Subject: Studies in the News 02-6


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

January 1852 - "Vallejo's Swiss Chalet was a half-timbered building of fired brick and wood on the grounds of the Vallejo estate. The timbers were reportedly cut and numbered in Europe and shipped to California, where the building was erected in 1852 for use as a warehouse."  archaeology.parks.ca.gov/cultural/spanmex/properti  

January 1852 - "The adobe rancho residence of Pio Pico was referred to by the last Mexican governor as 'El Ranchito'. He built the house in 1852 and lived there until 1892, when he lost the property to foreclosure. The actual name of the 8,891 acre rancho was Paso de Bartolo. "  archaeology.parks.ca.gov/cultural/spanmex/properti  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CALIFORNIA READER
   Southern California region report 2001
CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Reducing disproportionate minority confinement
   Prison expansion in time of austerity
   Managing inmates medications
   Attorney General's hate crime report
   US Supreme Court limits hold on sexual predators
   Grant assistance to state and local governments
DEMOGRAPHY
   Latino births in California
   Census projections
ECONOMY AND SOCIETY
   Amusement park ride injuries
   California business climate survey
   Economic development investment accountability
   Migration of film production to Canada
   New technologies for Silicon Valley
EDUCATION
   Synthesizing opposing forces in education
   Translating research into classroom practice
   Strategies for school improvement
   Ending teacher shortages
EMPLOYMENT
   US Supreme court decision on ADA
   Job losses throughout nation
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Economic impacts of climate change
   Renewable energy program
   Water infrastructure improvements
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Political parties and campaign finance regulation
   Side effects of federal death tax 'repeal'
   State and local government finances
   Balance of payments
   Legislative accomplishments 2001
   States cutting low-income programs
   Distributional impact of taxes
   Regressivity of state taxes
HEALTH
   Projections
   Funding in 2002
   Premature infants less troubled as teens
   Stress reaction after September 11 attack
   Depression treatment rates triple
   Medicaid purchases of prescription drugs
   Prescription discounts for health centers
   Flavored cigarettes popular among youth
   States' allocation of tobacco settlement
   Laid-off workers lose health coverage
HUMAN SERVICES
   Review of food stamp policy
   Food stamp caseloads rising
   Illegal to be homeless
   Welfare load increasing
   Welfare policy and caseload decline
INTERNATIONAL READER
   U. S. policy toward Latin America
   San Diego and Baja California globalization
NATIONAL READER
   National Guards' role in homeland security
   Security costs to states
   ABA report on military commission
   Allocations for homeland security
TRANSPORTATION
   Fatal crashes involving female drivers
STUDIES TO COME
   Preparing for an aging world
   The case against "smart growth"
   Female managers earn less than male counterparts
   The state of California rivers
   Border management policies
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CALIFORNIA READER

CALIFORNIA READER

State of the Region 2001: Measuring Progress in the 21st Century. By Sylvia Patsaouras and others, Southern California Association of Governments. (The Association, Los Angeles, California) November 2001. 129 p.

["Quality of Life Issues: Affordable Dwelling Problems Top Worries Cited in SCAG Survey: A new 'report card' ... notes that while the six-county region is experiencing solid economic growth, lower crime rates and better air quality, it still falls short in terms of meeting housing needs, reducing traffic and improving local education quality." Ventura County Star (December 22, 2001) D1.]

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CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CORRECTIONAL POPULATIONS

Reducing Disproportionate Minority Confinement: The Multnomah County, Oregon Success Story and its Implications. By the Justice Policy Institute, Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. (The Center, San Francisco, California) January 2002. 18 p.

Full Text at: www.cjcj.org/portland/multi%20draft%207new1.pdf

["In 1994, Multnomah County was under federal court order for operating a juvenile detention center that violated the U.S. Constitution. Among the many problems: A disproportionate number of minority youths were being arrested and detained.... During the next six years, the county introduced a number of changes to its juvenile justice system.... A study by the institute found that the county led the nation in reducing racial disparity in juvenile detention." Seattle Post-Intelligencer (January 25, 2002) B1.]

