Subject: Studies in the News 02-52 (September 6, 2002)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

Summer 1852 - "John Muir lived to see the first 3,000-year-old giant come crashing down. ‘In My First Summer in the Sierra,’ he writes that soon after the first giant sequoias were ‘discovered’ by whites in 1852, in California's Calaveras Grove ‘One of the grandest trees was cut down for the sake of a stump! The laborious vandals had seen the biggest tree in the world, then, forsooth, they must try to see the biggest stump and dance on it’ "  www.emagazine.com/september-october_2000/0900curr_  

September 1852 - "We reached San Francisco early in September. San Francisco at that day was a lively place. Steamers plied daily between San Francisco and both Stockton and Sacramento…. In the evening when these boats arrived, Long Wharf–there was but one wharf in San Francisco in 1852-was alive with people crowding to meet the miners as they came down to sell their 'dust' and to 'have a time.' "  Chapter XV of “Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant”  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Racial profiling data collection and training
   Defendants right to police records
   Ban on gun shops
   Secret deportation hearings unconstitutional
   Controlling California prison pharmacy costs
   Convicts and society
ECONOMY
   Manufacturing performance and prospects
   Profile of the American casino gambler
   African-American personal wealth
   Effects of NAFTA on agriculture
   Federal budget deficits predicted
EDUCATION
   SAT scores increased in math
   Neediest schools' funding gap
   Youth profoundly affected by September 11th
   Merit scholarships
   Teacher retention
   Out-of-field teaching
EMPLOYMENT
   Minimum wage
   Technical change and wage gap
ENERGY
   Audit of renewables program in LA
   FERC report on energy price manipulation
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Water quality at vacation beaches
   Natural resource program funding
   How sprawl aggravates drought
   Wildfire prevention
   Conserving wild nature
   Gasoline prices remain steady
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Policy views from residents
   House agriculture appropriations FY 2003
   Limits of human memory
   Self-serve legal aid
   California implications of federal appropriations
   Guide to managing technology
   Budget reform recommendations
   Legislative oversight of executive branch
HEALTH
   Continuum of care for the homeless
   Diesel backup generators
   American attitudes on substance abuse
   Conditions for children in Orange County
   Availability health care in rural California
   Health insurance for welfare leavers
   Influenza vaccination for employees
HUMAN SERVICES
   Congressional welfare reform reauthorization proposals
   Returning to welfare
   Welfare time limits
   Faith based initiatives in welfare reform
INTERNATIONAL READER
   Mexico's state of the nation address
NATIONAL READER
   The National Guard and homeland security
TRANSPORTATION
   Transportation appropriations for California
   Costs of toll bridges
   Intercity passenger rail system
   Pedestrian fatalities
STUDIES TO COME
   County growth projections
   California economy to 2010
   Concerns over animal biotechnology
   Income tax dodgers
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CRIMINAL JUSTICE POLICY

An Evaluation of Racial Profiling Data Collection and Training. By Michael Cohen and others, Office of the Legislative Analyst. (The Office, Sacramento, California) August 27, 2002. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2002/racial_profiling/8-02_racial_profiling.pdf

["In an effort to determine the extent to which racial disparity is a factor in traffic enforcement, many law enforcement agencies in California have begun collecting traffic-stop data. In this report, we discuss many of the issues concerning the collection and analysis of these data.... We recommend a number of changes for racial profiling data collection, analysis, and training in the state in order to improve their effectiveness."]

[Request #S5808]

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CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

City of Los Angeles v. Jeremy Brandon. California Supreme Court. S093628. August 26, 2002. Various pagings.

["The California Supreme Court gave criminal defendants more access to police personnel files, ruling that a judge can release records going back several years -- but only if those records are likely to affect the outcome of the case.... In its ruling, the court sought to balance the privacy interests of peace officers and the constitutional rights of defendants by allowing defendants access to records more than 5 years old, but they must meet a high standard of proof." San Francisco Chronicle (August 27, 2002) A4.]

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GUNS & GUN CONTROL

Peter Garrett Gunsmith, Inc. v. City of Dayton Kentucky et al. Court of Appeals of Kentucky, NO. 2001-CA-001311-MR. July 26, 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: kypost.com/2002/jul/27/kygunshop072702.html

["A Kentucky appeals court has ruled that zoning laws can prohibit gun shops, a decision that a Newport gun shop owner says will open the gates for cities to practice gun control through zoning." Kentucky Post (July 27, 2002 A1.]

[Request #S5810]

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IMMIGRATION

Detroit Free Press v. Ashcroft. U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. 02-1427. August 16, 2002. Various pagings.

