tomatoes. Combined those crops represent $1 billion in export sales." Fresno Bee (October 6, 2001) C1.]

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WATER QUALITY

Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update: Executive Summary. By the Board on Envirinomental Studies and Toxicology, National Research Courncil. (National Academ7y Press, Washington, DC) September 2001. 11 p.

Full Text at: books.nap.edu/html/arsenic/summary.pdf

["Variability and uncertainty should be considered in an arsenic risk assessment. Differences in the exposures of indivicuals and populations and differences in responses to a given exposure result in variability in a response.... There are no reliable data that indicate heightened susceptibility of children to arsenic."]

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WATER RESOURCES

Impact of the National Plumbing Efficiency Standards on Water Infrastructure Investments. By Lisa A. Maddaus, California Urban Water Conservation Council, and others. (The Council, Sacramento, California) 2001 29 p.

["U.S. consumers could save as much as $35 billion in water costs by using water-efficient home plumbing products, according to a report.... According to the survey the use of more efficient plumbing fixtures would reduce the amount of water used by a total of 3.5 billion gallons per day." Water Technology Online (September 19, 2001) 1.]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

ELECTION REFORM

What’s Changed, What Hasn’t, and Why: Election Reform Since November 2000. By the Election Reform Information Project (The Project, Washington, DC) October 22, 2001. 35 p.

Full Text at: www.electionline.org/site/docs/pdf/electionline.report.10.22.2001.pdf

[“A survey of election reform in the states, courts and Congress has found while the drive for election reform continues, any real consensus of how to repair voting has yet to form. The report found a groundswell for reform still exists, though the accomplishments so far have not met the calls change…. Despite the actions by legislatures, momentum for election reform has clearly dissipated since the early days of the Bush presidency, but not because of lack of interest, the report notes.”]

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FEDERAL BUDGET

Description of the "Economic Security and Recovery Act of 2001." By the Staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation. (The Committee, Washington, DC) October 11, 2001. 46 p.

Full Text at: www.house.gov/jct/x-69-01.pdf

["House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Bill Thomas began the process of marking up The Economic Security and Recovery Act Of 2001. According to a summary, the chairman's mark-up would provide a $99.5 billion stimulus in 2002 for a total ten-year cost of less than $160 billion...Meanwhile, GOP sources indicate there will be an expedited track for the committee's bills." The White House Bulletin (Ocober 12, 2001) 1.]

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Revised Budgetary Outlook and Principles for Economic Stimulus. By U.S. Senate Budget Cmmitte and U. S. House Budget Committee. (The Committees, Washington, DC) October 4, 2001. 6p.

["Key Democratic and Republican members of the House and Senate budget committees came together to explain the bleak budget outlook.They indicated that the projected surplus for 2002 has dropped to $ 52 billion from an August estimate of $ 176 billion. The projected losses include: $ 76 billion from a weakened economy since the Sept. 11 attacks; $ 31 billion not to be collected as a result Bush's 10-year, $ 1.3 trillion tax cut plan Congress approved earlier this year; and $ 21 billion in additional spending mainly for defense and education programs." Houston Chronicle (October 5, 2001) A1]

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STATE BUDGET

Finance Bulletin. By the California Department of Finance. (The Department, Sacramento, CA) September - October 2001. 3 p.

["International economic weakness is now noticeably affecting California exports. Shipments of California-made goods to other countries in the second quarter 2001 fell 6.6 percent below the comparable 2000 figure. Personel income tax revenues were $185 million below the month's forecast of $2.388 billion.... Year-to-date, revenues are $142 million below expectations."]

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STATE BUDGETS

House Stimulus Package Would Worsen State Fiscal Conditions By Causing States to Lose $5 Billion a Year in Revenue for the Next Three Years. And Ways & Means Package Departs from Bipartisan Principles for Effective Stimulus and Offers Little Help to the Unemployed. By the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) October 22, 2001. 22 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/10-18-01sfp2.pdf

["The report finds that while the legislation provides very generous tax-cut benefits to corporations and higher-income individuals, it would provide no assistance to a significant majority of unemployed workers. The analysis also finds that a number of the tax reductions in the bill would be relatively ineffective as stimulus measures and would pose risks to long-term fiscal discipline." U.S. Newswire (October 16, 2001) 1.]