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CORRECTIONS CONSTRUCTION

Prison Expansion in a Time of Austerity: An Analysis of the Governor’s Proposed New Prison in Delano. By Daniel Macallair and Deborah Vargus, Justice Policy Institute, Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice. (The Center, San Francisco, California and Washington, DC) January 2002. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.cjcj.org/jpi/ca_brief.html

["Despite a $12 billion budget deficit, declining arrests and prison commitments, state officials are prepared to spend $335 million to build a new 5,160 bed prison in Delano, California. The new prison raises many issues regarding the propriety of this project and the Governor's budgetary priorities. This policy report provides a preliminary analysis of the proposed prison expansion and its budgetary implications."]

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DRUGS

State of California: Its Containment of Drug Costs and Management of Medications for Adult Inmates Continue to Require Significant Improvements. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) January 2002. 78 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2001012.pdf

["This report concludes that the State's procurement process for drugs and medical supplies still requires significant improvement. Expenditures for drugs by the five state agencies most frequently purchasing drugs increased by an average of 34 percent annually, from $41.6 million in fiscal year 1996-97 to $135.1 million in fiscal year 2000-01."]

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HATE CRIMES

Reporting Hate Crimes: Final Report. By California Attorney General's Civil Rights Commission on Hate Crimes. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) [2001.] 46 p.

Full Text at: caag.state.ca.us/publications/civilrights/reportingHC.pdf

["There are 'serious gaps' in the way law enforcement is trained to handle hate crimes in California, according to a report.... The result: A hate crime in one jurisdiction might not be considered one in a neighboring agency. Such uneven reporting, critics say, means some such crimes go undocumented." Stockton Record (December 9, 2001) A1.]

[Request #S4066]

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SEXUAL OFFENDERS

Kansas v. Michael T. Crane. United States Supreme Court. 00-957. January 22, 2002. Various pagings

["The Supreme Court narrowed state sexual predator laws by requiring that prosecutors looking to confine sex criminals for extended periods prove that a mental illness interferes with an inmate's self-control. The 7-to-2 ruling in a case from Kansas could affect laws in 19 states, including California, that allow sex criminals to be civilly committed after completion of their prison terms if they have been diagnosed as mentally ill and dangerous." San Francisco Chronicle (January 23, 2002) A3.]

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TERRORISM

Preliminary Estimates of Supplemental Justice Assistance Formula Grants. By the Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief. 02-03. (FFIS, Washington, DC) January 4, 2002. 3 p.

["The Department of Defense authorization bill (H.R. 3338) program provides formula grant assistance to state and local governments to help them prepare for terrorist attacks, including attacks involving weapons of mass destruction. The emergency supplemental legislation appropriates $212.3 million for this purpose in fiscal year 2002. The grants may be used by states to purchase equipment and provide training and technical assistance to state and local first responders."]

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DEMOGRAPHY

LATINOS

Latino Births in California, 1998: A County-By-County Comparison. By David E. Hayes-Bautista and others. Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) 2001. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.cesla.med.ucla.edu/html/pdf/births.pdf

["Latino births signal future for California.... A university study shows nearly half of all children born in the state at the end of the last decade were Latino.... The birthrate among all ethnic groups has slowed, but the decline had been slower among Latinos.... Latinos tend to have the least access to prenatal care, but in spite of that they have the lowest infant mortality and lowerst rate of low weight births." San Francisco Chronicle (December 20, 2001) A1.]

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POPULATION

Population Data for 2001; Impact on Bond Caps; SSBG Allocations. By the Federal Funds Information for the States. FFIS Issue Brief 02-01. (FFIS, Washington, DC) January 4, 2002. 8 p.

["This Issue Brief summmarizes the new Census population estimates, calculates their effect on the 2002 private activity bond limitation and provides projections for fiscal year (FY) 2004 Social Services Block Grant allocations."]

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ECONOMY AND SOCIETY

AMUSEMENT PARKS

"Reports Detail Injuries on Rides: Data Collected under New State Law Shed Light on How Parks Handle Problems." By Tony Savedra and others. IN: Orange County Register. (January 6, 2002) A1.]

["Nearly 350 injury reports [were] logged in 2001 under a new law regulating California theme parks -- offering the first look into how people are getting hurt on amusement-park rides statewide.... Statistically, theme parks are overwhelmingly safe, but the state reports show that California's Division of Occupational Safety and Health's Permanent Amusement Ride Section corrected dozens of problems that could have become dangerous."]

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BUSINESS CLIMATE

Twelfth Annual Business Climate Survey: Executive Summary. By the Charlton Research Company. (California Chamber of Commerce and the California Business Roundtable, Sacramento, California) January 2002. 8 p.

