Subject: Studies in the News 02-20 (March 28, 2002)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material EDUCATION
   Education and community building
   Service learning for American schools
EMPLOYMENT
   Earnings loss from disabling injuries
   Views of discrimination on the job
   Genetic testing legislation
   Lower earnings for female managers
   Use of employment training funds
   National Job Corps study
   Benefits of unionization for retail food workers
   Workers caring for elderly parents
   Record level of unemployment benefits exhausted
   Living wage laws effect on low-wage workers
   Unemployment and welfare caseloads
   Employing welfare recipients with disabilities
   Employer demand for welfare recipients by race
   Training for low income workers
   Workplace injuries in the garment industry
HUMAN SERVICES
   CalWORKs and barriers
   Articles on TANF reauthorization
   Improving TANF program outcomes
   Housing assistance to families
   Importance of transitional benefits
   Questions about working welfare leavers
   Identity, work and parenting
   Eligibility for individual development accounts
   Sanctions and welfare reform
   Changes in welfare, work and child welfare
   Tracking welfare reform progress
   Promoting work among public housing residents
   Employment for TANF recipients with impairments
   Beyond welfare and work first
   Effect of work requirements on welfare recipients
STUDIES TO COME
   Studies in the News, January 29, 2002
   Studies in the News, February 19, 2002
   Studies in the News, February 22, 2002
   Studies in the News, March 21, 2002
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

EDUCATION

K-12 EDUCATION

Education and Community Building: Connecting Two Worlds. By Jeanne Jehl and others, Institute for Educational Leadership. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2001. 33 p.

Full Text at: www.communityschools.org/combuild.pdf

["Our research identified examples of positive working relationships between schools and community building organizations. These experiences offer guidance on how to increase and strengthen joint efforts to improve student learning in the future and form the basis of 'rules of engagement' that educators and community builders can use to further their work together."]

[Request #S4593]

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NATIONAL & COMMUNITY SERVICE

Learning in Deed: The Power of Service-Learning for American Schools. National Commission on Service-Learning. (The Commission, Newton, Massachusetts) 2002. 60p.

Full Text at: www.servicelearningcommission.org/report.html

["In the last decade, schools have provided service-learning opportunities for students that connect their curriculum studies to activities such as tutoring younger children, adopting a river, creating a museum exhibit, or conducting oral histories with senior citizens.... This report covers the potential of service-learning practice, and action steps to ensure that every child participates in quality service-learning every year as an integral and essential part of the American education experience."]

[Request #S4594]

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EMPLOYMENT

DISABLED WORKERS

Trends in Earnings Loss from Disabling Workplace Injuries in California: The Role of Economic Conditions. By Robert T. Reville and others, Rand Institute for Civil Justice. Prepared for the California Commission on Health and Safety and Workers' Compensation. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2002. 46 p.

["This report summarizes our investigation into the relationships between earnings losses and economic conditions in California during the 1990s.... Because benefits have declined since their last nominal increase in 1996 and, as of late 2001, the economy has headed into a new recession, it is possible that workers injured today will have worse outcomes than workers injured at the end of our observation period in 1996 and 1997."]

[Request #S4595]

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DISCRIMINATION

A Workplace Divided: How Americans View Discrimination and Race on the Job. By K.A. Dixon and others, John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. A Joint Project with the Center for Survey Research and Analysis, University of Connecticut. Heldrich Work Trends Survey. Vol. 3, no.3. (The Center, New Brunswick, New Jersey) January 2002. 44 p.

Full Text at: http://www.heldrich.rutgers.edu/

["Race Still Clouds Workers' Sense of Job Fairness: American workers are sharply divided along racial lines in their views about how they are treated on the job. Far more blacks and Hispanics than whites say they've been treated unfairly at work because of their race, according to a survey. White workers are far more likely than workers of other races to believe everyone is treated fairly." Atlanta Journal Constitution (January 17, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S4596]

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EMPLOYMENT LAW

"From Laboratories to Legislatures. By Cheye Calvo. IN: State Legislatures (September 2001) pp. 26-29.

["Legislating in the genomic age is harder than policymakers ever thought.... We can't pass a law and say we've dealt with it. It's ongoing policymaking.... Genetics employment laws are in place in 28 states. All laws prohibit discrimination based on the results of genetic tests. Most states also restrict employer access to genetic information."]