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State Fiscal Problems Could Weaken Federal Stimulus Efforts: Low-Income Households Likely to be Hardest Hit by State Fiscal Actions. By Iris J. Luv. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) October 4, 2001. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/10-4-01sfp.pdf

[“More than a dozen states have little or no money for extra welfare benefits in case of recession, and the federal program designed to back them up expired over the weekend. Such is the condition of America's social safety net …. "Much of the country isn't ready to weather a downturn," said Jeffrey B. Wenger, an economist with the Economic Policy Institute… Problems range across the spectrum of government programs Americans have come to rely on during economic bad times, such as unemployment insurance, welfare, food stamps and Medicaid. As a result, millions could find their benefits harder to obtain and less generous while state and federal governments scramble to find money to fill in the gaps in these programs.” Los Angeles Times (October 1, 2001) A1.]

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TAXATION

State Budget & Tax Actions 2001: Preliminary Report: Executive Summary. By Corina Exkl and Arturo Perez. NCSL News (National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, Colorado) August 1, 2001. 15 p.

["Seventeen states grapple with budget shortfalls arising in fiscal year. The slowing economy also forced 20 states to take extraordinary actions to enact balanced budgets for FY 2002."]

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TERM LIMITS

Even Though Voters Continue to Favor the Idea of Term Limits, They May Be Ready to Amend the Present Law. By The Field Institute. Release No. 2013. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) October 2, 2001. 4 p.

["Media reports indicate that a statewide initiative is likely to qualify for the March 2002 primary election ballot that would allow state legislators to run additional terms under certain conditions.... 50% of the voters statewide are inclined to vote Yes on this initiative, while 44% are opposed.... A two-to-one majority of voters (62% to 33%) remains supportive of the basic idea of term limits, with support spanning majorities of voters in each party and across political ideologies."]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

Young Hearts & Minds: Making a Commitment to Children's Mental Health. By Little Hoover Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) October 2001. 144p.

Full Text at: www.lhc.ca.gov/lhcdir/report161.html

["California is failing dismally at providing mental health services to disturbed children and youths, many of whom end up dropping out of school and crowding jails and mental hospitals, a state oversight panel said in a report...The report described a system in disarray, an expensive patchwork of social, health and educational services that frequently overlap and present a bewildering maze to families in need of help...The report also faulted the state for restricting families that earn higher wages from getting publicly funded mental health services." Los Angeles Times (October 18, 2001) B8.]

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GENETICS

The Promise of Genetic Discovery. By Alissa Johnson, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 9, No. 42. 2 p.

["Existing protections such as anti-discrimination, genetic privacy and human subjects laws set forth at the state, federal and international level will influence the future of genomic science. Armed with a basic understanding of the possibilities of genetic technologies, legislators can move beyond the necessary step of addressing the risks to promoting the benefits for public health.... Policymakers can expect the incorporation of new genetic technologies into community health programs across the country in the near future."]

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HEALTH INSURANCE

Employer Health Benefits: 2001 Annual Survey. By Henery J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (The Foundation, Menlo Park, California) And Health Research And Educational Trust. (The Trust, Chicago, Illinois) 2001. 164 p.

Full Text at: www.kff.org/content/2001/3138/EHB2001_fullrpt.pdf

[“Employer costs for providing health benefits surged 11% this year, the first time since 1992 that the inflation broke into double-digits and a sure sign that consumers would soon pay more for medical coverage…. Pharmaceutical expenses are the driving force behind the outburst of health care inflation as people are using more prescriptions and the drugs themselves cost more, according to the authoritative report…. The Kaiser report is particularly significant because it provides documentation based on a large scientific survey of businesses.” Los Angeles Times ( September 7, 2001) A1.]

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HEALTH STATISTICS

Early Release of Selected Estimates from the 2000 and Early 2001 National Health Interview Survey. By the Centers for Disease Control. (The Centers, Atlanta, Georgia) September 20, 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/nhis/earlyrelease2000.htm

["In this release, NCHS provides estimates of 11 selected health measures. Of these, four are new: lack of health insurance coverage, pneumococcal vaccination, obesity, and participation in leisure time physical activities.... The seven updated measures are: a usual place to go for medical care, failure to obtain needed medical care, influenza vaccination, current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, HIV testing, and respondent-assessed health status."]