["Economy: Forecast Says Manufacturing, Construction Sectors Will Be Among Hardest Hit: Chapman economists predict that the county will shed 22,000 payroll jobs -- a decline of 0.5% -- with losses to be felt across every employment sector except government." Los Angeles Times (January 16, 2002) 2.]

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CALIFORNIA

Maximizing Returns: A Proposal for Improving the Accountability of California’s Investments in Economic Development. By the California Budget Project. (The Project, Sacramento, California) January 2002. 125 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/adobe/2002/r0201edev.pdf

["Group Faults Oversight of State Development Funds; Economy: Researchers' Report Calls For A Unified Strategy by Agencies Involved. It says there has been little effort to gauge results of $39 billiion spent since mid-1990s.... The report calls for the creation of a 'unified economic development strategy' and a rethinking of the current practice of spending more than half the development dollars on general business support." Los Angeles Times (January 21, 2002) 2.]

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FILM INDUSTRY

The Migration of Feature Film Production From The U.S. To Canada: Year 2000 Production Report. By The Center For Entertainment Industry Data and Research. (The Center, Encino, California) 2001. 34 p.

Full Text at: http://www.ceidr.org/y2kreport.pdf

[“Movie production in Canada has soared since that nation’s government began offering tax subsidies in 1998. Film budgets in Canada grew by a total of $610 million in the past three years while film budgets in the United States suffered a $560 million decline…. In 2000, overall film production in Canada increased by 106 percent, with 92 percent of the projects qualifying for tax subsidies.” Business Daily News (December 14, 2001) 1.]

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SILICON VALLEY

Next Silicon Valley: Riding The Waves of Innovation. By Doug Henton and others. Prepared by The Next Silicon Valley Leadership Group of Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network. (Joint Venture, San Jose, California) December 2001. 35 p.

Full Text at: www.jointventure.org/nsv/nsvpaper.pdf

[“A new generation of technologies will help power Silicon Valley out of its slump… leaders must pave the way by providing housing, educational and other resources to support recovery…. Silicon Valley’s next generation of products will come from such emerging research areas as the convergence of biotechnology and information technology…. But Silicon Valley is competing with such places as Boston and San Diego to establish itself as the commercial center for these emerging technologies.” San Francisco Chronicle (December 7, 2001) 1.]

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EDUCATION

EDUCATION FINANCE

Congress Passes and the President Signs ESEA Reauthorization. By the Federal Funds Information for the States. FFIS Issue Brief. 02-06. (FFIS, Washington, DC) January 14, 2001. 9 p.

["Among the positives is the increased funding for Title I that the bill authorizes. H.R. 1 also authorizes a new Teacher Quality program that will steer substantial grants to states to help fund the hiring of additional teachers and professinal development for current teachers.... The provision requires states to test every student in grades 3-8 annually.... Private schools vouchers were never seriously considered in the process and public school choice options were substituted."]

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EDUCATION REFORM

The Brain, Education, and the Competitive Edge. By Geoffrey Caine and Renate Nummela Caine. (Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group, Lanham, Maryland) 2001. 168 p.

[“There is no consensus to what effective education looks like since there is a battle between two competing models of teaching and education. One aims at standardization in the name of high standards, and the other ... 'the guided experience approach.' This book sheds light on the opposing forces affecting education, showing how learning from experience works in the everyday world, and illustrating why performance assessment is so much more valuable than test scores.” NOTE: The Brain ... is available for 3-day loan.]

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Brain Matters: Translating Research into Classroom Practice. By Patricia Wolfe. (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandra, Virginia) 2001. 207 p.

["[The author] demonstrates that a solid foundation of the understanding of the brain is required in order to base educational decisions which effectively match teaching practice to brain functioning. Chapters include: How Neurons Communicate; Making Curriculum Meaningful Through Problems, Projects, and Simulations; and others"... NOTE: Brain Matters ... is available for 3-day loan.]

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The Results Fieldbook: Practical Strategies from Dramatically Improved Schools. By Mike Schmoker, Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development. (The Association, Alexandria, Virginia) 2001.

[“These components both constitute and perpetuate a focus on results. Although they do not fully account for every improvement described here, collaboration, data collection, and goal-setting unlock and foster the emergence of a host of improvement ideas and the implementation of the best 'proven' programs and initiatives.”]

