Subject: Studies in the News 02-2


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News
Children and Family Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Children, handguns and homicide
   Homicides of children and youth
EDUCATION
   Closing the achievement gap
   Early care and education hot topics
   Rapid learning occurs in first five years
   Early learning shows benefits
   Public/private early education initiatives
   Child care policies review
   Family child care licensing study
   Improving readiness for school
   Early childhood education policy
   Non-licensed child care
   Early learning environments that work
   Prekindergarten programs in the states
   Needs of preschool children
   School readiness recommendations
   AmeriCorps tutoring outcomes study
EMPLOYMENT
   Employment patterns of young women
HEALTH
   Child health USA 2001
   Reducing youth access to tobacco
   Youth tobacco surveillance
HUMAN SERVICES
   Public-private child care partnerships
   Promoting child care partnerships
   Evolution of nation's child welfare system`
   Barriers to self-sufficiency
   Marriage as an antipoverty strategy
   Integrating work and family life
   Report on Prop 10 in the Bay Area
   Marriage as public policy
   National youth development agenda
   Options for vulnerable youth
STUDIES TO COME
   Synthesizing opposing forces in education
   Translating research into classroom practice
   Economic factor in school readiness
   Starting points assessment project
   Work and family in America
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CHILDREN & YOUTH

Kids in the Line of Fire: Children, Handguns, and Homicide. By the Violence Policy Center. (The Center, Washington, DC) November 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.vpc.org/studies/firecont.htm

["Nationally, an average of two children a day were killed with handguns, and more children were killed with handguns than with all other weapons combined.... The group, which advocates stronger gun laws, studied handgun killings from 1995 to 1999 among youths through age 17." Baltimore Sun (November 29, 2001) 1B.]

[Request #S3018]

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Homicides of Children and Youth. By David Finkelhor and Richard Ormrod, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice. (The Office, Washington, DC) 2001. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/187239.pdf

["The Bulletin offers detailed information about overall patterns and victim age groups. Specific types of juvenile homicide victimization are discussed in further detail. Finally, initiatives designed to prevent homicides ... are explored."]

[Request #S3019]

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EDUCATION

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

Closing the Achievement Gap: Improving Educational Outcomes for African American Children. By the Committee on Elementary and Secondary Education, National Black Caucus of State Legislators. (The Committee, Washington, DC) November 2001. 36 p.

Full Text at: nbcsl.com/pdf/educationrpt.pdf

["The report questions the school-choice movement and calls for more, not less, national oversight of states' efforts to bridge the gap ... A major factor is that ... schools are resegregating, so that racially isolated minority schools simply don't offer the same opportunities to learn as racially balanced schools." Christian Science Monitor (December 18, 2001) 13.]

[Request #S3020]

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EARLY EDUCATION

Early Care and Education: Work Support for Families and Developmental Opportunities for Young Children. By Kathryn Tout and others, Urban Institute. Occasional Paper Number 51. (The Institute, Washington, DC) September 2001. 41 p.

Full Text at: newfederalism.urban.org/pdf/occa51.pdf

["This paper describes the dual role that early care and education serves ... both as support for parental employment ... and as an opportunity for children to participate in settings with social and educational resources that can prepare them for school."]

[Request #S3021]

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Education For All Young Children: The Role of States and the Federal Government in Promoting Prekindergarten and Kindergarten. By Anne W. Mitchell, Early Childhood Policy Research. The Foundation For Child Development Working Paper Series. (The Foundation, New York, New York) 2001. 31 p.

Full Text at: www.ffcd.org/mitchell.pdf

[“Brain development research indicates that young children are learning from the earliest moments of life, and learning especially rapidly in their first five years. Evaluations of high quality early education programs indicate children ... do better academically ... and socially in school, and generally live more productive lives as adults than children who have no preschool education or who have poor early educational experiences.” ]

[Request #S3022]

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Early Care and Education. By the Education Commission of the States. The Progress of Education Reform. Vol. 2, No. 6. (The Commission, Denver, Colorado) 2001. 8 p.

