Subject: Studies in the News 02-48 (August 28, 2002)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

August 12, 1852 - "Dense smoke could be seen in San Francisco from vast fires burning in the hills near Contra Costa. "  http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist/chron3.html  

August 30, 1852 - "Gold dust to the amount of $29,195,965 has been shipped East so far this year. "  http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist/chron3.html  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Shortage of correctional officers
   Targeting petty offenses prevents serious ones
   Death penalty deterrence
   Youth offenders face harsher treatment
   Low increase of prisoners
   Three strikes law no deterrent to drug crimes
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Big business more positive toward gays
   Fewer getting citizenship
ECONOMY
   Economic well-being of farm households
   Animal feedlots and slaughterhouses violations
   Digital divide
   Free speech on Internet threatened
   Investment in housing
   U.S. gross national product
   Metropolitan areas and U. S. economy
EDUCATION
   Audit questions UC spending
   Improving technological literacy
   Science and technology education system
   List of schools needing improvement released
   Educational funding disparities
   Technical support and teacher training
   Race issues in American schools
   Need-based student aid
EMPLOYMENT
   Retirement security
ENERGY
   World energy supplies and consumption
   Electric and natural gas prices
   Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program
   Telecommunications competition in California
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Low-level radioactive waste hearing
   Potential sonar damage to marine mammals
   California's reliance on natural gas
   State water project reliability
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Homeland security implementation of issues
   Strategies for homeland security
   Domestic preparedness assistance allocations
   Competitive federal grant update
   Senate approves fiscal relief
   Redistricting, ballots, and elections
HEALTH
   American Disabilities Act and Supreme Court
   California's stem cell policy
   Rural health care delivery system
   Preventive measures for West Nile Virus
   Medicaid and SCHIP waiver projects
   Voters' reaction to Medi-Cal cuts
   Nursing crisis strategies
   Adult cigarette smoking
HOUSING
   Policy requirements for affordable housing
   Elderly housing needs
HUMAN SERVICES
   Hunger and food insecurity
   States awarded welfare bonuses
   Time-limited TANF recipients
   Moving people from welfare to work
   Welfare parents running out of time
TRANSPORTATION
   Caltrans highway operation needs improvements
   Transportation and aging populations
   Seismic retrofit expenditures
   Big rig accidents
   Public transportation and the environment
   Red-light runners
   Pedestrian safety ranked
STUDIES TO COME
   Evolving community colleges
   Improving children's readiness for school
   Demand for IT workers
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CORRECTIONS

California Department of Corrections: A Shortage of Correctional Officers, Along With Costly Labor Agreement Provisions, Raises Both Fiscal and Safety Concerns and Limits Management's Control. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits. 2002-100. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) July 2002. 96 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2002101.pdf

["The Department of Corrections continues to rack up huge overtime costs.... The department spent $110 million on staff working extra shifts in the first half of the fiscal 2001-02 year, which is $36 million more than it was budgeted to spend on overtime for the entire year.... In a written statement, (Senator Richard) Polanco said 'The auditor reaffirms the Legislature's concern that the department has failed to manage its personnel and its dollars wisely.'" Contra Costa Times (July 31, 2002) A1.]

[Request #S5686]

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CRIME PREVENTION

Does "Broken Windows" Law Enforcement Reduce Serious Crime? By John L. Worrall, California State University, San Bernardino. Prepared for the California Institute for County Government. CICG Research Brief. (The Institute, Sacramento, California) August 2002. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.cicg.org/publications/CICG_Brief_Aug_2002.pdf

["Study Backs An Old Idea about Crime: Target petty offenses to prevent serious ones, the theory goes. A study found that when law enforcement and prosecutors across California aggressively targeted misdemeanor crimes, the rate of serious crime also decreased.... (John L.) Worral spent six months compiling 12 years of crime statistics from each county in California.... When the ratio of misdemeanor arrests increased, the rate of more serious property crime ... fell by as much as 3.6 percent." Sacramento Bee (August 12, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S5687]

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DEATH PENALTY

"A Punishing Debate." By Douglas Clement. IN: The Region, vol. 16, no. 2 (June 2002) pp. 12-15, 40-43.

["Does the death penalty deter homicide? New economic studies seek the answer to an age-old question.... 'Serious questions are being raised about whether the death penalty is being fairly administered in this country,' said Justice Sandra Day O'Connor.... 'If statistics are any indication, the system may well be allowing some innocent defendants to be executed.' O'Connor noted that over 90 inmates have been exonerated and set free since 1973."]

[Request #S5688]

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JUVENILE OFFENDERS

The Color of Justice: An Analysis of Juvenile Adult Court Transfers in California. By Mike Males and Dan Macallair. Prepared for Building Blocks for Youth, Justice Policy Institute. (The Institute, San Francisco, California.) July 18, 2002. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.buildingblocksforyouth.org/colorofjustice/coj.pdf

["Youth Offenders Face Harsher Treatment; A Mix of Factors Are Found to Contribute to A Higher Incarceration Rate. Community Organizations Search for Solutions: Latinos are detained in juvenile justice systems 1.5 times more often and are twice as likely to be incarcerated as their white peers.... A complex mix of factors contributes to the high numbers, including cultural differences, economic disadvantage, racial profiling and the lack of alternatives to gangs and crimes." Los Angeles Times (July 19, 2002) 7.]