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TEACHERS

Absence Unexcused: Ending Teacher Shortages in High Need Areas. By Beatriz Chu Clewell and Ana Maria Villegas. Evaluating the Pathways to Teaching Careers Program, Urban Institute (The Institute, Washington, DC) December 2001. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/pdfs/absence-unexcused.pdf

["Teacher Shortage May Be Alleviated Through Recruiting Nontraditional Candidates. The report... concludes that the Pathways model ... is an effective, affordable way to increase both the size and the diversity of the teaching force. 'The Pathways program creates an effective blueprint for school ldistricts to follow,' said Dr. Clewell, a principal research associate at the institute." AScribe Newswire (January 14, 2002) 1.]

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EMPLOYMENT

AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT

Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Ella Williams. U.S. Supreme Court. 00-1089. January 8, 2002. Various pagings.

["Further limiting federal workplace protections for the disabled, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that an assembly-line worker with carpal tunnel syndrome had not shown she was entitled to accommodations on the job... The court said a worker was not 'disabled' merely because pain and mobility limitations in her wrists, arms and hands prevented her from doing her job on a Toyota assembly line. She must also show that she suffers severe limits in everyday activities outside work." San Francisco Chronicle (January 9, 2002) A1]

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UNITED STATES

The Impact of September 11 on U.S. Metropolitan Economies: Research Report. By Ross C. Devol and others, Milken Institute (The Institute, Santa Monica, California) January 2002. 178 p.

Full Text at: www.milkeninstitute.com/presrel/National%20Metro%20Impact%20Report.pdf

["The new study from the Milken Institute predicts heavy job losses throughout the nation for the next three years as a direct result of the terrorist attacks. The Bay Area will lose 49,700 jobs in 2002, more than any other region except New York, Los Angeles, Chicago and Las Vegas, the report predicted." San Francisco Chronicle (January 12, 2002) B1.]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

CLIMATE CHANGE

Climate Change: Science, Strategies & Solutions. Edited by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change. (Brill Publishing, New York, New York) 2001. 400 p.

[Includes "Understanding the Science of Impact and Change in Global and Regional Climate;" "Impacts on the U.S. Agricultural Sector;" "U.S. Climate Policy: Factors and Constraints;" "Electric Power Futures in Five Developing Countries;" "State, Local and Corporate Climate Actions Enhance Quality of Life; "Innovative State Programs: Oregon and New Jersey Take the Lead;" and others.]

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ENERGY

Annual Project Activity Report to the Legislature: Legislation Report. By Tony Goncalves and others, California Energy Commission. P500-01-024. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) December 2001. Various pagings.

["This report discusses activities and information regarding funds encumbered and payments awarded to projects participating in the Renewable Energy Program for fiscal year 2000-2001."]

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WATER

Water Infrastructure: Information on Federal and State Financial Assistance. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-134. (The Office, Washington, DC) November 2001. 45 p.

["From fiscal year 1991 through fiscal year 2001, nine federal agencies made available about $44 billon, in a variety of forms, for drinking water and wastewater capital improvements.... In addition, the states reported that they contributed about $1.4 billion from state appropriations, interest earnings, and other state sources for purposes, such as matching non-EPA federal funds and financing state designated specific drinking water or wastewater projects."]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

CAMPAIGN FINANCE

Political Parties and the Regulation of Campaign Financing. By Stanley Kelley, Princeton University. (The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC) January 2002. 29 p.

Full Text at: www.brook.edu/gs/cf/KelleyDoc.pdf

["My review of ways of reconciling party politics and campaign reform should ... reassure those who think reform necessary.... A combination of measures -- strict controls on the sizes and sources of contributions to parties and candidates, public funding to both, tax credits for small contributions to both, and suitable provisions of criminal law to minimize electoral cheating -- can do much of what is needed to realize those objectives."]

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FEDERAL / STATE RELATIONS

"The Unfortunate State Tax Side Effects of Federal Death Tax 'Repeal.'" By Carolyn Joy Lee. IN: State Tax Notes (December 17, 2001) pp. 935-949.

["By repealing the federal credit for state death taxes, the 2001 Act effected an immediate and significant reduction in state tax revenues. We now have a federal tax regime that actually appropriates state death tax revenues to increase federal death tax collections.... If the federal death tax never really goes away, and carryover basis never really arrives, it will be the states that are left with the task of paying for much of the 2001 Act."]

