Subject: Studies in the News 02-49 (August 30, 2002)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News
Children and Family Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Children exposed to community violence
ECONOMY
   Children and diversity on television
   Media violence and children
EDUCATION
   After School Education and Safety Program Act
   Integrating mental health, schools and families
   Second language learning practices
   Children with special needs
EMPLOYMENT
   Benefits of family-friendly workplaces
HEALTH
   Working families' health insurance coverage
HUMAN SERVICES
   Kinship care
   Female employment and early childhood services funding
   Americans' family strengths
   Work-family issues and income
   Maternal social support and parenting strategies
   Maternal choices and child poverty
   Child poverty in California
   Environment of poverty
STUDIES TO COME
   Violence and child behavior
   Childhood maltreatment and its aftermath
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

VIOLENCE

"Multidimensional Resilience in Urban Children Exposed to Community Violence." By Deborah A. O'Donnell and others. IN: Child Development, vol. 73, no. 4 (July/August 2002) pp. 1265-1282.

["Children tend to respond to community violence with greater fear and confusion than do adults. Exposure to community violence also threatens children's formation of healthy attachments, their capacity to experience trust, and their development of self-confidence and autonomy.... Studies have shown that children who are exposed to violence are at a heightened risk for a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, and aggressive behaviors."]

[Request #S5751]

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ECONOMY

MEDIA

"Why it Matters ... Diversity on Television." By Children Now IN: Media Now Children: Current Research on Children and the Media. (Summer 2002) pp. 1-6.

Full Text at: www.childrennow.org/media/medianow/mnsummer2002.pdf

["Latinos Still Invisible on TV: According to a recently released study ... the networks are still getting D's for racial diversity.... Only 4% of all characters in prime time television are Latino, and only 2% of those are in starring roles. The rest play the usual maid, drug dealer or janitor." Herald-Sun (August 9, 2002) B14.]

[Request #S5752]

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What Goes In Must Come Out: Children's Media Violence Consumption at Home and Aggressive Behaviors At School. By Audrey M. Buchanan and others, National Institute on Media and the Family. (The Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota) August 2002. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.mediafamily.org/research/reports/issbd.shtml

["According to this study, a correlation has been found between children's exposure to violent media and physically aggressive behavior. The study breaks new ground in showing that rude and crude behavior in movies and on television is mirrored in the way children who are heavy viewers of violent media treat one another. The study also shows that with time, increased exposure, and the more they enjoy it, children can become desensitized to violence." Children's Defense Fund Violence Prevention Listserv (August 23, 2002).]

[Request #S5753]

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EDUCATION

AFTER SCHOOL PROGRAMS

What Would Proposition 49, The After School Education and Safety Program Act, Mean For California? By Delaine McCullough, The California Budget Project. (The Project, Sacramento, California) July 2002. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/2002/bb020701.pdf

["This policy brief states that setting state budget priorities through the initiative process encourages voters to consider spending for one area, such as after school programs, in isolation from other state spending. While many voters may support spending for the ASESP, they might prefer to spend less than required by the measure if they knew that it could result in cuts to health, higher education, other after school enrichment programs, or increases in taxes. As it would take a subsequent ballot measure to reduce the ASESP funding level required by Proposition 49, voters must carefully consider the impacts of setting future priorities based on current conditions."]

[Request #S5754]

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INTEGRATED SERVICES

Mental Health, Schools And Families Working Together For ALL Children And Youth: Toward A Shared Agenda; A Concept Paper. By The National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors and The Policymaker Partnership for Implementing IDEA at The National Association of State Directors of Special Education. (The Association, Alexandria, Virginia) 2002. 64 p.

Full Text at: www.ideapolicy.org/sharedagenda.pdf

["This paper offers recommendations to family and youth organizations, state mental health and education leaders for policy development and changes needed to align systems which result in coordinated and integrated programs and services for children and youth and their families." Early Childhood and Family Education Electronic Message (August 16, 2002).]

[Request #S5755]

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MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION

"Evaluating Classroom Communication: In Support of Emergent and Authentic Frameworks in Second Language Assessment." By Miguel Mantero. IN: Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation (PARE), vol. 8, no. 8. (2002) [online].