[Request #S5689]

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PRISONS & PRISONERS

Prisoners in 2001. By Paige M. Harrison and Allen J. Beck, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin. NCJ 195189. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) July 2002. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/p01.pdf

["1% Increase in U.S. Inmates Is Lowest Rate in 3 Decades: The nation's prison population grew last year at the lowest rate since 1972 and had the smallest numeric increase since 1979 since the prison boom began.... In the last months of 2001, the number of state prison inmates actually fell by 3,700.... Altogether, there were 2.1 million Americans in state and federal prisons or in local jails at the end of 2001. New York Times (July 31, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S5690]

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THREE-STRIKES LAW

An Interrupted Time Series Analysis of California's Three Strikes Law on Instrumental, Violent, Minor, and Drug-related Crime: Deterrence and Incapacitation." By William D. Crano, Claremont Graduate University. (The Author, Claremont, California) August 2002. Various pagings; Appendices.

["'3 Strikes No Deterrent to Drug Crimes, Study Shows: Experts said the law, now under review by the Supreme Court, has not reduced drug sales and possession because the demand for narcotics is so high that new traffickers simply replace those who are imprisoned.... William Crano said 'Even imprisoning the most high-rate drug offenders for long periods of time does not appear to have affected the commission of such crimes.'" San Diego Union Tribune (August 11, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S5691]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

GAYS & LESBIANS

Corporate Equality Index. By the Human Rights Campaign Foundation. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) August 13, 2002. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.hrc.org/worknet/cei/cei_report.pdf

["Big Business Less Biased against Gays; National Survey Shows Bay Area Leads The Way: The first equality index rates 319 public and private companies on a scale of 0 to 100 percent on seven factors that included having a written nondiscrimination policy based on sexual orientation and offering health insurance to workers' partners.... Thirteen companies in the Bay Area got perfect 100 scores." San Francisco Chronicle (August 14, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S5692]

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IMMIGRANTS

Immigrants, Fiscal Year 2000. By the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. (The Service, Washington, DC) July 2002. 68 p.

Full Text at: www.ins.usdoj.gov/graphics/aboutins/statistics/IMM00yrbk/IMM2000.pdf

["More Seeking, Fewer Getting Citizenship: Recent Immigrants Fear Backlash; INS Boosts Scrutiny of Applicants: Figures show a dramatic rise in applications for U.S. citizenship.... Despite this surge in applications, INS statistics show that fewer people have been naturalized.... From October to May, 337,590 people have been granted citizenship, compared with 377,014 in that period during 2000-01." San Francisco Chronicle (July 17, 2002) A13.]

[Request #S5693]

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ECONOMY

AGRICULTURE

Income, Wealth, and the Economic Well-Being of Farm Households. By Ashok K. Mishra and others, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. ERS Agricultural Economic Report No. AER812. (Economic Research Service, Washington, DC) July 2002. 77 p.

Full Text at: www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aer812/aer812.pdf

["Agricultural policy is rooted in the 1930's notion that providing transfers of money to the farm sector translates into increased economic well-being of farm families. This report shows that neither change in income for the farm sector nor for any particular group of farm business can be presumed to reflect changes confronting farm households. Farm households draw income from various sources, including off-farm work, other businesses operated and, increasingly, nonfarm investments. Likewise, focus on a single indicator of well-being, such as income, overlooks other indicators such as the wealth held by the household and the level of consumption expenditures for health care, food, housing, and other items. Using an expanded definition of economic well-being, we show that farm households as a whole are better off than the average U.S household, but that 6 percent remain economically disadvantaged."]

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The RapSheet on American Factories: Convictions, Fines, Pollution Violations and Regulatory Records on America’s Factories. By The Sierra Club Foundation. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) August 2002. 23 p.

Full Text at: www.sierraclub.org/factoryfarms/rapsheets/complete_rapsheet_report.pdf

[“The rapid growth of huge animal feedlots and slaughterhouses in the 1990’s has outpaced the power state and federal regulators need to keep them operating safely and cleanly, leading to polluted rivers and lakes, meat recalls and workplace injuries…. The study found that most violations had occurred in the 1990’s when the meat industry began building large feedlots in rural America from North Carolina to California. The 630 meat factories in 44 states covered by the study included the largest feedlots, which raise millions of hogs, chickens or cattle.” San Francisco Chronicle (August 13, 2002) A3.]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Bringing a Nation Online: The Importance of Federal Leadership. By Leslie Harris and Associates. Leadership Conference on Civil Rights Education Fund and The Benton Foundation (The Fund and The Foundation, Washington, DC) July 2002. 65 p.