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"The Federal Impact on State and Local Government Finances At the Beginning of the 21st Century: Special Report." Billy Daphne A. Kenyon. IN: State Tax Notes (December 17, 2001) pp. 929-934.

["This article [includes] a general discussion of the ways in which the federal government affects state and local finances ... a discussion of very recent changes in federal-state-local fiscal relationships ... [and] critical short-term and longer-term issues regarding the federal government's impact on state-local finances. The final section include[s] recommendations and predictions."]

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FEDERAL BUDGET

Who Wins and Loses in the Relationship with the Federal Government? By the Federal Funds Information for the States. FFIS Issue Brief. 02-04. January 7, 2002. 3 p.

["The difference between federal spending received and federal taxes paid is sometimes referred to as the 'balance of payments.' This Issue Brief presents the new data on each state's balance of payments with the federal government. FFIS uses the data to calculate per capita balance of payments."]

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LEGISLATURE

Highlights of the Legislative Accomplishments of 2001. By the California Senate Office of Research. (The Office, Sacramento, California) November 2001. 115 p.

Full Text at: www.sen.ca.gov/sor

["This document highlights some, although not all, of the significant measures that reached the desk of Governor Gray Davis in 2001 across a range of public policy areas. It notes whether he signed or vetoed each measure and, if it became law, its chapter number for future reference."]

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STATE FINANCES

States are Cutting Low-Income Programs in Response to Fiscal Crisis: Less Counter-Productive Options Are Available. By Kevin Carey and Iris J. Lav, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) January 17, 2002. 18 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/1-17-02sfp.pdf

["While balanced-budget requirements limit states' options, there remain a variety of choices available that can help states avoid cuts in low-income programs. States can target spending cuts to programs that hav external revenue sources and are not experiencing rapid increases in cost. They can also delay scheduled tax cuts, increase other taxes, spend down reserve funds, and selectively use other short-term budget balancing measures. Each of these options is discussed."]

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STATE TAXES

Developing the Capacity to Analyze the Distributional Impact of State and Local Taxes: Issues and Options for States. By Michael Mazerov, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) January 2002. 62 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/1-15-02sfp2.pdf

["Tax systems of most states are regressive, that is,they take a larger proportion of the income of lower-income families than the income of more affluent families.... This report describes in detail the primary methods states can use to assess the distributional impact of their tax structures on families or households. Three methods are described ... the economic incidence model, the initial tax impact model, and the representative taxpayer model."]

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The Rising Regressivity of State Taxes. By Nicholas Johnson and Daniel Tenny, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) January 15, 2002. 35 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/1-15-02sfp.pdf

["Taxes in many states have become relatively more burdensome to low- and moderate-income families, and relatively less burdensome on the affluent.... Given the trends of the last decade detailed in this report, it will be particularly important for states to assess the impact on different income groups as they consider raising taxes."]

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HEALTH

HEALTH CARE FINANCE

2004 FMAP Projections. By the Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief. 02-02. (FFIS, Washington, DC) January 3, 2002. 3 p.

["The release of quarterly personal income data and annual 2001 population data permits preliminary projections of FY 2004 state Medicaid matching rates (the Federal Medicaid Assistance Percentage-FMAP)."]

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HEALTH CARE FINANCING

Changes in Health Block Grant Funding in 2002. By the Federal Funds Information for the States. FFIS Issue Brief. 02-07. (FFIS, Washington, DC) January 16, 2001. 5 p.

["Funding for federal health block grants declined by 14.5 percent in federal fiscal year (FY) 2002. The State children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) was reduced by 26.7 percent, which was partially offset by small increases in most programs."]

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INFANTS

"Outcomes in Young Adulthood for Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants." By Maureen Hack and others. IN: New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 3 (January 17, 2002) pp. 149-157; Tables.

["Love Lets Preemies Do Better: Largest Study Finds They're Not Lagging As Much As Expected: The study found that premature babies lag behind their peers in IQ and educational achievement, even into their early 20s. But in the study of 242 survivors born prematurely, the gaps were not as wide as some doctors expected.... The authors speculate that the difference may be how much more engaged families are with children who are vulnerable and need more attention from the beginning." Boston Globe (January 17, 2002) A2.]

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MENTAL HEALTH

"A National Survey of Stress Reactions After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks." By M.A. Schuster and others. IN: New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 20 (November 15, 2001) pp. 1507-1512.