[Includes: "Early Learning Shows Benefits;" "Curriculum Alignment;" "School Entry Age;" "Do Children Who Are Assessed Regularly Fare Better Than Children Who Are Not?;" And "Do Young Children Do Better When Their Teachers Have Bachelor Degrees?"]

[Request #S3023]

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Directions for Cost and Outcome Analysis of Starting Early Starting Smart: Summary of a Cost Expert Meeting. By Jill S. Cannon and others. RAND Conference Proceedings. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2001. 45 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/CF/CF161/CF161.pdf

[“This paper reports on ... issues surrounding cost-benefit and related analysis of the Starting Early Starting Smart (SESS) program ... designed to compare the effectivness of integrated behavioral health services for children ages 0 to 7 and their families with the outcomes for children and families who receive the usual standard of community care.”]

[Request #S3024]

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A Review of Child Care Policies in Experimental Welfare and Employment Programs. Does Child Care Assistance Matter? The Effects of Welfare and Employment Programs on Child Care for Very Young Children. And The Effects of Welfare and Employment Programs on Child Care for Preschool- and Young School-Aged Children. By Lisa A. Gennetian and others. Next Generation Project Working Paper Series No. 1-3. (The Project, New York, New York) 2001. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/NextGeneration/Default.html

["These papers use both ethnographic and quantitative approaches to explore topics related to how families make child care decisions, how family income and employment characteristics affect outcomes for families and children, and how other aspects of low income parents' work affect children."]

[Request #S3025]

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Family Child Care Licensing Study. By The Children's Foundation (The Foundation, Washington D.C) 2001. 228 p.

["The data contained in this study is the result of a nationwide survey ... of the regulatory offices in 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. The study identifies and separates data in each state into family child care homes and group family child care homes. The data is organized in an alphabetical listing by state/territory and further divided in each one into 23 categories."]

[Request #S3026]

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Improving Children's Readiness for School: Preschool Programs Make a Difference, But Quality Counts! By David R. Denton, Southern Regional Education Board. (The Board, Atlanta, Georgia) 2001. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.sreb.org/programs/srr/pubs/Readiness.pdf

["This report takes a fresh look at the evidence that high-quality preschool programs can help to improve the school readiness of at-risk children. The report focuses on 10 programs that have been the subjects of careful evaluations.... and concludes with a discussion of the characteristics that distinguish these programs as high-quality."]

[Request #S3027]

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"Starting Strong: Policy Implications for Early Childhood Education and Care in the U.S." By Michelle J. Neuman and John Bennett. IN: Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 83, no. 3 (November 2001) p. 246-254.

["The authors draw primarily on Starting Strong: Early Childhood Education and Care, a recently released report from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) that analyzes policy and services in 12 countries. They briefly review the background, goals, and methodology of the comparative study, discuss seven major cross-national developments and issues, and raise some broad policy implications for the U.S."]

[Request #S3028]

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Non-Licensed Forms of Child Care in Homes: Issues and Recommendations for State Support. By Gwen Morgan and others, Wheelock College Institute for Leadership and Career Initiatives. (The Institute, Boston, Massachusetts) 2001. 23 p.

Full Text at: www.nccic.org/pubs/nonlic-wheelock.html

["In this brief ... we summarize state licensing regulations and exemptions and examine how states' policies for family child care result in defining what is not licensed.... We describe the different forms of care in homes that are not regulated by licensing and suggest ways that states can support each form of care.... We offer some recommendations for needed policy reforms."]

[Request #S3029]

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Early Learning Environments That Work. By Rebecca Isbell and Betty Exelby. (Gryphon House, New York, New York) 2001. 191 p.

["This book explores the relationship between the physical environment of the classroom and children's intellectual and emotional growth .... Included are practical ways for teachers to design enriched environments that will encourage children to actively participate according to their special ways of learning." NOTE: Early Learning ... is available for a 3-day loan.]

