Subject: Studies in the News 02-22 (April 5, 2002)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

April 1852 - "Edward F. Beale was appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs for California in April 1852. … Beale requested $500,000 for military reservations where both soldiers and Indians would reside. Congress appropriated $250,000 for five reservations, not to exceed 25,000 acres each, to be located on public lands, with good land, wood, and water."  A History of American Indians in California  

April 1852 - "When a (federal) bill concerning funding for California's Indian problems was finally approved on 30 April 1852, it only contained money to establish a permanent Indian Agent for California and money to pacify the Indians until the treaties were passed by Congress..... These treaties drew heavy opposition from the state government in California. A state commission was assembled in 1852 to examine the treaties, and in its report to the state legislature, it recommended that Congress be notified of the 'great evils that would inevitably result to the people of California' if the treaties were ratified. "  California and the Indian Wars  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CALIFORNIA READER
   San Diego industry clusters
   Leadership for regional action
CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Coordinated efforts to prevent domestic violence
   Proposition 21 upheld
   Crime bills on terrorism
   Effects of three strikes law
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Four faces of affirmative action
   Legal history of Proposition 209
   Mapping state cultural policy
   Estimates of undocumented immigrants in the US
DEMOGRAPHY
   California home to largest Asian American population
   One in four Native Americans resides in California
ECONOMY
    Reducing other Enron-like situations
   NAFTA and local authority
   Recession in the West
   Service delivery in California cities
   Predicting the turn of the economy
EDUCATION
   Community colleges and the equity agenda
   Higher education and the recession
   Promoting safe schools
   Guide for managing violence
   Teacher union contracts and school quality
ENERGY
   California energy conservation report
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Certified regulatory programs
   Mojave among ten most endangered national parks
   Federal regulation of wetlands
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Federal grants
   State web portals
   Local governments and Governor's budget
   Dimensions of budget shortfall
   State house security measures
   Proposals to modify or repeal term limits
HEALTH
   Lung cancer and fine particulate air pollution
   Residential care facilities for the elderly
   Overview of care for the elderly
   Oregon health care reform
HOUSING
   Crowding in California
   Landlord drug policy backed by court
HUMAN SERVICES
   Summary of children and family legislation
   Immigrants and welfare reform
   Immigrants receiving welfare decreased in California
INTERNATIONAL READER
   Border issues linked to trade
NATIONAL READER
   Interagency anti-terrorism plans
TRANSPORTATION
   Highway safety grants
WASHINGTON READER
   California Institute's briefing on federal issues
STUDIES TO COME
   Improving advanced study of math and science
   Scary environmental scenarios counterproductive
   Trawling devastates sea life
   Minority nurses workforce
   Highest increases in welfare cases
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CALIFORNIA READER

Industry Cluster Focus Coalition Strategic Workforce Development Plans. By the San Diego Regional Technology Alliance. (The Alliance, San Diego, California) February 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.sdrta.org/sdrta/clusterdata/index.htm

["Industrial clusters are a labeling of subsets of industries in a regional economy that are interconnected by flows of goods and services that are stronger than those linking them to the rest of the economy.... The first four of the San Diego Industry Clusters: Biosciences Industry Cluster; Computer and Electronics Manufacturing Industry Cluster; Software and Computer Services Industry Cluster; [and] Visitor Services Industry Cluster."]

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The Practice of Stewardship: Developing Leadership for Regional Action. By John Parr and others, Alliance for Regional Stewardship. Monograph Series, No. 5. (The Alliance, Mountain View, California) March 2002. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.regionalstewardship.org/Documents/Monograph5.pdf

["Every region wants to know how to address its complex economic, environmental, and social challenges, and every region also knows that our current ways of addressing these challenges are inadequate. We need to develop new practices appropriate to 21st century situations.... John Parr and Kim Walesch examined the practices of regional stewards across the nation and shared those practices with the Alliance."]

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CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

FAMILY VIOLENCE

Hitting Home. By Cara Feinberg. IN: The American Prospect Online, vol. 13, no. 7 (April 8, 2002). [online.]

Full Text at: www.prospect.org/print-friendly/print/V13/7/feinberg-c.html

["Domestic violence is the issue that embarrasses traditionalists. Today, despite greater awareness and a variety of model programs, partner abuse is still far too prevalent.... Throughout the country, states have begun to integrate their systems and have developed new, progressive programs to deal with domestic violence.... And while states may have implemented great judicial and law-enforcement reforms, if these are not closely monitored and coordinated, they can still fall short of their goals."]