[Request #S2681]

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HOSPITAL COSTS

"Tracking Health Care Costs: Hospitals Surpass Drugs as Key Cost Drivers." IN: Data Bulletin Results from HSC Research, no. 21 (Septmeber 2001) pp. 1-2.

Full Text at: www.hschange.org/CONTENT/372/372.pdf

["Spending for hospital services fueled more of last year's 7.2 percent increase in health-care inflation than prescription drugs did, according to a study released last week by the nonprofit Center for Studying Health System Change. The increase, the biggest in a decade, is prompting employers who provide health coverage to shift more of the cost to their workers and is pressuring insurers to rein in costs." Orange County Register (October 3, 2001) 1.

[Request #S2682]

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MANAGED HEALTH CARE

California HMO Report Card. By the Office of the Patient Advocate and the Department of Managed Health Care. (The Office, Los Angeles, California) September 24, 2001. Various Pagings.

Full Text at: www.hmohelp.ca.gov/

["The survey ... rates HMOs on a variety of services. The state HMOs generally scored high on doctor-patient communication, the 'report card' found, but they didn't do as well when it came to such services as managing a life-long illness like diabetes or heart disease." San Francisco Chronicle (September 24, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2683]

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SCHOOLS

School Health Policies and Programs Study: A Summary Report. IN: Journal of School Health, vol. 71, no. 7 (September 2001). pp. 249-349.

[Includes: "Overview and Summary of Findings: School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000," "Health Education...," "Physical Education and Activity...," "Health Services...," "Mental Health and Social Services...," "Food Service and Foods and Beverages Available at School...," "School Policy and Environment...," "Faculty and Staff Health Promotion...," "Family and Community Involvement in Schools...," and others.]

[Request #S2684]

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UNINSURED POPULATION

Counting the Uninsured: A Guide for the Perplexed. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. By the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 21,2001. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/9-21-01health.pdf

["This year, the health insurance estimates will differ from those released in prior years because the Census Bureau has changed the way that it determines insurance status. The number of uninsured people will be lower than what was reported in earlier years, but most of the difference will be due to changes in survey methods, not because of actual changes in the number of people who lack health insurance. The change may, however, cause some initial confusion."]

[Request #S2685]

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HOUSING

COMMUNITY PLANNNING

Out of Reach: America's Growing Wage-Rent Disparity. By National Low Income Housing Coalition/LIHIS. (The Coalition, Washington, DC) 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.nlihc.org/oor2001/table5.htm

["The study ... found that families ... must earn $13.21 an hour, or more than twice the minimum wage, to afford a typical two-bedroom apartment. In the last year the income a renter needs to afford a two-bedroom home ... increased by $1.30 an hour or 11 percent. This is more than three times the rate of inflation, the study found." Associated Press State & Local Wire (October 15, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2686]

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HOME OWNERSHIP

The Great Divide: An Analysis of Racial and Economic Disparities in Home Purchase Mortgage Lending Nationally and in Sixty Metropolitan Areas. By XX. (XX,XX,XX) XX. 5 p.

Full Text at: http://www.acorn.org/acorn10/communityreinvestment/reports/maintext.pdf

["In 2000, 74 percent of white families owned their won homes, compared to only 48 percent of African-Americans and 46 percent of Latinos.... The prevalence in minority communities of subprime refinance lending whith its inflated prices and attendant predatory abuses, puts an increased number of homeowners at risk of losing their homes."]

[Request #S2687]

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REAL ESTATE LOANS

The Potential and Limitations of Mortgage Innovation in Fostering Homeownership in the United States. By David Listokin and others, Rutgers University. IN: Housing Policy Debate, vol. 12, no. 3 (2001). pp. 465-513.

Full Text at: fanniemaefoundation.org/news/listokin.pdf

[“This article presents an empirical analysis of mortgage innovation as a vehicle to enable renters, especially from underserved populations, to realize homeownership…. Compared with historical mortgages, today’s more innovative loans increase the number of renters who could hypothetically qualify for homeownership by at least a million and expand the potential home-buying capacity of $300 billion.”]