[Request #S4597]

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INCOME INEQUALITY

A New Look Through the Glass Ceiling: Where are the Women? the Status of Women in Management in Ten Selected Industries. By the staffs of the offices of Congressmen John D. Dingell (D-MI) and Carolyn B. Maloney (D-NY). (The Offices, Washington, DC) 16 p.; Appendices. 17 p.

Full Text at: www.equality2020.org/glass.pdf

["Full-time female managers earned less than male managers ... in 1995 and 2000 ... [and] the earnings gap grew during the five-year period. The report suggests that women still struggle to break through the "glass ceiling" that historically has been a barrier to advancement in the workplace." Associated Press (January 25, 2002).]

[Request #S4123]

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JOB TRAINING

21st Century Accountability: Perkins III and WIA by David Stevens, The Jacob France Institute, University of Baltimore. (The Institute, Baltimore, Maryland) 2001.

["This study addresses the application of performance excellence criteria to the Perkins III performance measurement process. Reviews major vocational education and work force development legislation and assessments. The paper discusses Perkins II and WIA Title I and Title II accountability processes, with a look to the future of accountability in career and technical education."]

[Request #S4059]

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Does Job Corps Work? Summary of the National Job Corps Study. By John Burghardt, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., and others. (Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey) 2001. 34 p.

Full Text at: www.mathematica-mpr.com/PDFs/jobsummfinal.pdf

["The National Job Study is based on a national random sample of all eligible applicants to Job Corps 1994 and 1945. Our process study revealed a well-developed and well-implemented program.... The program gives about 60,000 disadvantaged youths substantial, meaningful basic education, job training, and residential services each year."]

[Request #S4598]

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LABOR UNION

The Benefits of Unionization for Workers in the Retail Food Industry. By Vicky Lovell and others, Institute for Women’s Policy Research. (The Institute, Washington, DC) (February) 2002. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.iwpr.org/pdf/c352.pdf

[New Study Offers Fresh Evidence of the Economic Value of a Voice at Work: A new report shows that union representation for women working in retail food provides a clear alternative to the world of 'less' and 'fewer.'... They are two-and-a-half times as likely to have pension coverage and twice as likely to have health insurance coverage than women without union representation."]

[Request #S4599]

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OLDER WORKERS

"The Employment and Time Costs of Caring for Elderly Parents." By Richard W. Johnson and Anthony T. LoSasso. IN: Poverty Research News, vol. 5, no. 5 (September/October 2001) pp. 5-7.

["The aging U.S. society is placing new care demands on adult children. The financial costs of providing care to elderly parents can be substantial, particularly if caregivers interrupt their careers or retire early to provide care.... Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, Johnson and LoSasso examine how the time commitments of caring for elderly parents affect middle-aged adult children's hours spent in the labor force."]

[Request #S4600]

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UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS

Number of Workers Exhausting Unemployment Insurance Benefits Sets Record Level for a December. By the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) January 30, 2002. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/1-30-02ui.pdf

["New data from the U.S. Department of Labor show that the number of workers exhausting their regular unemployment insurance benefits without qualifying for additional benefits was larger in December 2001 than in any other December on record."]

[Request #S4601]

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UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE

Failing the Unemployed: A State by State Examination of Unemployment Insurance Systems. By Maurice Emsellem and others. Prepared by the National Employment Law Project, the Economic Policy Institute, and the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Project, New York, New York) March 2002. 33 p.

Full Text at: www.epinet.org/

["While the failings of the U.S. unemployment system are troublesome in the best of times, they can be disastrous for working families during a recession such as the current one. This report provides a state-by-state evaluation of unemployment insurance systems, grading each state on its eligibility requirements, benefit levels, employer taxes, funding adequacy, and recession preparedness." Economic Policy Institute (March 11, 2002)]

[Request #S4602]

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WAGES

How Living Wage Laws Affect Low-Wage Workers and Low-Income Families. By David Neumark, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) 2002. 174 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/publications/PPIC156/index.html

["Living Wage Reduces Poverty: Cities like San Francisco that boost minimum wages above the federal floor are reducing poverty rates for the working poor, even as they increase unemployment.... More than 60 U.S. cities, counties and public agencies have adopted a 'living wage' since 1994.... California has at least 10 living wage cities, according to the study." Associated Press (March 14, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S4603]

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WELFARE RECIPIENTS

The Weakening Link: Unemployment and Welfare Caseloads Executive Study. By National Campaign for Jobs and Income Support. (The Campaign, Washington, DC) December 2001. 12 p

Full Text at: www.nationalcampaign.org/Download/caseloadsreport.pdf

["Spike In Welfare Rolls Reignites Debate Over Safety Net: The almost year-long recession is finally registering in the welfare rolls.... An analysis ... found that 150,000 people have already had their Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) checks reduced or terminated permanently as a result of the federal five-year limit." Christian Science Monitor (February 7, 2002) 02.]