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JUVENILE OFFENDERS

California Youth-Offender Law Stands Up to Challenges. And Judge Calls for Adult Trial for California School Shooter. By Join Together. JoinTogether Online (February 12, 2002) 2 p.

Full Text at: http://www.jointogether.org/

["It appears that California's Proposition 21, which changed the state juvenile-court system, will survive another court challenge, allowing prosecutors to proceed with the Santee High School shootings case.... San Diego Superior Court Judge Herbert Exarhos upheld a controversial California law and ruled that Andy Williams must be tried as an adult"]

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TERRORISM

Crime Bills Would Define, Penalize Terrorism. By the Criminal Justice Program, National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) March 22, 2002. 2 p.

["State legislatures are considering a variety of new crimes and penalties related to acts of terrorism. Measures before more than a dozen states seek to define terrorism for purposes of imposing new criminal penalties.... NCSL has a database providing links to the websites, including bill information, of the fifty state legislatures."]

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THREE-STRIKES LAW

An Assessment of the Effects of California's Three Strikes Law. By Peter W. Greenwood and Angela Hawken, Greenwood & Associates. (The Associates, Malibu Lake, California) March 2002. 11 p.

["Many believe that the three strikes law as written is now dead but that the law's effects are still being felt during plea-bargaining and when sentences are ratcheted up during the bargaining process, which has escaped the public's attention. However, the three strikes law is very much alive for the thousands of offenders who are now serving 25 years to life, who would not be serving such sentences if they were tried currently."]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

"The Four Faces of Affirmative Action: Analysis and Answers." By W. Robert Gray. IN: Public Integrity (Winter 2002) pp. 43-59.

["This article addresses the confusion and controversy surrounding the justifications for affirmative action. From a position favorable to affirmative action, the article organizes the constitutional and legal arguments for affirmative action according to four modes of thought derived from philosophy.... The arguments are clarified, and the direction of affirmative action is pointed toward future-oriented solutions."]

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Proposition 209 and the Courts: A Legal History. By Kate Sproul, California Senate Office of Research. 02-01. (The Office, Sacramento, California) February 2002. 8 p.

["[The report] concludes that since the passage of Proposition 209 in November 1996, there have been a number of legal cases working their way through the courts to define the scope of the proposition. [It] discusses three pivotal court decisions that are final.... The first lawsuit challenged the initiative ... the federal courts upheld its constitutionality.... The courts found that the second decision ... and the third ... violated Proposition 209."

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CULTURAL POLICY

Sub-National Cultural Policy – Where the Action is? Mapping State Cultural Policy in the United States. By J. Mark Schuster, The Cultural Policy Center, University of Chicago. Prepared for the Second International Conference on Cultural Policy Research, Wellington, New Zealand. (The Center, Chicago, Illinois) January 28, 2002. 30 p.

Full Text at: www.pewtrusts.com/pdf/cul_new_zealand_paper.pdf

["This paper introduces some new thinking about the role and contribution of cultural programs at the sub-national level, illustrating these ideas by reference to the role of the states in the United States. It is based on a pilot project for the Mapping of State Cultural Policy in the United States ... [which] draws its inspiration from the Council of Europe's Program of Reviews of National Cultural Policies."]

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IMMIGRANTS

How Many Undocumented: The Numbers Behind the U.S / Mexico Migration Talks. And Estimating the Distribution of Undocumented Workers in the Urban Labor Force: Technical Memorandum. By B. Lindsay Lowell and others, Pew Hispanic Center. Estimates of Numbers of Unauthorized Migrants Residing in the United States: The Total, Mexican, and Non-Mexican Central American Unauthorized Populations in Mid-2001. By Frank D. Bean, University of California, Irvine, and others. November 2001. And Guest Workers: New Solution, New Problem? By Philip Martin, University of California at Davis. (The Center, Washington, DC) March 21, 2002. Various pagings.

["Almost a quarter of people working in private households in the United States are illegal immigrants, as are about half the country's farmworkers and 9 percent of its restaurant employees, a report says. The analysis by the nonpartisan Pew Hispanic Center offers a detailed look at the nation's illegal immigrants, estimated at almost 8 million people, and demonstrates how much certain industries rely on the country's approximately 5.3 million undocumented workers." San Francisco Chronicle (March 22, 2002) A3.]