[Request #S2688]

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HUMAN SERVICES

POVERTY

Poverty Rates Fell in 2000 as Unemployment Reached 31-Year Low; Upturn in Unemployment Combined with Weaknesses in Safety Net Raise Red Flags for 2001. By the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 2001. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/9-25-01pov.pdf

["Poverty Rate Falls to 11.3%, but Trouble Looms: The percentage of Americans living in poverty fell to 11.3% last year as the benefits of a growing economy brought new wealth to most U.S. regions.... 'While 2000 was a banner year for reducing poverty, it's likely to be the high-water mark for a while,' cautioned Robert Greenstein, executive director of the center. 'Forecasters believe we're in a recession, and poverty always rises in recessions.'" Los Angeles Times (September 26, 2001) A25.]

[Request #S2689]

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Poverty in the United States: 2000. By the U.S. Census Bureau. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) October 2001. 34 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/p60-214.pdf

["Fewer in the U.S. Living in Poverty, Data Shows: A falling poverty rate last year set a 27-year low, 11.3 percent, while median household income held steady at a record level of $42,148, the government said. Gains were particularly strong among African American and Hispanic households, the Census Bureau numbers show." Sacramento Bee (September 26, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S2690]

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WELFARE REFORM

Recent Changes in Washington Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. By Terri S. Thompson and others, The Urban Institute. State Update No. 6 (The Institute, Washington, DC) August 2001. 19 p.

Full Text at: newfederalism.urban.org/pdf/WA_update.pdf

["This report begins with a short profile of Washington's demographic, economic, and political conditions. A brief overview of the income support and social services systems within the state, including highlights of recent changes, caseload statistics, and organization of services, is discussed.... The report concludes with a summary of some of the key features of the state's welfare reform efforts and its child care system."]

[Request #S2691]

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Welfare Reform: More Research Needed on TANF Family Caps and Other Policies for Reducing Out-of-Wedlock Births. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-01-924. (The Office, Washington, DC) September 11, 2001. x p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?gao-01-924

["One factor that determines the amount of cash benefits a family receives is the family's size- larger families receive more benefits. In states with a family cap policy, however, no additional cash benefits are provided when the birth of a child increases the size of the family.... About 9 percent of TANF families in these states had their benefits affected by the family cap."]

[Request #S2718]

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WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN PROGRAM

Analysis of How Many Eligible Women, Infants, and Children will be Turned Away from the WIC Program in Each State Under the House and Senate Agricultural Appropriations Bills. By Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 2001. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/10-4-01bud.pdf

["The center issued a report suggesting that as many as 345,000 people who meet income eligibility standards for the program will be denied benefits if the House version of a federal spending bill is adopted. If the more generous Senate version is adopted, the center said, about 160,000 people will be denied benefits." Times-Picayune (October 7, 2001) A6.]

[Request #S2693]

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INTERNATIONAL READER

Down on the Farm: NAFTA's Seven-Years War on Farmers and Ranchers in the U.S., Canada and Mexico: Dwindling Incomes for Small Farmers in the U.S., Mexico and Canada, Lost Farms and Rural Crisis is NAFTA's Legacy. By Public Citizen's Global Trade Watch. (Global Trade Watch, Washington, DC) June 2001. 58 p.

Full Text at: www.citizen.org/documents/ACFF2.PDF

["Under the North American Free Trade Agreement, farmers have been battered....Since NAFTA went into effect, the rate of elimination of small U.S. farms has been six times greater than in the preceding five-year period. U.S. farm income is projected to decline to $41.3 billion this year, compared to annual farm income of $59 billion before NAFTA.... Instead of reaping trade advantages with Mexico and Canada under seven years of NAFTA, the U.S. agriculture trade balance with the NAFTA countries declined more rapidly - 71 percent - than the global trade balance, which suffered a 29.6 decline." Wisconsin State Journal (July 8, 2001) B2]

[Request #S2694]

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U.S. Trade Policy: Balancing Economic Dreams and Political Realities. By John M. Rothgeb, Miami University (CQ Press, Washington, DC) 2001. 278 p.