Full Text at: www.civilrights.org/publications/bringinganationonline/bringing_a_nation.pdf

["Despite substantial gains in access to computers and the Internet, many Americans are still on the "wrong side of the technology divide" where the enormous social, civic, educational and economic opportunities offered by rapid advances in information technology remain out of reach, according to this new report. The report looks at two key federal programs for bridging the technology gap that have been targeted by the Bush Administration for elimination and argues for continued federal leadership to bringing a whole nation online." Connect for Kids (July 15, 2002)]

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INTERNET

No Competition: How Monopoly Control of the Broadband Internet Threatens Free Speech. American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU, New York, New York). July 10, 2002. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.aclu.org/issues/cyber/NoCompetition.pdf

["The ACLU released a report...that calls on the government to protect the Internet from "the power of monopolistic cable providers and issued twin reports examining the technical and policy sides of the issue." Concerned that cable Internet service providers construct barriers to free speech online, the ACLU believes that open access is a First Amendment issue. Citing ways to adopt a "public interest architecture" for broadband, the ACLU explains that in the case of the Internet, the First Amendment, consumer choice and competition go hand-in-hand." Cultural Policy Listserv (July 10, 2002)]

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INVESTING

A New Kind of Gold? Investment In Housing In Times Of Economic Uncertainty. Policy Brief No. 30. By Susanne Trimbath and Juan Montoya, Milken Institute. (The Institute, Santa Monica, California) June 2002. 17 p.

Full Text at: www.milkeninstitute.org/gold/Gold90s.pdf

["The report said real estate has become the 'feel good' investment of today, with the economic outlook unsure and the stock market in a slump. 'During times of economic uncertainty, investors seek assets that feel secure,' the report said. 'Real estate has replaced gold as the 'feel good' investment because it is literally as solid as the ground upon which we stand.'" The Record (August 3, 2002) 1.]

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UNITED STATES

National Income and Product Accounts: 2nd Quarter 2002 GDP (Advance): Revised Estimates: 1999 Through First Quarter 2002. IN: United States Department Of Commerce News (July 31, 2002) 35 p. (The Department, Washington, DC) 35 p.

Full Text at: www.bea.doc.gov/bea/newsrel/gdp202a.pdf

["In a sharp revision of last year's GDP, the Commerce Department said economic growth during 2001 was 0.3 percent, rather than 1.2 percent as it previously reported.... Contraction during 2001 was much longer and deeper than it initially reported, occurring during the first nine months." San Francisco Chronicle (August 1, 2002) B1.]

[Request #S5699]

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URBAN CITIES

The Role of Metro Areas In The US Economy. Prepared by DRI * WEFA. Prepared for The United States Conference of Mayors. (The Conference, Washington, DC) June 6, 2002. 38 p.

Full Text at: usmayors.org/70thAnnualMeeting/metroecon2002/metroreport.pdf

U.S. Mayors Tout Size of Their Cities' Output in Appeal for Federal Funding: The report points out that metropolitan areas account for more than four-fifths of the nation's jobs and economic output. It also said that of 319 metropolitan areas, 269 had growing economies last year, and growth in 135 of those topped the national average." Akron Beacon Journal (July 10, 2002) A1.]

[Request #S5700]

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EDUCATION

AUDITS AND INVESTIGATIONS

University of California: Its Partnership Agreement Could Be Improved to Increase Its Accountability for State Funding. By California State Auditor, Bureau of Audits. 2001-130. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) July 2002. 135 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2001130.pdf

["Despite the University of California's primary mission of teaching and research, the system has increased spending on administrators at a higher rate than faculty, according to a state audit.... Between 1997 and 2001, academic salary expenditures went up 33.7 percent. Funding for deans and academic coordinators climbed nearly 60 percent, and money for management skyrocketed 77.2 percent." The Sacramento Bee (July 26, 2002) A3.]

[Request #S5701]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

"Improving Technological Literacy." By A. Thomas Young and others. IN: Issues in Science and Technology, vol. 18, no. 4 (Summer 2002) pp. 73-82.

["The first step is understanding what is meant by 'technology.' Then we must try to reach the broadest possible audience.... To take full advantage of the benefits of technology, as well as to recognize, address, or even avoid some of its pitfalls, we must become better stewards of technological change.... Neither the nation's educational system nor its policymaking apparatus has recognized the importance of technological literacy."]

[Request #S5702]

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Critical Path Analysis of California's Science and Technology Education System. Prepared by the California Council on Science and Technology. (The Council, Sacramento, CA) April 2002. 120 p.

Full Text at: www.ccst.ucr.edu/cpa/download/CPA_Full.pdf

["According to the study 90 percent of high school graduates, and 95 percent of Latino graduates, are unprepared to enter college. The persistent lag in minority and female enrollment in science and engineering may result from a lack of faculty mentors and role models of the same gender and/or ethnicity. Suggested options include increasing state funding for the K-12 system to bring in and retain talented educators and expand existing programs." Ventura County Star (June 3, 2002) A1.]

[Request #S5703]

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K-12 EDUCATION

Education Department Releases List of Schools Needing Improvement. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief, 02-39. (Washington, DC) July 11, 2002. 2 p.

["Students in schools deemed as needing improvement will be eligible to transfer to higher-performing schools (in their district) beginning in the 2002-03 school year.... States will be required to prepare a list of tutors for students in the schools identified as needing improvement. These tutors must provide high-quality instruction that aligns with state standards. The services may be provided by school districts, non-profit and for-profit organizations, faith-based groups and charity organizations. Local school districts will need to set aside an additional 5 percent of their Title 1 funds to pay for these supplemental services. An additional 10 percent of a local district's Title 1 funds must be set aside to cover the costs of either transportation or supplemental services...."]