How Many Undocumented 12 p.
http://www.pewhispanic.org/site/docs/pdf/howmanyundocumented.pdf

How Many Undocumented: Technical Memorandum 7 p.
http://www.pewhispanic.org/site/docs/pdf/distributionofundocumentedworkers.pdf

Estimates of Numbers 11 p.
http://www.pewhispanic.org/site/docs/pdf/study_-_frank_bean.pdf

Guest Workers 21 p.
http://www.pewhispanic.org/site/docs/pdf/study_-_philip_martin.pdf

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DEMOGRAPHY

ASIAN AMERICANS

The Asian Population: 2000. By Jessica S. Barnes and Charles E. Bennett. U.S. Census Bureau. (Bureau, Washington, DC) February 2002. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-16.pdf

[“Half of all Asian Americans still reside in the western United States –with California home to largest number. According to a new report… 49 percent of the nation’s 11.9 million Asian Americans live in the West, 20 percent in the Northeast, 19 percent in the South and 12 percent in the Midwest. California is home to 4.2 million people who listed themselves as at least partly Asian, followed by New York, Hawaii and Texas.” San Francisco Chronicle (March 4, 2002) 1.]

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NATIVE AMERICANS

The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2000. By Shella U. Ogunwole. U.S. Census Bureau (The Bureau, Washington, DC) February 2002. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-15.pdf

["One in four of the 4.1 million American Indians and Alaska Natives counted in the 2000 Census now calls California or Oklahoma home, the Census Bureau reported… [with] California boasting the largest presence, 628,000 people.” San Francisco Chronicle (February 13, 2002) A3.]

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ECONOMY

AUDITING AND ACCOUNTING

Highlights of GAO's Corporate Governance, Transparency and Accountability Forum. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-494SP. (The Office, Washington, DC) March 2002. 14 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?gao-02-494SP

["The Congress and GAO are interested in changes that could serve to reduce the possibility of other Enron-like situations occurring in the future. In general, there must be the proper incentives, transparency, and accountability mechanisms in place to ensure the effectiveness of any system. As a result, these principles were considered in connection with all of the issues discussed."]

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NAFTA

"Does NAFTA Threaten Local Authority? The Debate on Regulatory Takings Goes International." By William Waren and Bill Higgins. IN: Western City (March 2002) pp. 7-8+.

["The 'investment chapter' of the North American Free Trade Agreement ... was designed to protect the investments of international corporations.... [It] requires member nations to compensate investors if domestic laws directly or indirectly 'expropriate' a foreign investment.... [It] is similar to regulatory takings, except it is more extreme.... Several well-financed international corporations are beginning to test the water."]

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SAVINGS & PENSIONS

Private Pensions: Key Issues to Consider Following the Enron Collapse. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-480T. (The Office, Washington, DC) February 27, 2002. 13 p.

["The collapse of the Enron Corporation and the accompanying loss of Enron employees' retirement savings appear to highlight vulnerabilities in the private pension system and help focus attention on strengthening several aspects of this system."]

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U.S. ECONOMY

Recession in the West: Not a Rerun of 1990-1991. By Mary Daly and Lily Hsueh, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. FRBSF Economic Letter. Number 2002-06. (The Bank, San Francisco, California) March 8, 2002. 3 p.

["This Economic Letter puts the current downturn in the region in perspective in several ways, including placing it in the context of broader U.S. trends and examining conditions in the District as a whole, as well as by state and by selected sectors.... California seems to be taking only a modest hit, while some other states are enduring contractions in employment for the first time in nearly 20 years."]

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URBAN AREAS

California Competitive Cities: A Report Card on Efficiency in Service Delivery in California’s Largest Cities. By Geoffrey F. Segal and others, Reason Public Policy Institute. Policy Study No. 291. (The Institute, Los Angeles, California) February 2002. 35 p.

Full Text at: http://www.rppi.org/

["The study ... analyzed data from 1993 to 1999 ... taking into account all seven years, the study determined San Diego was the most efficient, followed by Fresno, Long Beach, Sacramento, Santa Ana, Los Angeles, Anaheim, Oakland and San Francisco.... The study ranked city services in 10 categories: building maintenance, emergency medical services, fire protection, fleet management, libraries, parks and recreation, police, solid waste, street repair and water." Fresno Bee (February 26, 2002) B1.]

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WORLD ECONOMY

Predicting When the Economy Will Turn. By Prakash Loungani, International Monetary Fund and Bharat Trehan, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. FRBSF Economic Letter. Number 2002-07. (The Bank, San Francisco, California) March 15, 2002. 4 p.