[Request #S4604]

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Employing Welfare Recipients with Significant Barriers to Work: Lessons from the Disability Field. By Karen N. Gardiner and Michael E. Fishman, The Lewin Group. Prepared for the Annie E. Casey Foundation. (The Foundation, Baltimore, Maryland) 2001. 57 p.

Full Text at: www.aecf.org/publications/welfareanddisabilities.pdf

["The purpose of this report is to: Examine the disability community's efforts to help individuals with significant disabilities access and maintain employment; and identify how welfare agencies can learn from and build upon lessons from the disability community."]

[Request #S4605]

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Employer Demand for Welfare Recipients by Race. By Harry J. Holzer and Michael A. Stoll, the Urban Institute. Discussion Paper No. 01-07. (The Institute, Washington, DC) January 2002. 53 p.

Full Text at: newfederalism.urban.org/pdf/discussion01-07.pdf

["This paper examines the determinants of employer demand for welfare recipients using new survey data on employers in four large metropolitan areas. The results suggest a high level of demand for welfare recipients.... The conditional demand for Black (and to a lesser extent Hispanic) welfare recipients lags behind their representation in the welfare population."]

[Request #S4606]

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WORK FORCE DEVELOPMENT

The Best of Both: Community Colleges and Community-Based Organizations Partner to Better Serve Low-Income Workers and Employers. By Brandon Roberts, Public/Private Ventures. (Ventures, New York, New York) January 2002. 51 p.

Full Text at: www.ppv.org/pdffiles/bestofboth.pdf

["Community colleges and community nonprofits are working together, sometimes as equal partners, to prepare low-income people for ... employment in occupations that can pay a livable wage, and offer opportunities for advancement.... Institutions are partnering to create new initiatives that combine intensive support services with short-term, hard skills training to produce qualified workers who fulfill the workforce needs of private employers."]

[Request #S4607]

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WORKPLACE SAFETY

"We Spend Our Days Working in Pain: A Report on Workplace Injuries in the Garment Industry." By Nan Lashuay, Asian Women Advocates, and others. Prepared for the Asian Immigrant Women Workers Clinic. (The Clinic, Oakland, California) January 2002. 24 p.

["Garment Workers at High Risk: Workers in the Bay Area's garment industry suffer a high rate of workplace injuries, but few employees file for workers' compensation out of fear they will lose their jobs.... The survey found that 99 of the clinic's patients had at least one work-related injury, including persistent pain in their backs, necks and shoulders." Contra Costa Times (February 7, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S4608]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CALWORKS

The CalWORKS Project: Overcoming Mental Health, Alcohol and Other Drugs and Domestic Violence Barriers to Employment: Six County Case Study: Report No. 2: Moving Beyond Implementation to Identification and Service: Executive Summary. By the California Institute for Mental Health. (The Institute, Sacramento, California) Fall 2001. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.cimh.org/downloads/CalWorks_sixcounty_exsum2.pdf

["One of the main components of the project is a Six County Case Study which has followed the progress of Alameda, Kern, Los Angeles, Monterey, Shasta, and Stanislaus counties as they implement the AOD, MH, and DV supportive services in their CalWORKs programs.... This report covers information gleaned from county site visits.... It includes county-level Management Information System data on AOD and MH services for FY 99-00."]

[Request #S4609]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

TANF Reauthorization: A Bibliography of Recent Articles. Compiled by Irene Stone and others, California Research Bureau, California State Library. (CRB, Sacramento, California) March 2002. 5 p.