[Request #S5704]

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SCHOOL FINANCE

The Funding Gap: Low-Income and Minority Students Receive Fewer Dollars. By The Education Trust. (The Trust, Washington, DC) August 2002. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.edtrust.org/main/documents/investment.pdf

["The analysis reveals that, in most states, school districts that educate the greatest number of low-income and minority students receive substantially less state and local money per student than districts with the fewest low-income and minority students. It includes state and local revenues only, not looking at federal funding ... nor at policy or practice." Early Childhood and Family Education Electronic Message (August 16, 2002).]

[Request #S5705]

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SECONDARY EDUCATION

The Digital Disconnect: The Widening Gap Between Internet- Savvy Students and Their Schools. Prepared by Douglas Levin and Sousan Arafeh, American Institutes for Research. Prepared for the Pew Internet and American Life Project (The Project, Washington, DC) August 14, 2002. 37 p.

Full Text at: www.pewinternet.org/reports/pdfs/PIP_Schools_Internet_Report.pdf

["Millions of teenagers increasingly use the Internet for schoolwork, but many say their teachers often don't know how, don't want, or aren't able to use online tools to help them learn or enrich their studies. . The problem, according to the study, is that while schools may have Internet-connected computers, they don't necessarily have enough to ensure easy, universal access. And while state and federal governments have made a big push to decrease student-to-computer ratios over the past five years, not enough attention has been given to technical support and teacher training." Kids on the Wire (August 14, 2002)]

[Request #S5706]

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SEGREGATION

Race in American Schools: Rapidly Resegregating School Districts. By Erica Frankenberg and Chungmei Lee, The Civil Rights Project, Harvard University. (The University, Cambridge, Massachusetts) August 2002. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.law.harvard.edu/groups/civilrights/publications/reseg_districts02/Race_in_American_Public_Schools1.pdf

["Report Sees Segregation Increasing in Schools: Even as America has become more diverse, public schools have become increasing segregated by race, according to a report.... A study of the largest school districts in the country showed that nearly all are less integrated compared with 14 years ago. The researchers attributed the change to court rulings in the 1990s rejecting desegregation laws, and school districts giving up on failed integration efforts, said Chungmei Lee, co-author of the report." Boston Globe (August 10, 2002) B1.]

[Request #S5707]

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STUDENT AID

Empty Promises: The Myth of College Access in America. By the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance. (The Committee, Washington, D.C.) June, 2002. 64 p.

Full Text at: www.ed.gov/offices/AC/ACSFA/emptypromises.pdf

["Nearly half of all qualified low- and moderate-income high school graduates couldn't attend a four-year college this year. By 2010, that will add up to 4.4 million students...For a nation that in 1965 committed to the promise that no student should be turned away from higher education because they can't pay for it, it's a sobering conclusion. Moreover, it comes at a time when most states face budget deficits they are resolving in part by further cutbacks in higher education." Christian Science Monitor (June 27, 2002) [online].]

[Request #S5708]

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EMPLOYMENT

RETIREMENT

"Retirement Security: Are Americans Prepared for the Future?" IN: CQ Researcher, vol. 12, no. 21 (May 31, 2002) pp. 481-504.

["The collapse of Enron Corporation was a wake-up call for Americans who depend on stocks to support them in retirement.... Meanwhile the imminent retirement of millions of Baby Boomers threatens Social Security's future. To make matters worse, seniors are living longer, and health-care costs are skyrocketing.... In an election year, Congress may be unwilling to reform Social Security, toughen laws protecting private pension plans or increase Medicare benefits to cover seniors' prescription drugs."]

[Request #S5709]

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ENERGY

BP Statistical Review of World Energy. By BP. (BP, London, UK) June 2002. 44 p.

Full Text at: www.bp.com/downloads/1087/statistical_review.pdf

["Includes Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Nuclear Energy, Hydroelectricity, Primary Energy, Reserves, Production, Consumption, Prices, Stocks, Refining and Trade Movements."]

[Request #S5710]

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UTILITIES

Initial Report on Company Specific Separate Proceedings and Generic Reevaluations; Published National Gas Price Data: And Enron Trading Strategies: Fact Finding Investigation of Potential Manipulation of Electric and Natural Gas Prices. By the Federal Energy Commission. (The Commission, New York, NY) August 2002. 112 p.

Full Text at: www.ferc.fed.us/Electric/bulkpower/PA02-2/Initial-Report-PA02-2-000.pdf

["Enron Deceit Paid Off: Investigators have found evidence of price manipulation and deceit by Enron Corp. that allowed the now-insolvent energy company to earn tens of millions of dollars from California's volatile power markets, a report concludes.... The report urged further investigation into 'possible misconduct' charges against three Enron-affiliated companies and two investor-owned utilities that did extensive business with Enron, including one that acted as a middleman to hide power transactions between Enron affiliates." Calgary Herald (August 15, 2002) D2.]

[Request #S5711]

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HHS Releases Energy Emergency Funds. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief, 02-45. (FFIS, Washington, DC) August 9, 2002. 1 p.

["Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) contingency funds allow states to respond to energy emergencies, such as extreme weather conditions, supply disruptions or price spikes. Congress appropriated $300 million in emergency funds in FY 2002....For FY 2003, emergency contingency funds would remain at $300 million."]

[Request #S5712]

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The Status of Telecommunications Competition in California. By Jack Leutza and others, Telecommunications Division, California Public Utilities Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) June 2002. 83 p.; Appendices.