["Our primary goal was to learn whether people around the country experienced symptoms of stress at rates anywhere near those of people who lived within close proximity. In addition, we hoped to learn something about how people coped with their reaction.... Ninety percent of the adults surveyed reported experiencing, to at least some degree, one or more symptoms, and 44 percent of the adults reported a substantial level of at least one symptom of stress."]

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"National Trends in the Outpatient Treatment of Depression." By Mark Olfson and others. IN: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 287, no. 2 (January 9, 2002) pp. 203-209.

["Depression Treatment Rates Have Tripled Since '87: The study found that about 1.7 million people, or 0.7 percent of the population, were being treated for depression at the time Prozac debuted in 1987.... Ten years later, the outpatient treatment rate had more than tripled to 6.2 million people, or 2.3 percent of the population, in 1997." San Francisco Chronicle (January 10, 2001) A6.]

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PRESCRIPTION DRUGS

Medicaid: Purchasing Prescription Drugs. By the Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Policy Brief. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) January 2002. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.kff.org/content/2002/4025/4025.pdf

["This paper begins by summarizing the flexibility available to state Medicaid agencies in designing a prescription drug benefit, controlling utilization, and paying for drug products ... then describes the program under which drug manufacturers provide rebates to both the federal and state governments ... and efforts to extend the price discounts achieved by the rebate program to non-Medicaid populations."]

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Prescription Discounts for Health Centers. By Richard Cauchi and Karmen Hanson, National Conference of State Legisltures. Legisbrief. No. 10, No. 5. January 2002. 2 p.

["The rapid increase in prescription drug costs has captured the attention of policymakers, the media and the public.... Twenty-six states now provide subsidies, but limited funding means serving only certain categories of individuals, totaling about 1.2 million people.... Fifteen or more states are experimenting with pharmaceutical discounts of bulk purchasing."]

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SMOKING

Flavored Cigarettes (Bidis) Popular Among Youth. By Leslie Teach Robbins, National Conference of State Legislatures. NCSL Legisbrief. Vol. 9, No. 45. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) November/December 2001. 2 p.

["Smoking bidis can lead to oral cancer, lung cancer and other health problems. A study found that bidis were sold to minors without identification twice as often as regular cigarettes.... Several states have changed their youth access legislation to include bidi cigarettes in their definition of tobacco products."]

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Show us the Money: An Update on the States' Allocation of the Tobacco Settlement Dollars: Report. By the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, American Cancer Society, American Heart Association and American Lung Association. (The Center, Washington, DC) January 15, 2002. 85 p.; Appendices.

Full Text at: tobaccofreekids.org/reports/settlements/2002/fullreport.pdf

["Tobacco: Study Finds States Not Following CDC Guidelines: The study found that the 'meager' amounts of funding that states have earmarked for tobacco prevention are 'at risk' of being spent to cover budget shortfalls.... Only Arizona, Maine, Masachusetts, Minnesota and Mississippi use their tobacco settlement money to fund antismoking programs at the CDC's (Centers for Disease Control) recommended 'minimum levels.'" American Health Line (January 16, 2002) 1.]

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UNINSURED

More than 725,000 Laid-Off Workers Have Lost Health Coverage Since the Recession Began in March; Almost Half Lost Health Coverage in September and October. By Families USA. (Families USA, Washington, DC) December 2001. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.familiesusa.org/media/pdf/cobra.pdf

["Advancing Reforms Lost Amid Fervor Following September 11 Terrorist Attacks: An already slowing economy suffered further after the attacks, creating more unemployed people who join the ranks of the uninsured.... According to a new report ... more than 911,000 people lost their jobs from March through November. The number does not include dependents, who also became uninsured." San Francisco Chronicle (December 29, 2001) B1.]

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HUMAN SERVICES

FOOD STAMPS

The Food Stamp Program: Important Sources of Information on the Program and Policy. By David Super and Kathy Patchan, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) January 7, 2002. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/12-19-01fa.pdf

[Includes URLs to: "Reports from the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) Office of Analysis, Nutrition, and Evaluation." "Reports from HHS's Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE). "Reports from USDA's Economic Research Service (ERS)."Reports from the Manpower Research Demonstration Project." "Reports from the Urban Institute." "Reports from Mathematica Policy Research." "Reports from the General Accounting Office." [and] "Recent Regulations."]