["In this Economic Letter we discuss some research on forecasters' ability to predict the onset of recessions both in the U.S. and abroad. The evidence is that it is extremely difficult to predict when recessions will begin. The evidence on the other turning point in the business cycle -- a recovery -- suggests that it is easier to forecast, a finding that is encouraging in view of the widespread prediction that the U.S. economy will emerge from recession this year."]

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EDUCATION

COMMUNITY COLLEGES

Community Colleges and the Equity Agenda: The Potential of Non-Credit Education: Revised Draft. By W. Norton Grubb, University of California, Berkeley and others. Prepared for the Metlife Foundation Community College Excellence Awards Initiative, Jobs for the Future. (The University, Berkeley, California) February 2002. 38 p.

["Community colleges have prided themselves on their inclusiveness.... In practice, however, community colleges have never reached the neediest individuals in any great numbers.... Community colleges now engage in a form of education that includes many of these poorly-served students. Some colleges have developed programs of non-credit education that are in every way more welcoming of low-wage students.... We outline the advantages of these non-credit programs."]

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HIGHER EDUCATION

Higher Education and the Recession: Questions to Consider. By Jason Dickerson and others, Fitch, Inc. (Fitch, Inc., New York, New York) January 31, 2002. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.fitchratings.com/corporate/reports/report.cfm?rpt_id=137550

["This report describes areas of analytical focus by Fitch higher education analysts during an apparently recessionary economic environment, as well as specific areas of focus arising from the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the U.S.... Fitch's long-term outlook for the U.S. higher education sector remains positive."]

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SCHOOL SAFETY

California Safe Schools Assessment, 2000-2001 Results: Promoting Safe Schools. By the California Department of Education, Butte County Office of Education, and; Duerr Evaluation Resources. (The Department, Sacramento, California) 2002. 193 p.

Full Text at: www.cde.ca.gov/spbranch/safety/cssa/00-01results.pdf

[" Statewide, nearly all crimes except homicide and robbery or extortion increased in the 2000-01 school year. The most commonly reported incidents were crimes against people -- including student fights or assaults with deadly weapons -- which rose about 16 percent.... 'Overall, the data show that while our schools continue to be generally safe havens for our children, there are some students who are capable of causing harm to other students and damage to school facilities.' said Delaine Eastin, whose department published the report." San Jose Mercury News (March 1, 2002) B1.]

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Threats in Schools: A Practical Guide for Managing Violence. By Joseph T. McCann. (Haworth Press, New York, New York) 2002. 155 p.

["This book is intended to serve as a concise guide to conceptualizing threats, assessing the violence potential in those students who have either made or who pose a threat of violence, and managing potentially violent situations in schools.... The focus is primarily on practical issues and recommendations for professionals who work with students in elementary and secondary school settings." NOTE: Threats in Schools ... is available for 3-day loan.]

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TEACHERS

Contract for Failure: The Impact of Teacher Union Contracts on the Quality of California Schools. By Pamela A. Riley, Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, and others. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) March 2002. 122 p.

Full Text at: www.pacificresearch.org/pub/sab/educat/contractforfailure.pdf

["Report Critical of School Labor Contracts: The report ... will likely become political ammunition to fight legislation (AB 2160) now before the state Assembly that could expand the collective bargaining powers of teachers.... Critics say the bill goes too far. Collective bargaining should focus on teacher working conditions, not educational policies, they say." Chico Enterprise Record (March 15, 2002) 1.]

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ENERGY

The Summer 2001 Conservation Report. By Governor Gray Davis' Energy Conservation Team, California State and Consumer Services Agency, (The Agency, Sacramento, California) February 2002. 25 p.

Full Text at: www.energy.ca.gov/efficiency/2001_CONSERVATION_REPORT.P

["This report provides an assessment of California's statewide energy conservation effort. Overall, California cut energy use by 6.7 percent in 2001 through a variety of programs including a statewide media campaign, consumer rebates, energy efficiency standards and outreach efforts. During summer peak use, Californians reduced use by 10 percent. This report also refutes two theories that attributed conservation rates to the recession and the weather. Further conservation efforts will include: rewarding conservation during peak demand, providing feedback to consumers on savings efforts and continuing cost-effective energy conservation programs." California Policy Forum NewsWire ( March 5, 2002) A1.]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION

Are “Certified Regulatory Programs” Functionally Equivalent to CEQA? A Comparison of Their Statutes and Regulations. By Daniel Pollak, California Research Bureau. Prepared for Senator Sheila James Kuehl. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) March 2002. 40 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/02/05/02-005.pdf

["This paper will explain what is required for a program to become a certified regulatory program, and the precise scope and nature of the resulting CEQA exemption.... It will compare their environmental analysis and disclosure requirements to CEQA to assess how closely their statutory and regulatory requirements resemble key requirements of CEQA."]