[Request #S3030]

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Prekindergarten Programs in the States: Trends and Issues. By Anne Mitchell. Early Childhood Policy Research. (Early Childhood Policy Research, Climax, New York) 2001. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.nccic.org/pubs/prekinderprogtrends.pdf

["[The author] ... lays out a working definition of prekindergarten programs, a brief history of these programs over the last century, descriptions of current practices, trends and issues, and ends with recommendations for prekindergarten policy."]

[Request #S3031]

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From Cradle to K: Ensuring Success by Six For All L.A. Children. By United Way of Greater Los Angeles. (United Way, Los Angeles, California) November 2001. 24 p.

["The study analyzes birth trends, family life, and health, safety, child care and school-readiness issues affecting the 900,000 children under age 6 who live in Los Angeles County. While noting some progress, the report documents formidable barriers to the well-being of many children and their families." Los Angeles Times (November 16, 2001) B4.]

[Request #S3032]

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School Readiness: Helping Communities Get Children Ready for School and Schools Ready for Children. Child Trends Research Brief. (Child Trends, Washington, DC) 2001. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.childtrends.org/PDF/SchoolReadiness.pdf

["This brief begins by summarizing recommendations ... for defining and assessing school readiness and then presents a framework for community investment based on an 'ecological' view of child development ... [which] considers factors related to the child's family, early childhood care and education, school, neighborhood, and the larger society."]

[Request #S3033]

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LITERACY

AmeriCorps Tutoring Outcomes Study. By Abt Associates. Prepared for the Corporation for National Service. (Abt Associaties, Cambridge, Massachusetts) 2001. 94 p.

Full Text at: www.americorps.org/research/pdf/tutoring_0201.pdf

["This report describes the results of an evaluation that examined the effect of participation in AmeriCorps' tutoring programs on children's reading proficiencies and other classroom behaviors among 869 first, second, and third grade students in 68 AmeriCorps programs."]

[Request #S3034]

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EMPLOYMENT

WOMEN

"Moving Up, Moving Out, or Going Nowhere? A Study of the Employment Patterns of Young Women and the Implications for Welfare Mothers." By La Donna Pavetti and Gregory Acs. IN: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol. 20, no. 4 (2001) pp. 722-736.

["This paper examines the employment transitions of young women focusing on the likelihood that women who turn to the welfare system for support will make the transition from low-paying to high-paying jobs."]

[Request #S3035]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

Child Health USA 2001. By the National Center for Health Statistics and others. Prepared for the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Department of Health and Human Services. (The Department, Washington, DC) November 2001. 80 p.

Full Text at: www.mchirc.net/pdf%20docs/chusa01.pdf

["The twelfth annual report on the health status and service needs of America's children provides both graphical and textual summaries of data, and addresses long-term trends where applicable. Data are presented for the target populations of Title V funding: infants, children, adolescents, children with special health care needs, women of childbearing age. This book also addresses health status and health services utilization."]

[Request #S3036]

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SMOKING

Synar Amendment Implementation, Quality of State Data on Reducing Youth Access to Tobacco Could Be Improved. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-74. (The Office, Washington, DC) 29 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d0274.pdf

["Weaknesses in the states' implementation of ... oversight can adversely affect the quality and comparability of state reported estimates of the percentage of retailers that violate laws prohibiting tobacco sales to minors.... [The report makes] several recommendations ... to improve the quality and comparability of state-reported tobacco retailer violation rates."]

[Request #S3037]

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Youth Tobacco Surveillance – United States, 2000. By the Centers for Disease Control. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vol. 50, No. SS-4. (The Centers, Atlanta, Georgia) November 2, 2001. 92 p.

Full Text at: www.cdc.gov/tobacco/research_data/youth/ss50.04.pdf

["The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found in its survey that 15 percent of middle school pupils and 35 percent of high school students nationwide had used tobacco products in the month before the survey. About 69 percent of smokers in middle school and 58 percent of high school students under age 18 said they were not asked to show proof of age when they bought cigarettes." Richmond Times-Dispatch (November 4, 2001) F2.]