["The federal appeals court in Cincinnati declared that the Bush administration acted unlawfully in holding hundreds of deportation hearings in secret based only on the government's assertion that the people involved may have links to terrorism. The decision, which was laced with stinging language questioning the administration's commitment to an open democracy, is the first major appellate ruling on the government's legal tactics concerning Sept. 11." San Francisco Chronicle (August 27, 2002) A1.]

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PRISONS

Controlling the Costs of California's Prison Pharmacy Operations: A Report to the California State Senate. By the Senate Advisory Commission on Cost Control in State Government, California Legislature. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) July 2002. 69 p.

["The costs of pharmaceutical drugs have been skyrocketing in California's prison pharmacies, increasing from $26.6 million in 1995-96 to an estimated $125 million in 2001-02. Costs have increased from $197 per inmate to a projected $768 in the same time period. The report finds that the department is in critical need of a strategic integrated plan to upgrade its overall prison pharmacy operations, to create an operational monitoring and oversight committee, and to modernize its 20-year old outmoded technology system." NOTE: Controlling the Costs ... is available for 3-day loan.]

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PRISONS & PRISONERS

“Too Many Convicts." And "A Stigma That Never Fades.” IN: Economist, vol. 364, no. 8285 (August 10, 2002) pp. 25-27.

["America May Want to Rethink A System That Creates So Many Hardened Criminals.... This keeness to lock people up is matched by a complete lack of interest in them when they get out.... There are two straws to grasp. First, politicians are beginning to notice the problem. The Justice Department has recently allocated $100 million in grants to help prisoners on release-- a start, though not much against the $54 billion a year that America spends on its whole prison system."]

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ECONOMY

CALIFORNIA

Manufacturing Matters: California's Performance and Prospects. By Ross DeVol and others, Milken Institute. Prepared for the California Manufacturers & Technology Association. (The Instititute, Santa Monica, California) August 2002. 120 p.

Full Text at: www.milkeninstitute.org/poe.cfm?point=mmatters

["Economy Rooted in Factory Plants; Manufacturing hinges, not Just Designing Them, Is Vital To State's Future: California's future in the new economy might well depend on retaining its traditional expertise in manufacturing.... By far the nation's largest manufacturing state, California is home to industries that employ more than 18 million people." Los Angeles Times (August 23, 2002) 1.]

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GAMBLING

Harrah's Survey: Profile of the American Casino Gambler. By the Peter D. Hart Research Associates, Inc., and the Luntz Research Companies. Prepared for Harrah's Entertainment, Inc. (Harrah's, Reno, Nevada) 2002. 34 p.

Full Text at: www.harrahs.com/about_us/survey/survey_02.5.pdf

["Casino Customers Reflect the Norms in U.S. Populations: It's difficult to see much difference at all when comparing the 53.2 million casino gamblers in the United States to the nation's overall total of 196.9 million adults 21 and older.... Commercial casinos now operate in 11 states, while Native American casinos operate in 23 states." Chicago Sun-Times (July 14, 2002) 7.]

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INCOME

Black American Personal Wealth: Current Status. By Stephen Brobeck and others. Consumer Federation of America. (The Federation, Washington, DC) August 2002. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.americasaves.org/back_page/BlackWealthReport082902.doc

[“Black Americans earn more then ever, but many lack investment experience that could help them accumulate more money…. The report found that median household wealth among blacks grew 321 percent between 1989 and 1998, from $3,680 in 1989 to $15,500. However, that still was less than a quarter of the $71,700 accumulated by the typical U.S. household.” San Francisco Chronicle (August 30, 2002) B2.]

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NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT

Effects of North American Free Trade Agreement on Agriculture and the Rural Economy. By Steven Zahniser and John Link, Economic Research Service, U.S Department of Agriculture. ERS Agriculture and Trade Report No. WRS0201. (Economic Research Service, Washington, DC) July 2002. 134 p.

Full Text at: www.ers.usda.gov/publications/wrs0201/wrs0201.pdf

["This report assesses the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on U.S. agriculture and trade. It also contains sections on investment, employment, the environment, and transportation, as well as detailed commodity assessments of the impact of NAFTA on trade."]

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UNITED STATES

The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update, Summary. By the Congressional Budget Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) August 2002. 5 p.

["U.S. Projected to Run Deficits Til '06: Last year's tax cuts, higher federal spending and the slumping economy have pushed the U.S. government into at least four more years of budget deficits, the office declared.... The report foresees slow improvement in the national economy -- 2.3 percent growth this year before expanding to 3 percent in 2003." Sacramento Bee (August 28, 2002) A1.]

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EDUCATION

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

10–Year Trend in SAT Scores Indicates Increased Emphasis on Math Is Yielding Results; Reading and Writing Are Causes for Concern. By The College Board. (The Board, New York, New York) 2002. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr2002/pdf/CBS2002Report.pdf

[“College-bound California students performed virtually the same as the national average in math on the SAT, but the class of 2002 continued to lag behind on the verbal portion of the test. The SAT results … show that nationally, the average SAT math score rose two points, to 516, continuing a decade-long upward trend.” Sacramento Bee (August 28, 2002) A3.]