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Environmental Protection: Overcoming Obstacles to Innovative State Regulatory Programs. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-268. (The Office, Washington, DC) January 2002. 37 p.

["This report identifies the major avenues that states have utilized to obtain EPA's approval of innovative approaches to environmental protection and the major obstacles that impede states from pursuing innovative approaches needing EPA's concurrence."]

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GASOLINE ADDITIVES

Subject: U.S. Ethanol Market: MTBE Ban in California. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-440R. (The Office, Washington, DC) February 27, 2002. 28 p.

["If California decides to use ethanol to replace MTBE, ethanol production capacity from 2003 through 2005 could likely satisfy U.S. consumption, according to available ethanol industry projections. However, if other states also banned MTBE and moved to ethanol, consumption could increase significantly and potentially affect the industry's ability to meet demand."]

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NATIONAL PARKS

New List of America's Ten Most Endangered National Parks Highlights Widespread Problems: Press Release. By The National Parks Conservation Association. (The Association, Washington, DC) March 25, 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.npca.org/media_center/ten_most.asp

["Mojave Makes Threatened List: A Group Says a Company's Plan to Sell Groundwater Endangers the Desert Preserve....The conservation association said numerous problems threaten the park, including invasive plants and animals -- and people....The solution, the organization says, is more money for the park and fewer developments such as the one proposed by Cadiz." Riverside Press-Enterprise (March 26, 2002) A3.]

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WETLANDS

The U.S. Supreme Court Limits Federal Regulation of Wetlands: Implications of the SWANCC Decision. By Jennifer Ruffolo, California Research Bureau. Prepared for Senator Sheila Kuehl. CRB 02-003. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) February 2002. 129 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/02/03/02-003.pdf

["This essay reviews the history of federal wetlands regulation, the Supreme Court decision, and the Corps' reaction so far. It attempts to identify the wetlands, or at least the areas of the state from which federal regulation may be withdrawn. It summarizes California's programs that may have legal authorization to continue regulating wetlands even as the Corps withdraws."]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

ELECTION REFORM

Congress Struggles with Election Reform Legislation. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief. 02-16. (FFIS, Washington, DC) March 8, 2002. 3 p.

["On December 12, 2001, the House passed H.R. 3295. This legislation would both require states to improve their election systems and aid states in funding the improvements. The Senate is currently considering a companion bill, S. 565, which also would provide aid to states while requiring them to make improvements in their election systems. This Issue Brief outlines the major provisions in the two bills and provides preliminary estimates of potential state grants."]

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FEDERAL GRANTS

Competitive Grants. By The Federal Funds Information for States. Competitive Grant Update 02-02. (FFIS, Washington, DC) March 13, 2002. 6 p.

["Includes: "Community-Based Habitat Restoration Projects;" "Administration on Aging: Alzheimer Disease Demonstration Grants to States Program;" "CDC: Community-Based Participatory Prevention Research;" "Administration for Children and Families (ACF): Runaway and Homeless Youth Programs;" "Comprehensive Community Mental Health Service for Children and Their Families Program;" "National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program;" "Labor-Management Cooperation Program; and others."]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

State Web Portals: Delivering and Financing E-Service. By Diana Burley Gant, Indiana University, and others. Prepared for The PricewaterhouseCoopers Endowment for the Business of Government. (The Endowment, Arlington, Virginia) January 2002. 64 p.

Full Text at: endowment.pwcglobal.com/pdfs/JohnsonReport.pdf

["Part I examines how state governments are enhancing the delivery of e-services to citizens. Their report presents findings from their examination of all 50 state web portals.... Part II presents findings from a survey of 33 states that examined how states are financing the development and maintenance of their web portals, as well as their pricing strategies for the delivery of e-services to citizens."]

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LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Local Government and the Governor's Budget: The Summary Report from the Committee Briefings. By the Senate Committee on Local Government. 1128-S. (The Committee, Sacramento, California) February 21, 2002. Various pagings.

["The Committee received a briefing from the Legislative Analyst's Office about the budget, heard advice from local government lobbyists on how legislators can reduce the Budget's effects, and listened to explanations of a ballot initiative proposed by local government trade associations. The new report summarizes the witnesses' comments, includes the background policy paper, and reprints all of the hand-out materials."]