[Request #S4110]

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Food Stamp Caseloads Are Rising. By Daniel Tenny, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washinton, DC) January 15, 2002. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/1-15-02fa.pdf

["In October 2001, the latest date for which data are available, 18.4 million people participated in the food stamp program. This was the largest number of food stamp participants since January 1999. Since its recent low point in July 2000, participation has increased by more than 1.5 million people."]

[Request #S4112]

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HOMELESS

Illegal to be Homeless: The Criminalization of Homelessness in the United States. National Coalition for the Homeless and the National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty. January 15, 2002. 270 p.

Full Text at: www.nationalhomeless.org/crimreport/index.html

["According to a new report ... more jurisdictions are enacting laws that effectively criminalize homelessness by prohibiting activities such as sleeping or camping in public, even when no shelter beds are available.... Almost 80 percent of the cities surveyed ... have laws that prohibit sleeping/camping in public areas.... The report distinguishes California as the 'meanest' state in the country for people who are poor and homeless." National Law Center Press Release (January 15, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S4111]

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WELFARE

New Data Show Welfare Caseload Increasing in Most States. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief. 02-05. (FFIS, Washington, DC) January 8,l 2001. 2 p.; Tables.

["New data show that welfare caseloads are increasing in most states, with 33 states reporting higher caseloads in September 2001 than March 2001.... However, the total numbe of TANF cases declined by 1 percent between March and Septmber 2001."]

[Request #S4113]

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Does California’s Welfare Policy Explain the Slower Decline of its Caseload? By Thomas MaCurdy and others, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) [January] 2002. 100 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/publications/PPIC155/ppic155.onefile.pdf

["This report examines state variation in increases in welfare recipiency rates between 1989 and 1996 -- the prereform period -- and in decreases since 1996 -- the postreform period.... We compare California's performance to that of other states, especially those with high populations and large numbers of immigrants, including New York, Texas, Florida, and Illinois."]

[Request #S4114]

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INTERNATIONAL READER

Trade: A New Paradigm for U.S. Policy Toward Latin America. By Gerald P. O’Driscoll, Jr. Heritage Lectures No. 727. (The Heritage Foundation, Washington, DC) December 14, 2001. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.heritage.org/library/lecture/pdf/hl_727.pdf

["The advantage of the Global Free Trade Association over the current mechanisms for promoting free trade is that qualifying countries would secure the benefits of increased trade and investment among the members without having to undergo any new major policy reforms."]

[Request #S4116]

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San Diego, Baja California and Globalization: Coming From Behind. By Richard Feinberg and Gretchen Schuck, Pacific Council on International Policy. (The Council, Los Angeles, California) October 2001. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.pacificcouncil.org/pdfs/Baja.Q.final.pdf

["On the map, San Diego would seem to be a natural 'gateway' city linking three of the world's great regions -- Mexico, the U.S. Southwest and Asia.... San Diego is far from being a true 'gateway' city in the league of Miami or Seattle.... The commercial linkages between Baja California and San Diego remain less developed than is generally understood. San Diego could gain much more from Baja's global networks."]

[Request #S4117]

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NATIONAL READER

NATIONAL READER

The National Guard and Homeland Security: Testimony Before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on Technology, Terrorism and Government Information. By Bernard Rostker, Senior Fellow, Rand. CT-192. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) December 2001. 5 p.

["The National Guard is a valuable asset in both war and peace. Today's missions for homeland security, supporting our world wide effort to combat terrorism are more like traditional State missions ... than they are like combat missions.... The National Guard is federalism at work ... The commanders of the National Guard are experts in working with State and local governments and organizations."]

[Request #S4118]

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Homeland Security: The Cost to States for Ensuring Public Health and Safety. By the National Governors Association. (The Association, Washington, DC) December 5, 2001. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.nga.org/common/issueBriefDetailPrint/1,1434,2915,00.html

["The share of homeland security costs that is borne by states will be substantial. National Governors Association estimates that first year costs alone could reach $4 billion nationwide, with $3 billion of this cost devoted to bioterrorism preparedness and emergency communication and $1 billion devoted to guarding critical infrastructure. This figure will likely grow as additional information is received and states complete their assessments of needs."]

[Request #S4119]

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American Bar Association Task Force on Terrorism and the Law: Report and Recommendations on Military Commissions. By The Task Force on Terrorism and the Law, American Bar Association. (The Association, Washington, DC) January 4, 2002. 18 p.