["This book examines the evolutionary process that brought the United States from a society where most people viewed trade with suspicion to a society that embraces foreign products and has assumed the role of an international leader in developing new rules and institutions to promote and regulate trade." Includes: "From Neutrality to the GATT;" "Cold War Trade;" "Oil and Turmoil;" "From the Cold Wat to the WTO and NAFTA;" and others. NOTE: U.S. Trade Policy ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S2695]

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Free Trade Area of the Americas: Negotiators Move Toward Agreement That Will Have Benefits, Costs to U.S. Economy. United States General Accounting Office. GAO-01-1027 (The Office, Washington, DC)September 2001. 137 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d011027.pdf

["Negotiating groups have reached agreemnt on basic priniciples but disagree on key details. For example, there appears to be wide agreement about the key steps in the FTAA dispute settlement process, but differences remain regarding how to handle compliance and whether to allow appeals. Two crosscutting themes - smaller economics and civil society - have proven controversial.... The United States could benefit substantially from commitments from other FTAA countries to liberalize services and strenghen protection of investment.... On the other hand, certain protected U.S. sectors,... may face increased import competition and declining production if barriers were lowered.

[Request #S2696]

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Globalization: An Examination of the Pros and Cons. By Paige Brown and Bill Schweke, Corporation for Enterprise Development. (The Corporation, Washington, DC) 2001. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.cfed.org/sustainable_economies/globalization/Reports/Globalization;_An_Examination_of_the_Pros_&_Cons.html

["This paper presents the basic arguments for Free Trade (more globalization) and Fair Trade (more restricted or regulated globalization). The paper will ... summarize the primary arguments for more liberalized trade and investment versus more fair or regulated trade and investment, examine unresolved issues and tradeoffs, and offer a perspective on balancing among the tradeoffs."]

[Request #S2697]

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NATIONAL READER

NATIONAL READER

Legislative Response to Homeland Security and Counter-Terrorism: Bibliography. Compiled By Michael Pujals, California Research Bureau, California State Library. (CRB, Sacramento, California) October 2001. 5 p.

[Includes: "USA PATRIOT ACT as signed by President George W. Bush;" "House Analysis of PATRIOT Anti-Terrorism Bill;" "Homeland Defense: Exploring the Hart-Rudman Report;" "Road Map for National Security: Imperative for Change;" "State and Federal Legislation Addressing Terrorism;" and others.]

[Request #S2590]

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Public Hearing on Disaster Preparedness: Testimonies. Presented to the Little Hoover Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) October 25, 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.lhc.ca.gov/lhcdir/Oct01.html

[Includes: Bill Lockyer, Attorney General, State of California; William T. Sams, Chief, and Michael Grossman, Captain, Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department; Dallas Jones, Director, Governor's Office of Emergency Services; K. Jack Riley, Director of RAND Criminal Justice; Dr. Steven J. Rottman, Director, UCLA Center for Public Health and Disasters; Frances Edwards-Winslow, Director of Emergency Preparedness, City of San Jose Michael J. Amado, Director, Emergency Services, American Red Cross, San Gabriel Valley Chapter; Dr. Angelo Salvucci, Medical Director, Santa Barbara County Emergency Medical Services Agency; and Jerry Davies, Director of Communications, Personal Insurance Federation.]

[Request #S2699]

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TRANSPORTATION

AIRPORTS

Proposed Civil Aviation Reuse of Marine Corps Air Station El Toro, Orange County California. By the Western-Pacific Region, Federal Aviation Administration. (The Administration, Hawthorn, California) August 29, 2001. 29 p.

Full Text at: www.awp.faa.gov/eltoroairspace.pdf

["Orange County's proposed airport at El Toro could be operated safely -- but it would also create flight delays and inefficiencies across Southern California's already crowded skies, according to the Federal Aviation Administration... Both sides of the El Toro debate said the report bolsters their arguments."] Los Angeles Times (October 10, 2001) B1.]

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DRIVERS

Driver History Records: Diversion and Deferral Programs. By Irene Kawanabe, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) Vol. 9, No. 40. October 2001. 2 p.

["Each year in the United State, more than 6 million motor vehicle crashes injure more than 2 million people, killing more than 40,000 and cause billions of dollar in property damages.... Statutes in 33 states specifically authorize diversion, deferral, masking, probation, or point or conviction removal for traffic offenders.... Statewide standards would bring greater consistency and contribute to ensuring more accurate driver records."]

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FUEL CONSUMPTION

Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2001: Executive Summanry. By Advanced Technology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (The Agency, Ann Arbor, Michigan) September 2001. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.epa.gov/otaq/cert/mpg/fetrends/s01001.pdf

["In its latest fuel economy trends report, the EPA said that the average fuel use of new passenger vehicles - both sedans and light trucks including SUVs and vans -- has declined 1.9 miles per gallon since 1988 and is at the lowest level since 1980.... While automakers over the years have developed more efficient technologies that could reduce fuel consumption, these technologies instead have largely been used 'to increase light vehicle weight and acceleration' rather than fuel savings, the report said." The Record (October 5, 2001) F1.]