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STATE BUDGET

Budget Watch. By the California Budget Project. Vol. 8, No. 1. (The Project, Sacramento, California) February 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/adobe/2002/bwvol81.pdf

[Includes: "State Faces $12.5 Billion Budget Gap;" "The Roots of the Problem;" "The Problem Has A Long -- And A Short-Term Dimension;" "Risks to the Budget;" "Budget Does Not Include Proposals To Increase State Revenues;" "Where Are The Cuts?" "Maximizing the State's Economic Development Investments;" and "TANF Reauthorization Positions Are Being Defined."]

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STATE BUILDINGS

Is the State House Safe? By Kae M. Warnock, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 10, No. 10. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) February 2002. 2 p.

["Many legislatures and governors are making drastic changes to secure their state houses and legislative buildings.... 'Security Measures in State Capitols' [lists] states which had installed or were in the process of installing security measures in December 2001."]

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TERM LIMITS

2002 Proposals to Modify or Repeal Term Limits. By the National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) March 12, 2002. 3 p.

["The move to modify or repeal legislative term limits appears to be gaining momentum around the country. Term limits were tossed out by the Oregon Supreme Court, and repealed by the Idaho Legislature. The table outlines the citizen initiatives and legislative proposals pending in 2002 to modify or repeal term limits."]

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HEALTH

CANCER

"Lung Cancer, Cardiopulmonary Mortality, and Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution." By C. Arden Pope, Brigham Young University, and others. IN: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 287, no. 9 (March 6, 2002) pp. 1132-1141.

["Soot Particles Strongly Tied to Lung Cancer: Prolonged exposure to air tainted with tiny particles of soot significantly raises the risk of dying of lung cancer or other lung and heart diseases, according to a new study of 500,000 people in 116 American cities.... Many city residents face a long-term risk of fatal lung cancer similar to that of someone living with a smoker.... The finding ... adds urgency to efforts to reduce fine-particle pollution, which comes from power plants and motor vehicles." New York Times (March 6, 2002) A14.]

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ELDERLY

A Primer on Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly. By The Quality Initiative, California HealthCare Foundation. (The Foundation, Oakland, California) January 2002. 40 p.

Full Text at: admin.chcf.org/documents/quality/RCFEprimer.pdf

["Surprisingly little is known about this industry, one that provides vital services to more than one million individuals who are among the oldest and frailest members of society.... This primer sheds some light on these issues by reviewing the available evidence.... The report also includes a set of recommendations for policymakers to consider in order to address the information gaps that exist today."]

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Residential Care for the Elderly: Supply, Demand, and Quality Assurance. By Robert Newcomer and Robert Maynard, University of California, San Francisco. Prepared for the California HealthCare Foundation. (The Foundation, Oakland, California) January 2002. 73 p.

Full Text at: admin.chcf.org/documents/quality/RCFEfullreport.pdf

["This paper provides an overview of the residential care industry, including background on how it is financed and regulated, trends affecting the supply and operations of both licensed and unlicensed supportive housing, and a review of the ability of current data systems to monitor the effects of both public- and private-sector changes on consumer demand, the supply of providers, and the quality of care."]

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HEALTH CARE REFORM

The Oregon Experience: Prioritizing Services and Expanding Coverage. By Barbara Yondorf, Health Priorities Project, National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) January 2002. 22 p.

["This paper sets out Oregon's vision for health care and the basic policy underpinnings of its approach; briefly reviews the history of the Oregon Health Plan; describes the Oregon prioritization process; examines recent developments in Oregon that involve a modified approach; looks at the effects of the plan on coverage in the state; and discusses the lessons other states can learn from the Oregon experience."]

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MEDICAID

FY 2002 Medicaid Spending Growth on Target. By The Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief 02-15. (FFIS, Washington DC) March 6, 2002.

["Federal observers have noted a spike in federal fiscal year (FY) 2002 Medicaid spending compared to FY 2001. Federal grants for state Medicaid spending are projected to increase 12 percent in FY 2002. However, state drawdowns over the first four months of FY 2002 have increased almost 19 percent over FY 2001."]