[Includes: "Ending Welfare As We Know It: A Reform Still in Progress;" "What Comes After Welfare Reform: How We Can Ensure Economic Security for All Americans;" "Changing Welfare Offices: Welfare Reform and Beyond;" "TANF Reauthorization: Opportunities to Reduce Poverty by Improving Employment Outcomes;" "From Welfare to Work: What the Evidence Shows;" and others.]

[Request #S4592]

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Improving TANF Program Outcomes for Families with Barriers to Employment. By Heidi Goldberg, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (The Center, Washington DC) January 22, 2002. 17 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/1-22-02tanf3.pdf

["After summarizing research on the prevalence and effects of various barriers to employment, this paper discusses changes that could be made to TANF to improve program outcomes for families with work barriers."]

[Request #S4610]

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The Increasing Use of TANF and State Matching Funds to Provide Housing Assistance to Families Moving from Welfare to Work: 2001 Supplement. By Barbara Sard and Tim Harrison. (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, DC) December 3, 2001. 18 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/12-3-01hous.pdf

["This supplemental paper first reviews HHS relevant guidance and states' ability to transfer TANF funds to Social Services Block Grant (SSBG). It then explores the six new state and local initiatives that use TANF or MOE (Maintenance of Effort) funds to help subsidize families' ongoing housing costs."]

[Request #S4611]

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WELFARE

The Importance of Transitional Benefits: Who Loses Medicaid and Food Stamps, and What Does it Mean for Staying Off Welfare? By the Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University. Illinois Families Study. Policy Brief No. 1. (The Institute, Evanston, Illinois) December 2001. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.northwestern.edu/IPR/research/transition.pdf

["Using administrative records and the Illinois Family Study survey, we find that the majority of those who left TANF in Illinois ... also lost Medicaid and food stamps.... Fifty-one percent of those who lost both benefits returned to TANF, compared to only 20% of those who kept both benefits. These findings indicate that Medicaid and food stamps are valuable supports that need to be made available to more TANF leavers."]

[Request #S4612]

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Frequently Asked Questions About Working Welfare Leavers. By Elise Richer and others, Center for Law and Policy. (The Center, Washington DC) November 2001. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/pubs/TANF/leaversFAQ.pdf

["Using 34 studies from 26 different states, this report examines the information available about the leavers who are employed after they leave welfare. We use the information from these studies to answer a set of frequently asked questions concerning the employment experience and economic well-being of welfare leavers."]

[Request #S4613]

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WELFARE REFORM

Identity, Work, & Parenting: Implications for Welfare Reform. By Dan Lewis, Institute for Policy Research. Illinois Families Study Policy Brief No. 2. (The Institute, Evanston, Illinois) December 2001. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.northwestern.edu/IPR/research/identity.pdf

["Drawing upon qualitative interviews conducted in 2000 and 2001 with 58 current and former welfare recipients, this policy brief looks at how parents' identity and their ability and willingness to balance work and family determine how they will respond to the incentives and penalties associated with welfare reform."]

[Request #S4614]

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How do IDAs Affect Benefit Eligibility? By Zoe Neuberger, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 27, 2001. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/9-27-01wel.pdf

["This analysis explains the treatment of the four types of IDAs ... under the eligibility rules in some of the major benefit programs for which IDA holders may be eligible -- namely, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, Food Stamps, Medicaid, Supplemental Security Income, and federal housing assistance programs."]

[Request #S4615]

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Sanctions and Welfare Reform. By Dan Bloom and Don Winstead. Welfare Reform and Beyond, Policy Brief #12. (Brookings Institution , Washington DC) January 2002. 8p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/wrb/publications/pb/pb12.pdf

["Studies have found that welfare recipients who are sanctioned are a diverse group but, on average, face more barriers to employment than other recipients; they are also less likely to work after leaving welfare.... We believe states should continue to have flexibility in setting sanction policies. To reduce inappropriate sanctions, Congress could expand the types of work activities for disadvantaged recipients, and require states to describe both how they will inform recipients about exemptions from work requirements and what is required to remove a sanction."]

[Request #S4616]

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Recent Changes in Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems: State Focus. Assessing the New Federalism. By the Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) October 2001. 10 p.

Full Text at: newfederalism.urban.org/html/state_focus.html

["Assessing the New Federalism makes available a broad range of data on 13 states -- Alabama, California, Colorado, Florida, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, New York, Texas, Washington and Wisconsin.... 'Recent Changes' analyzes what has happened to the cash assistance, employment and training, child care, and child welfare systems in each state since the enactment of federal welfare reform."]