["This paper addresses some of the major issues that can now be identified. It discusses the authority for and history of military commissions, and judicial review of military commissions. It describes some of the issues relating to the procedures used in a military commission. It discusses policy reasons for and against military commissions in the current circumstances. It concludes with a summary and recommendations."]

[Request #S4120]

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Understanding the Emergency Supplemental Appropriation. By the Federal Funds Information for the States. FFIS Issue Brief. 02-01. January 9, 2002. 3 p.

["The Department of Defense fiscal year 2002 appropriation bill contains a $20 billion emergency supplemental appropriation.... The first $20 billion was enacted providing total discretion to the administration for allocation funds among defense and other needs.... $3.5 billion was allocated to the Department of Defense and $8.2 billion was allocated for homeland security.... This brief will highlight those parts of supplemental appropriation that direct resources to state and local governments."]

[Request #S4121]

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TRANSPORTATION

DRIVERS

Trends in Fatal Crashes Involving Female Drivers, 1975-1998. By Daniel R. Mayhew and others, Traffic Injury Research Foundation and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. (The Institue, Arlington, Virginia) 2001. 12 p.

["Sixteen-year old boys still are the most risky drivers on the road, but the girls are gaining. For every 1,000 licensed 16-year-old girls, 175 got in car accidents in 2000.... Girls 16-19 are driving 70 percent more than in 1975.... Traffic accidents were the leading cause of death for teens 16 to 19 in 2000." San Francisco Chronicle (January 9, 2002) A6.]

[Request #S4122]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

DEMOGRAPHY

OLDER AMERICANS

Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research. By the Panel on a Research Agenda and New Data for an Aging World, National Research Council. (National Academy Press, Washington, DC) 328 p.

Full Text at: www.nap.edu/books/0309074215/html/index.html

["A panel of experts examines the issues surrounding global aging and their implications for policy and research. The report rejects alarmist as well as complacent views of global aging.... The number of elderly is now increasing by 8 million per year; by 2030, this increase will reach 24 million per year.... Nations need to act promptly to develop strategies for generating policy relevant information to guide policymaking and to avoid the potential for a global 'aging' crisis." Population Matters Policy Brief (2001.) 1.]

[Request #S3014]

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ECONOMY AND SOCIETY

LAND USE

The Vanishing Automobile and Other Urban Myths: How Smart Growth Will Harm American Cities. By Randal O’Toole, The Thoreau Institute. (The Institute, Bandon, Oregon) 2001. TC

[“In statewide smart growth initiatives in Oregon and Maryland, development, including housing, is encouraged in established urban areas with access to transit, rather than on undeveloped land in the countryside.... Randal O'Toole, senior economist for the Oregon-based Thoreau Institute, has published blistering critiques of smart growth strategies they say are expensive and don't solve the problems they intend to solve." Boston Globe (December 18, 2001) B6.]

[Request #S4115]

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EMPLOYMENT

INCOME INEQUALITY

A New Look Through the Glass Ceiling: Where are the Women? the Status of Women in Management in Ten Selected Industries. By the staffs of the offices of Congressmen John D. Dingell (D-MI) and Carolyn B. Maloney (D-NY). (The Offices, Washington, DC) 16 p.; Appendices. 17 p.

Full Text at: www.equality2020.org/glass.pdf

["Female managers earn less than their male counterparts, but the wage gap widened during the economic boom of the late 1990s, a report shows.... Women managers earned a range of 62 cents to 91 cents for every dollar paid to their male counterparts in 2000." Sacramento Bee (January 28, 2002) D1.]

[Request #S4123]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

CALIFORNIA

The State of California Rivers. By Elise Holland, The Trust for Public Land. (The Trust, San Francisco, California) December 2001 118 p.

["The State of California Rivers, the first-ever survey and report on the health of California's major rivers, considers each river in the context of its surrounding regional history. It concludes that the majority of California's rivers are both over-allocated and at risk for poor water quality." The Trust for Public Land Press Release (December 4, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S4089]

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INTERNATIONAL READER

United States-Latin American Relations at the Century's Turn: Managing the "Intermestic" Agenda. By Abraham F. Lowenthal, Pacific Council on International Policy. (The Council, Los Angeles, California) [2002.]

["This brief suggests appropriate policy responses to issues, like immigration, narcotics, the environment, public health and border management, in the relationship between the U.S. and Latin America that are neither purely foreign or domestic and therefore difficult to grapple with."]

[Request #S4124]

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