[Request #S4684]

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HOUSING

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

What Explains Crowding in California? By Rosa Maria Moller, California Research Bureau, and others. CRB 02-002. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) February 2002. 58 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/02/02/02-002.pdf

["Crowding (defined as more than one person per room) has been rising in California. A number of observers believe that this increase in household size reflects a rise in crowding in response to the lack of affordable housing.... This study looked at the determinants of crowding in California by examining demographic factors and measures of housing availability. Trends in crowding are discussed for California as a whole as well as some specific geographic areas."]

[Request #S4685]

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PUBLIC HOUSING

Department of Housing and Urban Development v. Pearlie Rucker et al., Oakland Housing Authority, et al., v. Pearlie Rucker et al. Nos. 00-1770 and 00-1781. Supreme Court of the United States. March 26, 2002. 8 p.

["Court Backs Landlords on Drug Policy: The decision means public projects can use evictions as crime-control tools.... (The law) unambiguously requires lease terms that vest local public housing authorities with the discretion to evict tenants for the drug-related activity of household members and guests whether or not the tenant knew about the activity." Sacramento Bee (March 27, 2002) A3.]

[Request #S4686]

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HUMAN SERVICES

FAMILIES

Children, Youth and Family Issues: 2001 State Legislative Summary. By the Children and Families Program, National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) February 2002. 167 p.

["This publication indexes more than 1,000 pieces of legislation enacted by the states and the District of Columbia.... [It] covers critical policy areas, including child care, child welfare, child support, juvenile justice, school violence, family law and welfare reform."]

[Request #S4687]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

Workforce Investment Act: Coordination between TANF Programs and One-Stop Centers Is Increasing, but Challenges Remain. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-500T. (The Office, Washington, DC) March 12, 2002. 15 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?gao-02-500T

["State and local efforts to coordinate their TANF and WIA programs increased in 2001, at least one year after all states implemented WIA. Nearly all states reported some coordination at the state or local level, achieved with methods ranging from informal linkages ... to formal case management."]

[Request #S4688]

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Welfare Reform: States Are Using TANF Flexibility to Adapt Work Requirements and Time Limits to Meet State and Local Needs. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-501T (The Office, Washington, DC) March 7, 2002. 25 p.

["States' experiences with implementing work requirements and time limits highlight key issues of interest for the reauthorization of TANF provisions, including the relatively limited number of families that have reached their time limits so far and the future adequacy of the federal 20 percent extension."]

[Request #S4696]

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WELFARE

How Are Immigrants Faring After Welfare Reform? Preliminary Evidence from Los Angeles and New York City. By Randy Capps and others, Urban Institute and Eve Fielder and others, Survey Research Center, University of California at Los Angeles. Prepared for Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. (The Institute, Washington, DC) March 4, 2002. 99 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/pdfs/410426_final_report.pdf

["This report provides findings from a survey of immigrants in Los Angeles County and New York City that was designed to yield new insights about the status of immigrants in the context of welfare reform. The report summarizes data from a survey of 3,447 immigrant families, including detailed data on 7,843 people in those families.... The survey describes the living conditions of about 4.8 million in Los Angeles County."]

[Request #S4690]

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WELFARE REFORM

The Impact of Welfare Reform on Immigrant Welfare Use. By George J. Borjas. Center for Immigration Studies. (The Center, Washington, DC) March 2002. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.cis.org/articles/2002/borjas.pdf

["In California, the fraction of immigrants receiving welfare dropped precipitously between 1994 and 1998.... Thirty-one percent of immigrant households in California received some kind of government assistance in 1994 in the form of cash benefits, Medicaid or food stamps. By 1998, after Congress severely tightened welfare eligibility, the proportion had fallen to 23.2 percent." Sacramento Bee (March 29, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S4691]

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INTERNATIONAL READER

An Agenda for the President's Visit to Latin America: Security, Democracy, and Trade. By Stephen Johnson and Ana I. Eiras, American Heritage Foundation. American Heritage Backgrounder. No. 1529. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) March 19, 2002.

Full Text at: www.heritage.org/library/backgrounder/pdf/bg1529.pdf

["The U.S.-Mexico border has experienced explosive population growth, but without a corresponding investment in infrastructure or security. Informal communities lacking adequate sanitation have sprung up, primarily in Mexico.... The United States made a NAFTA commitment to finance environmental and infrastructure projects through the North American Development Bank (NADB). However, because of its rigid charter, the bank has been unable to offer loans at attractive interest rates, particularly on the Mexican side of the border."]