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Tracking the Progress of Welfare Reform Quickly: A Model for Measuring Neighborhood Health and Change. By Lois M. Quinn and John Pawasarat, Employment and Training Intitute, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Prepared for the Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, Brookings Institution. (The Center, Washington, DC) October 2001. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/es/urban/publications/pawasaratquinn.pdf

["This study describes the Milwaukee neighborhood indicators project.... The indicators allow local officials to measure the impact of welfare reform and worker benefit policies on families, to identify continuing employment barriers for inner-city residents, and to craft policies that help these families attain economic self-sufficiency. The research model described can be replicated in cities across the country."]

[Request #S4618]

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Promoting Work among Residents of Public Housing: The Role of Welfare Agencies in Implementing the Earned Income Disregard. By Barbara Sard and Patricia Sanders, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) October 17, 2001. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/10-17-01hous.pdf

["Under the earned income disregard provision enacted in 1998, public housing residents who are receiving or have recently received TANF benefits and go to work ... pay no additional rent for 12 months after their earnings increase.... The disregard helps families secure a greater increase in disposable income when they go to work and frees up funds that families can use for work-related expenses such as clothing and transportation."]

[Request #S4619]

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WELFARE TO WORK

Welfare Reform: More Coordinated Federal Effort Could Help States and Localities Move TANF Recipients with Impairments Toward Employment. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-37. (The Office, Washington, DC) October 2001. 50 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d0237.pdf

["Nationwide SIPP (Survey of Income and Program Participation) data for 1999 show that a total of 44 percent of TANF recipients reported having physical or mental impairments, a proportion almost three times as high as among adults in the non-TANF population ... Although most counties reported that they are screening TANF recipients with impairments, many recipients with impairments may not be receiving assistance to help them move toward employment."]

[Request #S4620]

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Beyond Welfare And Work First: Building Services And Systems To Support California's Working Poor And Hard-to-Place: Conference Highlights. Sponsored by the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, January 17-19, 2001. (The Corporation, Washington, D.C.) October 2001. 43 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/Reports2001/CA-Conference/MDRC%20Sacramento%20Brochure.pdf

["This conference exemplifies one key facet of the effort to strenghen the link between new policies and the most up-to-date research concerning strategies for promoting employment and self-sufficiency.... This publication captures the central themes and key messages from the conference."]

[Request #S4621]

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Estimating the Effect of Work Requirements on Welfare Recipients: A Synthesis of the National Literature: Testimony Before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness, U. S. House of Representatives. By Lynn A. Karoly, Labor and Population Program, RAND. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) October 16, 2001. 19 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/CT/CT185/CT185.pdf

["[The author] conducted an extensive review of recent research to synthesize the current state of knowledge about the effects of welfare reform. The primary focus ... was on the net effects of reform, taking into account the impact of other factors such as the economy and other policy changes.... The synthesis considered both the effect of TANF reforms ... and the effects of specific policies, including work requirements, financial incentives, and time limits."]

[Request #S4622]

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PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
[This section links to items in Studies in the News since the last Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement.]

EMPLOYMENT

"Employment." IN: Studies in the News, 02-06 (January 29, 2002).

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/sitn/2002/0206.htm#EMPLOYMENT

[Includes: "Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. v. Ella Williams;" and "The Impact of September 11 on U.S. Metropolitan Economies."]

[Request #S4406]

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"Employment." IN: Studies in the News, 02-10 (February 19, 2002).

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/sitn/2002/0210.htm#EMPLOYMENT

[Includes: "The Status of Women in Management;" and "Millions likely to exhaust UI benefits."]

[Request #S4407]

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"Employment." IN: Studies in the News, 02-12 (February 22, 2002).

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/sitn/2002/0212.htm#EMPLOYMENT

[Includes "Wages in San Diego;" and "Implementation of the Workforce Investment Act."]

[Request #S4408]

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"Employment." IN: Studies in the News, 02-18 (March 21, 2002).

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/sitn/2002/0218.htm#HUMAN

[Includes: "TANF proposals would limit state flexibility;" "Welfare reform's immigrant provisions;" "Immigrants and welfare reauthorization;" "Immigrants after welfare reform;" and "Welfare reform's effect on children."]

[Request #S4409]

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