Full Text at: www.cpuc.ca.gov/word_pdf/REPORT/16454.pdf

["This report provides a review of telecommunications markets, trends, and competition issues including significant changes in the past few years. The data and discussions address the nature and scope of California and comparative national markets. Together these analyses encompass the competitive status and issues in the markets for local, local toll, long distance, wireless communications, and advanced services."]

[Request #S5713]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

HAZARDOUS WASTE

Issues Related to Low-Level Radioactive Waste: Informational Hearing. By the California Senate Health and Human Services Committee. (The Committee, Sacramento, California) June 6, 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.sen.ca.gov/ftp/SEN/COMMITTEE/STANDING/HEALTH_home/

["This hearing ... is to facilitate a more informed awareness of the issues around low-level radioactive waste, including its decommissioning and disposal, but overall on the regulatory framework regarding this important area.... We have a group of very diverse stakeholders who can share with us their perspectives on the current policy situation in California and areas of concern and recommendations on how the state should proceed in regard to radioactive waste in the future.

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MARINE ANIMALS

Natural Resources Defense Council, et al. v. Donald Evans, Secretary of Commerce, et al. U.S. District Court, Northern District of California. Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief for Violation of Marine Mammal Protection Act. August 2002. 27 p.

Full Text at: news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/environment/NRDCvEvans080702comp.pdf

["In a bid to prevent 'a massive degradation of ocean ecosystems,' a coalition of environmental groups has filed a lawsuit to block the U.S. Navy and National Marine Fisheries Service from deploying a powerful new sonar system. The groups said the Navy's low-frequency sonar would maim or kill whales, dolphins and other sea creatures that rely on a delicate acoustic environment to find food and mates, communicate and travel migratory routes." Los Angeles Times (August 8, 2002) B8.]

[Request #S5715]

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NATURAL GAS

Implications and Policy Options of California's Reliance on Natural Gas. By Mark Bernstein and others. Rand Science and Technology. (Rand, Santa Monica, California) 2002. 52 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1605/MR1605.pdf

["This report provides an assessment of the benefits, risks and implications of the increased use of natural gas to meet California's growing needs.... It explores... issues including range of gas demands and anticipated future gas production in California and other regions."]

[Request #S5716]

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WATER RESOURCES

The State Water Project Delivery Reliability Report: Draft. By the California Department of Water Resources. (The Department, Sacramento, California) August 2002. 61 p.

Full Text at: swpdelivery.water.ca.gov/Draft.pdf

"Local supply reliability is of key importance to local planners and local government officials who have the responsibility to plan for future growth while assuring an adequate and affordable water supply is available for existing population and business.... Information in this report may be used by local agencies in preparing or amending their water management plans and identifying the new facilities or programs that may be necessary to meet future water needs."

[Request #S5717]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

CIVIL SERVICE

Homeland Security: Critical Design and Implementation Issues for the Department of Homeland Security. By the United States General Accounting Office. GAO-02-957T. (The Office, Washington, DC) July 2002. 31 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-02-957T

["GAO has developed a framework that will help the Congress and the Administration create and implement a strong and effective new cabinet department by establishing criteria to be considered for constructing the department itself, determining which agencies should be included and excluded, and leveraging numerous key management and policy elements that, after completion of the revised organizational structure, will be critical to the department's success."]

[Request #S5718]

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EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

National Strategy for Homeland Security. By Office of Homeland Security. (The Office, Washington, DC) July 2002. 90 p.

Full Text at: www.whitehouse.gov/homeland/book/nat_strat_hls.pdf

["Homeland Security Won't End Terrorism: The report's real message is that we are groping in the dark. A large chunk of what we spend on homeland security is going to be wasted. The basic reason is that the variety of potential terrorist strikes is so enormous.... Page 64 of the report admits the truth: 'It is not practical or possible to eliminate all risks. There will always be some level of risk that cannot be mitigated without the use of unacceptably large expenditures.'" Contra Costa Times (July 28, 2002) P9.]

[Request #S5719]

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Justice Department Releases Domestic Preparedness Assistance Allocations. By the Federal Funds Information for States. Issue Brief 02-33. (FFIS, Washington, DC) May 28, 2002. 2 p.

["This program provides formula grant assistance to state and local governments to help them prepare for terrorist attacks, including attacks involving weapons of mass destruction....States must pass through 80 percent of their FY 2002 equipment grant funds to local governments."]

[Request #S5720]

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FEDERAL AID

FFIS Competitive Grant Update. By the Federal Funds Information for States. Update 02-06. (FFIS, Washington, DC) July 15, 2002. 9 p.

[Includes: "Special Education -- Technical Assistance and Dissemination;" "Women's Educational Equity Program;" "Centers of Excellence in Health Statistics;" "Substance Abuse Treatment Capacity;" "Centers of Excellence for Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities Epidemiology;" and others.]

[Request #S5721]

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FEDERAL BUDGET

Senate Approves Temporary Fiscal Relief Amendment. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief, 02-43. (FFIS, Washington, DC) July 31, 2002. 3 p.

["States stand to gain $5.7 billion in additional Medicaid reimbursements and $3 billion in block grant funds under a temporary fiscal relief provision that is part of broader legislation passed by the Senate.... Forty six states experienced budget shortfalls in fiscal year (FY) 2002. Sixteen states began FY 2003 already knowing that revenue assumptions made only a few months earlier were already too optimistic and would have to be adjusted downward. A wide variety of responses have been implemented, including spending reserves, raising taxes, reducing expenditures, imposing cost controls and pursuing benefit and eligibility cutbacks in Medicaid"]

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REDISTRICTING

Election Law Journal, vol. 1, no. 2 (2002) pp 141-308.