[Request #S3038]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

Public-Private Partnerships: Lessons for Success. By Helene Stebbins and others, The Child Care Partnership Project, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (The Project, Washington, DC) November 2001. 21 p.

Full Text at: nccic.org/ccpartnerships/ccppless.pdf

["The Child Care Partnership Project ... has focused on a new breed of partnerships: Bringing together representatives from governmental entities or quasi-governmental bodies and private-sector organizations. The project has created a wide range of tools and materials to support both the public and private partners as they develop partnerships to improve outcomes for children and families."]

[Request #S3039]

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Taking Action: What State Officials Can Do to Promote Public-Private Child Care Partnerships. By Nina Sazer O'Donnell and others, The Child Care Partnership, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (The Department, Washington, DC) November 2001. 77 p.

Full Text at: nccic.org/ccpartnerships/ccpptips.pdf

["This paper examines ways that state officials can serve as champions such as by recruiting business partners; directing state agencies to support partnerships; working with business, legislative, and local government leaders to leverage and coordinate resources; and encouraging media coverage of successful partnerships."]

[Request #S3040]

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CHILDREN

Running to Keep in Place: The Continuing Evolution of Our Nation’s Child Welfare System. By Karin Malm, The Urban Institute, and others. Assessing the New Federalism. Occasional Paper No. 54. (The Institute, Washington, D.C.) October 2001. 34 p.

Full Text at: newfederalism.urban.org/pdf/occa54.pdf

["Both federal and state governments are seeking to improve the child welfare system by increasing oversight and making agencies more accountable for outcomes. In an effort to respond to ongoing concerns about the quality of their child welfare systems, states are implementing new approaches and practices for serving children and families."]

[Request #S3041]

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FAMILIES

Families in Transition: Serving Families with Multiple Barriers to Self-sufficiency. By Berkeley Policy Associates. (The Associates, Oakland, California) 2001. 15 p.

Full Text at: www.bpacal.com/expertise/PolicyBrief.pdf

["This case study provides an in-depth description of the FIT (Families in Transition) model for serving hard-to-serve families and the outcomes achieved. The study utilizes data from interviews with program staff and clients and from FIT's client database and tracking system."]

[Request #S3043]

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For Richer or for Poorer: Marriage as an Antipoverty Strategy: Preliminary Draft. By Adam Thomas and Isabel Sawhill, Brookings Institution. (The Institution, Washington, DC) November 5, 2001. 27 p.

Full Text at: www.brook.edu/wrb/wip/20011105.pdf

["This paper ... examines the effects of changes in family structure on the economic well-being of children. It begins by assessing the impact of these changes on the child poverty rate over the last thirty years and then employs a microsimulation model to estimate the effect that higher rates of marriage would have on child poverty and on other measures of economic well-being."]

[Request #S3044]

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Integrating Work and Family Life: A Holistic Approach. Executive Summary. By Lotte Bailyn, Sloan Work-Family Policy Network, MIT Sloan School of Management. (The Network, Boston, Massachusetts) September 2001. 10 p.

Full Text at: mitsloan.mit.edu/iwer/WorkFamily-sum.pdf

["Improving job satisfaction ranks ahead of flexible scheduling policies as a way to help employees juggle work and family life .... The report's other primary message is that every player in modern families' lives -- employers, unions, government and communities -- should work together to help working families." Star Tribune (September 15, 2001) D1.]

[Request #S3045]

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Prop. 10: Weaving a Web of Support for Young Children and Families: A Chidren's Advocate Special Report on Prop 10 in the Bay Area. By the Action Alliance for Children and United Way of the Bay Area. (The Alliance, Oakland, California) September/October 2001. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.4children.org/pdf/prop10.pdf

["A team of experienced researchers have taken a first snapshot of what Prop 10 has created so far in 11 Northern California counties ... interviewing more than 80 people in 11 counties .... and speaking with others familiar with children's services in each county. The report looks at some challenges and ... potentials to create communities that support the development of young children."]