Full Text at: ericae.net/pare/getvn.asp?v=8&n=8

["This paper addresses sociocultural theory and pedagogy ... in the second language classroom, particularly as it relates to student assessment. While teaching practices may be evolving to reflect the theory, methods of assessment are still largely the same: based on a priori structures and grammar .... Authentic assessment ... and instructional conversations ... are introduced as better methods for student assessment in language classrooms that operate within the sociocultural framework."]

[Request #S5765]

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SPECIAL EDUCATION

"Children with Special Needs: Special Issue." Edited by Karen E. Diamond, Purdue University. IN: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 2.

[Includes: "Caregiver and Peer Responses to Children with Language and Motor Disabilities in Inclusive Preschool Programs"; "Commentary: Narrowing the Question: Social Integration and Characteristics of Children with Disabilities in Inclusion Settings"; "Child Care Effects on the Development of Toddlers with Special Needs"; "Training, Experience, and Child Care Providers' Perceptions of Inclusion"; and others. NOTE: Early Childhood Research Quarterly is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S5756]

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EMPLOYMENT

WORKFORCE

Investing in Family Well-Being, a Family-Friendly Workplace, and a More Stable Workforce: A "Win-Win" Approach to Welfare and Low-Wage Policy. By Ellen Bravo, 9 to 5, National Association of Working Women, and others. Ford Foundation (The Foundation, New York, New York) Summer 2002. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.lowincomeworkingfamilies.org/pdfs/ford_policyfinal.pdf

["Often, low-wage parents have no health insurance, little or no sick leave or vacation time, no unemployment insurance, inadequate child care support and limited transportation options. According to this policy brief, businesses could build a more stable low-wage workforce through more family-friendly workplaces. Public assistance programs could help by targeting family-friendly businesses in their job placement efforts, supporting child care and other work supports, and providing ongoing help to families when major care-giving responsibilities get in the way of full-time employment." Connect for Kids (August 26, 2002).]

[Request #S5757]

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HEALTH

INSURANCE

Working Families' Health Insurance Coverage, 1997-2001. By Bradley C. Strunk and James D. Reschovsky, Center for Studying Health System Change. (The Center, Washington, DC) August 2002. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.hschange.org/CONTENT/463/463.pdf

["The booming economy of the late 1990's did not lead to an increase in the percentage of American workers covered by employee-sponsored health insurance.... The number of uninsured children in working families dropped, but only because of a new government program." Sacramento Bee (August 22, 2002) A6.]

[Request #S5758]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

Kinship Fact Sheets. By Casey Family Programs, National Center for Resource Family Support. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2002. Various Pagings.

Full Text at: www.casey.org/cnc/state_contacts/kinship_fact_sheets.htm

["These state by state Fact Sheets include data on grandparents and other relatives raising children from the 2000 U.S. Census, with information highlighting innovative and key programs to support kin caregivers, details on the policies that affect foster care kin caregivers, and an overview of state laws and regulations that relate to kinship care." Connect for Kids (August 26, 2002).]

[Request #S5759]

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Women, Work and Early Childhood: The Nexus in Developed and Developing Countries. By the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation. UNESCO Policy Briefs in Early Childhood. No 4, (The Organisation, Paris, France) June 2002. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.unesco.org/education/educprog/ecf/pdf/brief4en.pdf

["This brief explores the relationship between female employment and the funding of early childhood services. It observes that while family benefits and services for parents with young children in industrialized countries have developed in tandem with increased female participation in the labour market, the same relationship may not occur in developing countries. When women step into wage paying jobs requiring them to leave the home, there is a perceived demand for early childhood services which is, to some degree, responded to from the public purse. On the other hand, the unpaid work of women in their homes or neighborhoods, though requiring help with child care just as much as paid employment, does not carry a perceived demand for child care." ExchangeEveryDay Issue #448, (August 21, 2002).]

[Request #S5766]

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FAMILIES

Family Strengths, Often Overlooked, But Real. By Kristin Anderson Moore and others. (Child Trends, Washington, DC) August 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.childtrends.org/PDF/FamilyStrengths.pdf

["Contrary to many popular portrayals, American families are not all full of conflict or overwhelmed by modern life. Instead, the majority of American parents and children report strong family ties and daily routines that encourage close parent-child relationships. This research brief looks at several indicators related to strong families: positive parental mental health; household routines; time use; communication and praise; monitoring, supervision, and involvement; and parent-child warmth and supportiveness." News From Child Trends (August 27, 2002).]