[Includes: "The California Experience: Why Most of the Media Ignored Redistricting;" "The Supreme Court and the Burial of Ballot Access: A Critical Review of Jenness v. Fortson;" "The Legacy of Bush v. Gore;" and others. NOTE: Election Law Journal is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S5723]

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HEALTH

AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT

"Drawing Boundaries." By William C. Smith. IN: ABA Journal, vol. 88 (August 2002) pp. 49-53.

["The Supreme Court Is Siding With Employers and Narrowing the Reach of the Americans With Disabilities Act. Is That What Its Drafters Had in Mind? ... The justices decided four major ADA cases during the past term. The rulings have pleased employers and corporate counsel, and distressed disabled workers and their advocates."]

[Request #S5724]

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BIOTECHNOLOGY

The Impact of California's Stem Cell Policy on the Biomedical Industry: Hearing. By the Senate Health and Human Services Committee, California Legislature. Salk Institute, La Jolla, California. (The Committee, Sacramento, California) May 10, 2002. Various pagings. And Impact of Federal Policy on Realizing the Potential of Stem Cell Research: Hearing. By the Senate Health and Human Services Committee. Palo Alto, California. (The Committee, Sacramento, California) March 8, 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.sen.ca.gov/ftp/SEN/COMMITTEE/STANDING/HEALTH/_home/

["[In this hearing, the committee will] examine the potential of stem cell research and the impact on California's stem cell policy on the biomedical community and industry ... [and] consider the current and potential restrictions ... as well as potential future actions by the federal government."]

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HEALTH INSURANCE

HMOs and Rural California. By the Legislative Analyst's Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) August 8, 2002. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2002/hmos_rural_ca/8-02_hmos_rural_ca.pdf

["The recent withdrawals of health coverage by health maintenance organizations (HMOs) from rural areas have raised concerns about the availability of affordable health care in rural California. In this report, we discuss the reasons for this trend, and recommend a number of steps that we believe will create a more attractive health care marketplace for HMOs. In those rural areas where these steps are not enough to attract HMOs, we identify ways communities can develop their own health care systems based on the experience of one rural California county."]

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INFECTIOUS DISEASE

Potential Funding for Combating West Nile Virus. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief, 02-44. (FFIS, Washington, DC) August 8, 2002. 2 p.

["The Centers for Disease Control has received reports to date of 109 cases of human infection including five deaths this year and, thirty-four states report infected birds or insects. Since 25 percent of individuals who are infected require intensive care, the virus could cause states and their citizens significant personal and financial concern. Preventive measures are the only effective deterrent to the virus in humans."]

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MEDICAID

Medicaid and SCHIP: Recent HHS Approvals of Demonstration Waiver Projects Raise Concerns. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) July 2002. 71 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d02817.pdf

["California and Three Other States Received Improper Waivers, GAO Finds: The administration exceeded its legislative authority in granting California and three other states special permission to use child health funds for other purposes.... The report also chastised the Health and Human Services Department for making 'inappropriate and impermissible' budget calculations and for failing to adequately inform the public about the proposed changes." Los Angeles Times (August 8, 2002) 14.]

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MEDI-CAL

California Voters' Reaction to Proposed Cuts in the State's Medi-Cal Budget. By the Field Institute. Prepared for the California Health Care Foundation. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) July 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: stage.chcf.org/topics/view.cfm?itemID=19814

["Poll: Spare Health Care from Big Cuts: The survey found that registered voters opposed an array of options cutting programs for the poor and disabled. They were most likely to approve 'sin taxes' to 'avoid making major cutbacks in medical care services to low-income Californians and the disabled." Sacramento Bee (July 10, 2002) A3.] Includes: Survey Questionnaire and Results. http://stage.chcf.org/documents/other/MediCalFieldSurveyJuly2002Questionnaire.pdf Graphic Summary. http://stage.chcf.org/documents/other/MediCalFieldSurveyJuly2002GraphicSummary.pdf Medi-Cal Fast Facts. http://stage.chcf.org/documents/other/Medi-CalFastFacts.pdf

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NURSES

Health Care at the Crossroads: Strategies for Addressing the Evolving Nursing Crisis. By the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. (The Commission, Oakbrook Terrace, Illinois) August 2002. 47 p.

Full Text at: www.jcaho.org/news+room/news+release+archives/health+care+at+the+crossroads.pdf

["Patient Deaths Tied to Lack of Nurses: The shortage contributed to nearly a quarter of the unanticipated problems that result in death or injury....The findings utilized its 'sentinel event' reporting system, a computer database that includes 1,609 reports of patient deaths and injuries since 1996.... Officials found low levels of nursing staff were cited as a contributing factor in 24 percent of the cases." New York Times (August 8, 2002) A18.]

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SMOKING

"Cigarette Smoking Among Adults -- United States, 2000." By A. Trosclair, Office of Smoking and Health, Centers for Chronic Disease Control and Prevention. IN: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 51, no. 29 (July 26, 2002) pp. 642-645.