[Request #S4692]

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NATIONAL READER

NATIONAL READER

Combating Terrorism: Key Aspects of a National Strategy to Enhance State and Local Preparedness. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-473T. (The Office, Washington, DC) March 1, 2002. 22 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?gao-02-473T

["The attorney general's Five-Year Interagency Counterterrorism Crime and Technology Plan, issued in December 1998, represents one attempt to develop a national strategy on combating terrorism. This plan entailed a substantial interagency effort and could potentially serve as a basis for a national preparedness strategy. However, we found it lacking in two critical elements necessary for an effective strategy: (1) measurable outcomes and (2) identification of state and local government roles in responding to terrorist attack."]

[Request #S4693]

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TRANSPORTATION

HIGHWAY SAFETY

FY 2002 Highway Safety Grants. By The Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief. 02-17. (FFIS, Washington, DC) March 14, 2002. 4 p.

["Federal highway safety funding has grown increasingly complex, as the basic Section 402 formula grant program is now accompanied by occupant protection, impaired driving, data improvement and safety transfer programs. The reauthorization next year of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) offers an opportunity to reduce complexity while maintaining a focus on attaining program goals."]

[Request #S4694]

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WASHINGTON READER

California Capitol Hill Bulletin. By the California Institute for Federal Policy Research. Volume 9, Bulletin 8. (The Institute, Washington, DC) March 21, 2002. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.calinst.org/bulletins/bull908.pdf

[Includes: "Governor Delays MTBE Ban;" "State Attorney General Seeks FERC Refunds for Overcharges in 2000;" "Fusion Energy Community Briefs Californians;" "Briefing April 12 on Voter Opinions of Welfare and Related Programs;" and others.]

[Request #S4697]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

EDUCATION

MATHEMATICS & SCIENCE TEACHING

Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools. By the Committee on Programs for Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in American High School, National Research Council. (National Academy Press, Washington, DC) 2002. 300 p.

Full Text at: www.nap.edu/nap-cgi/napsearch.cgi?term=advanced+placement

["Advanced Placement Offers Too Much, Too Quickly: Accelerated high school courses in math and science cover a 'smorgasbord' of material too quickly and superficially, , a new government study says.... 'The primary aim ... should be to help students achieve deep understanding of the content and unifying ideas of a science or math discipline,' said Jerry Gollub, a physics professor at Haverford College and a leader of the committee.'" Contra Costa Times (February 17, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S4689]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World. By Bjorn Lomborg. (Cambridge University Press, New York, New York) 2002. 515 p.

["Optimistic Researcher Draws Pessimistic Reviews; Critics Attack View That Life Is Improving: A controversial new book by a Danish Statistician claims that, environmentally speaking, the world is getting better, contrary to the headline-making scary scenarios of the last few decades.... The book is a survey of global trends in everything from human population and grain production to illiteracy, working hours and planetary forest cover." San Francisco Chronicle (March 4, 2002) A4.]

[Request #S4698]

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OCEAN RESOURCES

Effects of Trawling and Dredging on Seafloor Habitat: Prepublication Draft. By the Committee on Ecosystem Effects of Fishing, National Research Council. (National Academy Press, Washington, DC) 2002. 183 p.

Full Text at: bob.nap.edu/books/0309083400/html/

["Dragging nets along the ocean floor, a widely used method of commercial fishing, causes such devastation to sea life that the practice should be banned from areas with fragile marine habitat, federal researchers concluded....The National Marine Fisheries Service, which manages commercial fishing, said the scientific recommendations come at a key time: when its fisheries management councils are preparing studies on the best protection for critical ocean habitat in five different regions." Los Angeles Times (March 19, 2002) A12.]

[Request #S4699]

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HEALTH

NURSES

Minority Nurses in the New Century: Characteristics and Workforce Utilization Pattern -- A Survey. By the American Nurses Association. (The Association, Washington, DC) February 2002. 96 p.

["Some Nursing Leaders Say Discrimination Can Hamper Minority Recruitment: The survey was based on responses from 5,284 nurses who are African-American, white, Hispanic, Asian-American/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaskan Native. African American nurses were more likely than other respondents to say they were denied promotions for jobs for which they were qualified." AMNews (March 11, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S4700]

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HUMAN SERVICES

WELFARE REFORM

Welfare Reform: The Next Act. By Alan Weil and Kenneth Finegold. (Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC) 2002. 272 p.

["Caseloads are growing nationwide, according to the Institute, which has conducted extensive research on the welfare overhaul. The Institute reports that caseloads increased in 33 states between March and September of 2001, the highest number since welfare changes became law in 1996." San Jose Mercury News (March 8, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S4701]

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