[Request #S5760]

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LOW INCOME

Work-Family Issues and Low-Income Families. By Jody Heymann, Harvard University, and others. Ford Foundation. (The Foundation, New York, New York) Summer 2002. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.lowincomeworkingfamilies.org/pdfs/ford_analysisfinal.pdf

["The working poor, including welfare-to-work families, have significantly more care-giving responsibilities than do higher-income workers, and many have children with special needs. However, low-income workers are less likely than others to have the kind of employment benefits and/or policies that help them meet these obligations. This research brief finds that low-wage parents start far behind their moderate-income counterparts when it comes to labor-force conditions that allow them to meet their family obligations." Connect for Kids (August 26, 2002).]

[Request #S5761]

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PARENTS

"Social Support and Parenting in Poor, Dangerous Neighborhoods." By Rosario Ceballo and Vonnie C. McLoyd. IN: Child Development, vol. 73, no. 4 (July/August 2002) pp. 1310-1321.

["This study investigated how stressful environmental conditions influence the relation between mothers' social support and parenting strategies.... As neighborhood conditions worsened, the positive relation between emotional support and mothers' nurturant parenting was weakened."]

[Request #S5767]

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POVERTY

The Effects of Marriage and Maternal Education in Reducing Child Poverty. By Robert Rector and Kirk A. Johnson. The Heritage Foundation (The Foundation, Washington, DC) August 2, 2002. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.heritage.org/Research/Family/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.cfm&PageID=15163

["This study finds that maternal education without marriage is generally ineffective in reducing child poverty. The poverty levels of children raised by never-married mothers remain high even if the mother has a high school or college degree."]

[Request #S5762]

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The Changing Face of Child Poverty in California. By Julian S. Palmer and others, National Center for Children in Poverty. (The Center, New York, New York) August 2002. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.nccp.org/CApovfact.pdf

["Despite a booming economy in the late 1990s, California's child poverty rates remain stubbornly high, even though the state's poor youngsters are more likely to live in a family with a working parent than those in the United States as a whole." Los Angeles Times (August 26, 2002).]

[Request #S5763]

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"The Environment of Poverty: Multiple Stressor Exposure, Psychophysiological Stress, and Socioemotional Adjustment." By Gary W. Evans and Kimberly English. IN: Child Development, vol. 73, no. 4 (July/August 2002) pp. 1238-1248.

["Low-income, rural children confront a wider array of multiple physical (substandard housing, noise, crowding) and psychosocial (family turmoil, early childhood separation, community violence) stressors than do their middle-income counterparts.... Preliminary mediational analyses with cross-sectional data suggest that cumulative stressor exposure may partially account for the well-documented, elevated risk of socioemotional difficulties accompanying poverty."]

[Request #S5768]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

VIOLENCE

"Children Who Witness Violence, and Parent Report of Children's Behavior." By Marilyn Augustyn and others. IN: Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 156, no. 8 (August 2002) pp. 800-803.

["This study examined how much distress children report in response to violence that they have witnessed and how this is associated with parental reports of children's behavior. Findings indicate that clinicians and researchers should elicit children's own accounts of exposure to violence in addition to the caretakers' when attempting to understand children's behavior."]

[Request #S5764]

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HEALTH

CHILD ABUSE

"A 12-Year Prospective Study of the Long-Term Effects of Early Child Physical Maltreatment on Psychological, Behavioral, and Academic Problems in Adolescence." By Jennifer E. Lansford and others. IN: Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 156, no. 8 (August 2002) pp. 824-830.

["To determine whether child physical maltreatment early in life has long-term effects on psychological, behavioral, and academic problems independent of other characteristics associated with maltreatment, the authors conducted alongitudinal study with data collected annually from 1987 through 1999. The authors found that early physical maltreatment predicts adolescent psychological and behavioral problems, beyond the effects of other factors associated with maltreatment. Undetected early physical maltreatment in community populations represents a major problem worthy of prevention."]

[Request #S5769]

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