Full Text at: www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5129a3.htm

["Survey Finds Most Smokers Want to Quit: Most smokers say they want to quit, but their success rate varies markedly depending on race, education and age, according to a new study.... The odds of succeeding in quitting varied widely among ethnic and economic groups. Among whites, 51 percent of one-time smokers successfully quit. Only 37 percent of black smokers managed to quit.... Income groups showed a similar disparity ... only a third of those below the poverty line were successful." CNN.com (July 25, 2002) 1.]

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HOUSING

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

Decent Affordable Housing: It's the American Dream. By the National Association of Home Builders. (The Association, Washington, DC) July 2002. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.nahb.com/housing_issues/silent.pdf

["Citing a growing but silent affordable-housing crisis that it says faces millions of American families, the National Association of Home Builders released a list of steps to address the problem.... The NAHB also said that it supports legislation that would require federal agencies to state the impact of their regulations on the cost of housing, and developing a public policy "middle ground" between protecting the environment and the cost of excessive regulations." American Banker (July 30, 2002) 9.]

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ELDERLY

A Quiet Crisis. By the Commission on Affordable Housing and Health Facility Needs for Seniors in the 21st Century. Prepared for Committee on Financial Services, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs, U.S. Senate (The Commission, Washington, DC) June 30, 2002. 136 p.

Full Text at: www.seniorscommission.gov/pages/final_report/finalreport.pdf

["Highlighting the dual housing and health care needs of aging Baby Boomers, the report calls for increased attention to seniors' needs and creation of a national policy for affordable senior housing that is coordinated with health and supportive services."] Knowledgeplex (July 15, 2002) 1.]

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HUMAN SERVICES

HUNGER

Hunger and Food Insecurity in the Fifty States: 1998-2000. By Ashley F. Sullivan and Eunyoung Choi, Food Security Institute, Brandeis University. (The Center on Hunger and Poverty, Waltham, Massachusetts) August 2002. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.centeronhunger.org/pdf/statedata98-00.pdf

["This report ranks all states in the nation on the prevalence of both hunger and food insecurity for the three-year period ending in 2000. Based on newly released federal data, it compares hunger and food insecurity rates in each state, and the numbers of adults and children in households experiencing food hardships."]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

HHS Awards Welfare Bonuses. FFIS Issue Brief, 02-40. (FFIS, Washington, DC) July 9, 2002. 4 p.

["The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) awarded $200 million in welfare high-performance bonuses to 26 states and the District of Columbia for fiscal year (FY) 2001. The high-performance bonuses reward states for annual results in four categories: job placement, job success (measured by retention and earnings gains), biggest improvement in job placement and biggest improvement in job success.... The final regulations (issued in April 1999) retain the four work measures and add new categories for family formation, enrollment in Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance program, enrollment in the Food Stamp program and providing child care for working families."]

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Time-Limited TANF Recipients. By Andrea Wilkins, National Conference of State Legislatures. Welfare Reform Series. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) July 2002. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/legis/LBRIEFS/legis1022.htm

["States where time limits are applied more broadly exhibited greater differences in the experiences of families that left due to time limits and those that left for increased income or other reasons.... In comparison to study respondents who left welfare due to increased income, time-limited respondents reported higher rates of depression (60 percent vs. 40 percent), and nearly twice as many had not worked at one job for six months or more in the last five years."]

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WELFARE TO WORK

Moving People from Welfare to Work: Lessons from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies. By Gayle Hamilton, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (The Corporation, New York, New York) July 2002. 79 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/Reports2002/NEWWS_Synthesis/NEWWS_Synthesis.pdf

["Over the past three decades, federal and state policymakers have created a variety of programs with the common goal of moving people from welfare to work. How to go about increasing employment among welfare recipients, however, has long been debated, By laying out the lessons learned from the national Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies ... this research synthesis provides answers to critical questions in the welfare-to-work policy discussion."]

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Running Out of Time: Voices of Parents Struggling to Move from Welfare to Work. By Daniel Fleming and others, Economic Roundtable. Prepared for The Los Angeles Children's Planning Council. (The Roundtable, Los Angeles, California) Summer 2002. 152 p.

Full Text at: www.economicrt.org/download/running_out_of_time.html

["Welfare Study Finds Big Need for Child Care: Welfare recipients in Los Angeles County say inadequate and expensive child care is the major impediment to getting and keeping a job, according to a large-scale study. The group surveyed more than 8,500 current and past welfare recipients.... Some 26% of CalWORKS recipients were employed at the time of the survey; 43% had worked during the previous year." Los Angeles Times (July 24, 2002) 1.]

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TRANSPORTATION

CALIFORNIA

California Department of Transportation: It Manages the State Highway Operation and Protection Program Adequately, But It Can Make Improvements. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits. 2002-103. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) August 2002. 45 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2002103.pdf

["Sampling Caltrans practices around the state, the audit examined 19 projects. Most came in under budget and experienced delays that were 'reasonable.' The audit criticized Caltrans engineers for poor record-keeping." Los Angeles Times (August 7, 2002) 4.]

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DRIVERS

Driving Life Expectancy of Persons Aged 70 Years and Older in the United States. By Daniel J. Foley and others. IN: American Journal of Public Health, vol. 92, no. 8 pp. 1284-1289.