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WASHINGTON READER

California Capitol Hill Bulletin. By the California Institute for Federal Policy Research. Volume 8, Bulletin 29-32, (The Institute, Washington, DC) October 4-25, 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.calinst.org/bulletins/bull832.pdf

[Includes: "FERC Postpones Market-Power Action;" "Delegation Sends FEMA Letter;" "Matsui and Doolittle Circulating United Airlines Letter;" "Senate Banking Examines Trade Promotion;" "Deal Reached to Restore So Cal Edison's Financial Health; Judge's Ruling;" "U.S. Conference of Mayors Weighs In On Airport Security Legislation; Hahn Chairs Task Force;" "California Home Sales Declined in September, Prices Steady;" and others.]

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Appropriations and California Implications: Senate Commerce-Justice-State Departments Appropirations -- Military Construction Appropriations -- Interior Department Appropriations: Special Report. By the California Institute for Federal Policy Research. (The Institute, Washington, DC) October 4-20, 2001. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.calinst.org/publications.htm

[Includes: "Senate Fiscal Year 2002 Appropriations for The Departments of Commerce, Justice, State and Related Agencies;" "Department of Justice;" "Cybercime and Intellectual Property Enforcement;" "U.S. Marshals Service;" "Drug Enforcement Administration;" "Immigration and Naturalization Service;" "Federal Prison System;" "Office of Justice Programs" "Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS);" "Juvenile Justice Programs;" "Related Appropriations;" "Department of Commerce;" "Economic Development Administration;" "Advanced Technology Program;" "National Marine Fisheries Services;" "National Ocean Service;" "Pacific Costal Salmon Recovery;" "Oceanic and Atmospheric Reseacch;" "U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service;" "Department of State International Commissions;"]

[Request #S2704]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

DRUGS

Informing America's Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don't Know Keeps Hurting Us: Executive Summary. By the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. (National Academy Press, Washington, DC) 2001. 360 p. [Request #S2719] Executive Summary. 12 p. [Request #S2720]

["The committee was given the charge ... to explore ways to integrate theory and findings from diverse disciplines to increase understanding of drug abuse and the operation of drug markets. The committee's general findings are presented in this final report."]

[Request #S2720]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

Hubbert's Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage. By Kenneth S. Deffeyes. (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey) 2001.

["The End of Oil: Will Gas Lines in the Coming Decade Mkae Those of 1973 Look Short? ? In Hubbert's Peak, Deffeyes writes with good humor about the oil business, but he delivers a sobering message: the 100-year petroleum era is nearly over. Global oil production will peak sometime between 2004 and 2008, and the world's production of crude oil "will fall, never to rise again." If Deffeyes is right--and if nothing is done to reduce the increasing global thirst for oil--energy prices will soar and economies will be plunged into recession as they desperately search for alternatives. Scientific American (November 2001) [online].]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

2001 Digital State Survey. By the Center for Digital Government and Government Technology. (Government Technology, Folsom, California) June – December 2001. Various pagings.

[Includes:
“Part I: Law Enforcement and the Courts:”
http://www.govtech.net/magazine/story.phtml?id=2530000000002402
[Request #S2710]
“Part II: Electronic Commerce/Business Regulation:”
http://www.govtech.net/magazine/story.phtml?id=3030000000002651
[Request #S2711]
“Part III: Digital Democracy:”
http://www.govtech.net/magazine/story.phtml?id=3030000000003169
[Request #S2712]
“Part IV: Education:”
[Request #S2713]

[Request #S2714]

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HEALTH

INSURANCE

Coverage Matters: Insurance and Health Care. By the Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance, Institute of Medicine. (National Academy Press, New York, New York) 2001.

Full Text at: www.nap.edu/html/coverage_matters/

["Millions of Americans lack health insurance and the slowing economy is likely to increase the number of uninsured. Workers now pay an average of 14 percent of the cost of individual coverage and 27 percent for family coverage, with employers paying the rest. The panel found that about 13.6 million of the uninsured work for employers that do not offer health insurance." Nando Times (October 11) 1.]

[Request #S2722]

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