[Request #S3046]

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Policy Report: Marriage as Public Policy. By Daniel T. Lichter, Progressive Policy Institute. Policy Report. (The Institute, Washington, DC) September 2001. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.ppionline.org/documents/marriage_lichter.pdf

["The relative lack of attention to marriage promotion has prompted some advocates to argue that government should act much more agressively to pursue a pro-marriage agenda.... Supporters ... contend that marriage confers a variety of benefits.... Although promoting marriage is a laudable aim, whether government programs can effectively promote marriage is far from certain."]

[Request #S3047]

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YOUTH

A National Youth Development Agenda: Public Policy Positions of the National Collaboration for Youth. By the National Collaboration for Youth, National Assembly. (The Assembly, Washington, DC) 2001. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.nydic.org/nydic/statements.html

["Seven policy statements are included in this report: Positive Youth Development, Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Youth Employment, Youth Community Service and Service Learning, Runaway and Homeless Youth, Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention, and After School and Summer Programs."]

[Request #S3048]

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Powerful Pathways: Framing Options and Opportunities for Vulnerable Youth: Dicussion Paper. By Nicole Yohalem and Karen Pittman. Youth Transition Funders Group. (The Group, Gaithersburg, Maryland) October 2001. 41 p.

Full Text at: www.forumforyouthinvestment.org/pwrflpthwys.pdf

["Systems as they are currently structured drop many of our children before they have reached their final destination. The initiatives highlighted in this document represent just a handful of the innovative efforts underway around the country."]

[Request #S3049]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

EDUCATION

EDUCATION REFORM

The Brain, Education, and the Competitive Edge. By Geoffrey Caine and Renate Nummela Caine. (Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group, Lanham, Maryland) 2001. 168 p.

[“There is no consensus to what effective education looks like since there is a battle between two competing models of teaching and education. One aims at standardization in the name of high standards, and the other ... 'the guided experience approach.' This book sheds light on the opposing forces affecting education, showing how learning from experience works in the everyday world, and illustrating why performance assessment is so much more valuable than test scores.” NOTE: The Brain ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S3050]

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Brain Matters: Translating Research into Classroom Practice. By Patricia Wolfe. (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandra, Virginia) 2001. 207 p.

["[The author] demonstrates that a solid foundation of the understanding of the brain is required in order to base educational decisions which effectively match teaching practice to brain functioning. Chapters include: How Neurons Communicate; Making Curriculum Meaningful Through Problems, Projects, and Simulations; [and others]"... NOTE: Brain Matters ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S3051]

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FAMILIES & SCHOOLS

Change in Family Income-to-Needs Matters More for Children with Less. Eric Dearing and others. IN: Child Development, vol. 72, no. 6 (November/December 2001)

[“For children living in poverty, future success in social skills and school readiness can increase dramatically with just a small increase in economic resources.... The children performed better ... and were more likely to understand and produce a larger number of words and phrases." Boston Globe (November 19, 2001) B8.]

[Request #S3042]

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HUMAN SERVICES

FAMILIES

Learning from Starting Points: Findings from the Starting Points Assessment Project. By Jane Knitzer and Fida Adely, National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University. (The Center, New York, New York) October 2001. Various pagings.

["The report provides a systematic analysis of an initiative that began in 1995 to foster the well-being of very young children and their families by promoting responsible parenting, ensuring good health and protection, guaranteeing child care choices, and mobilizing communities to support young children and their families."]

[Request #S3053]

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Work and Family in America: A Reference Handbook. By Leslie F. Stebbins. (ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, California) August 2001. 247 p.

["As more women pursue careers and more men stay at home, the spheres of work and family will never be the same. This book offers a comprehensive and insightful overview of these two overlapping worlds as it provides the latest figures on and status of work-family demographics, from the number of working mothers to marriage and divorce rates and recent legislation and case law." Booklist. NOTE: Work and Family ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S3054]

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