["More than half of all men over the age of 85 and a quarter of women of that age are still behind the wheel, but the population is more vulnerable to fatal accident injuries than younger drivers. After they stop driving, seniors often face isolation and depression for years, and they need more alternative transportation." Sacramento Bee (August 13, 2002) 1.]

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FINANCING

Department of Transportation: Its Seismic Retrofit Expenditures Generally Comply With the Bond Act, and It Has Begun to Reimburse the Interim Funding for Fiscal Year 1994-95 and 1995-96. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits. 2001-010. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) December 2001. 25 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2001010.pdf

[" This report concludes that the department, in general, has ensured that seismic retrofit projects funded with bond proceeds are consistent with the purpose of the Bond act. In addition, the department has begun to reimburse the State Highway Account and the Consolidated Toll Bridge Fund for expenditures incurred during fiscal years 1994-95 and 1995-96 as required by the Bond Act."]

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HIGHWAY ACCIDENTS

Identifying Unsafe Driver Actions that Lead to Fatal Car-Truck Crashes. By Lidia P. Kostyniuk and others, Transportation Research Institute, University of Michigan. Prepared for the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) April 2002. 76 p.

Full Text at: www.aaafoundation.org/pdf/CarTruck.pdf

["Car drivers are most often to blame for fatal accidents with big-rig trucks and are most likely to die in those crashes, according to a national study. The study of more than 10,000 fatal accidents determined that car drivers cause most collisions with big rigs by speeding, failing to yield or cutting in the path of trucks." Los Angeles Times (July 23, 2002) 1.]

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PUBLIC TRANSIT

Conserving Energy and Preserving the Environment: The Role of Public Transportation. By Robert Shapiro, Sonecon, and others. Prepared for the American Public Transportation Association. (The Association, Washington, DC)) July 2002. 34 p.

Full Text at: www.apta.com/info/online/shapiro.pdf

["'Everybody's got an intuition that public transit uses less energy and produces less pollution than private vehicles,' said Robert J. Shapiro, an economist and fellow at Brookings. 'I don't know of any previous study that has actually quantified it. The environmental advantages are really very striking because they're so great.'" Washington Post (July 17, 2002) B5.]

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ROADWAYS

Red Light Camera: Although They Have Contributed to a Reduction in Accidents, Operational Weaknesses Exist at the Local Level. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits 2001-125. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California)July 2002.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2001125.pdf

["Less than three of every 10 red-light runners captured on film were cited, according to an audit of Sacramento's and six other camera enforcement programs in the state.... the 110 report ... impressed state lawmakers with its conclusion that the technology has reduced dangerous intersection accidents." Sacramento Bee(July 29,2002). 110 p.

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SURFACE TRANSPORTATION

Pedestrian Safety in California: Five Years of Progress and Pitfalls. By Surface Transportation Policy Project California Walks. (The Project, Washington, DC) August 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.transact.org/Ca/ped_safety_2002_finalreport.htm

["Several Northern California counties are among the most dangerous in the state for walkers and bicyclists [according to a study]…. [The study] found that, based on the number or walkers per capita, more pedestrians and bicyclists die on the streets of Sacramento county than any other county in the state. Los Angeles, Contra Costa and San Joaquin counties complete the list of the five most dangerous counties.” Sacramento Bee (August 14, 2002) 1.]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

CALIFORNIA READER

CALIFORNIA READER

Embattled Dreams: California in War and Peace, 1940-1950. By Kevin Starr. (Oxford University Press, New York, New York) 2002. 382 p.

["This period was unquestionably the most transformative in the state's history, because it was then that California emerged as the nation's dominant social and cultural force.... By far, the most complex and compelling tale in this volume is how wartime spending essentially created the aeronautical industry, with California at its heart, and in the process enabled capitalism to give rise to perhaps the closest approximation of a workers' paradise." The Atlantic Monthly (May 2002) 101.]

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EDUCATION

COMMUNITY COLLEGES

“The Evolving Community College: The Multiple Mission debate.” By Thomas Bailey. IN: Perspectives on the Community College. (2002) pp. 47-50. Washington DC. 2002.

["This publication explores future trends and concepts impacting community colleges. The publication, written by leading community college practitioners and scholars, is intended to create dialogue within and among community college professionals.]

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SCHOOL READINESS

Improving Children's Readiness for School: Preschool Programs Make a Difference, But Quality Counts. By David R. Denton, Southern Regional Education Board. (The Board, Atlanta, Georgia) 2001.

Full Text at: www.sreb.org/programs/srr/pubs/Readiness.pdf

["This report takes a fresh look at the evidence that high-quality preschool programs can help to improve the school readiness of at-risk children. The report focuses on 10 programs that have been the subjects of careful evaluations.... The report concludes with a discussion of the characteristics that distinguish these programs as high-quality."]

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EMPLOYMENT

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Bouncing Back: Jobs, Skills and the Continuing Demand for IT Workers: Executive Summary. By the Information Technology Association of America. (The Association, Arlington, Virginia) May 2002. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.itaa.org/workforce/studies/02execsumm.pdf

["A new study suggests a rebound in tech hiring could be on the way. Half a million IT jobs got the ax last year, the study reports. But hiring managers surveyed say that over the next 12 months, 1.1 million positions will need to be filled. The report also estimates that 600,000 of those positions will be unfilled because of a lack of trained employees." Investor's Business Daily (June 4, 2002) A9.]

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