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ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

How Well Are American Students Learning? With Sections on Arithmetic, High School Culture, and Charter Schools. By Tom Loveless, Brown Center on Education Policy, Brookings Institution. Brown Center Report on American Education. Vol. 1. No. 3. (The Institution, Washington, DC) September 2002. 21 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/dybdocroot/gs/brown/bc_report/2002/bcr_report.pdf

["Students Getting A Wrong Number; Researcher Says Children's Computational Skills Are Slipping: In his report, Tom Loveless said the federally funded National Assessment of Educational Progress has presented a cheery picture of rising math scores in the last decade, even while arithmetic scores have languished." Washington Post (September 3, 2002) A1.]

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SCHOOL FINANCE

The Funding Gap: Low-Income and Minority Students Receive Fewer Dollars. By Greg F. Orlofsky, Education Trust. (The Trust, Washington, DC) August 2002. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.edtrust.org/main/documents/investment.pdf

["The report shows that in most states, school districts with the neediest students receive far less state and local tax money -- an average of just under $1,000 per student -- than schools with the fewest poor children.... The report defined the neediest school districts as those in the quartile with the most students below the poverty line." New York Times (August 9, 2002) A10.]

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SECONDARY SCHOOLS

The State of Our Nation's Youth, 2002-2003. By The Horatio Alger Association. (The Association, Alexandria, Virginia)2002. 63 p.

["A new comprehensive national survey of young Americans ages 13 to 19 provides new insights into what teens across the country say affect their lives and futures. Peter Hart, President of Peter D. Hart Research, finds in analysis of the survey that "today's high school students have been profoundly affected by the events of the past year, but they are reacting in ways that show them to be both pragmatic and optimistic about the future. They are responding to September 11 by looking for ways to help, and looking ahead to graduation with a combination of apprehension and excitement." HandsNet (August 16, 2002)]

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STUDENT AID

Who Should We Help? The Negative Social Consequences of Merit Scholarships. Edited by Donald E. Heller and Patricia Marin, The Civil Rights Project, Harvard University. (The Project, Cambridge, Massachusetts) August 23, 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.law.harvard.edu/civilrights/publications/meritaid/1_2_cover_toc_foreword.pdf

["Study Finds Merit-Based Scholarships Failing: In 4 states surveyed, those not needing aid more likely to get it.... The study recommends expanding definitions of merit, putting income caps on the aid and allowing students to receive both merit and need-based aid." San Francisco Chronicle (August 27, 2002) A5.]

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TEACHERS

Unraveling the "Teacher Shortage" Problem: Teacher Retention is the Key. A Symposium of The National Commission on Teaching and America's Future and NCTAF State Partners (The Symposium, Washington, DC) August 20-22, 2002. 17 p.

Full Text at: www.nctaf.org/whatsnew/docs/Press_Briefing_8-19-02.doc

["This report shows new evidence suggesting that the nation’s widely publicized and often-lamented teacher shortages are, in fact, symptoms resulting from a teacher retention crisis in the United States."]

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All Talk, No Action: Putting an End to Out-of-Field Teaching. By Craig D. Jerald, The Education Trust and Ricard M. Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania. (The Trust, Washington, DC) August 2002. 14 p.

Full Text at: 64.224.125.0/main/documents/AllTalk.pdf

["25% of Secondary Teachers Untrained in Their Subjects; U.S. Average Lower than California's Rate: An estimated one in four public middle- and high-school classes is taught by a teacher not trained in the subject -- and the problem is much worse in schools that serve poor and minority students, according to a survey." San Francisco Chronicle (August 22, 2002) A4.]

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EMPLOYMENT

MINIMUM WAGE

Minimum Wage: Who Gets It and What Difference Does It Make? By Alicia Bugarin and Rosa Moller, California Research Bureau, California State Library. CRB-02-011. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) August 2002. 39 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/02/11/02-011.pdf

["The report discusses statistics on workers affected by minimum-wage proposals. [It] compares minimum-wage proposals; economic effects of minimum-wage rate changes ... compares minimum-wage rates in the states; tip credits; workforce receiving $7.00 or less per hour; workers earning minimum wage rates that support one or more dependents ... [and]discusses living wages." StateNet Capitol Journal (date?) 3.]

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WAGES

Technical Change and the Dispersion of Wages. By Bharat Trehan, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. FRBSF Economic Letter. No. 2002-23. August 9, 2002. 4 p.

["In the last 25 years, the wage gap ... between highly skilled and less skilled workers has widened noticeably.... This Letter reviews some of the evidence on this issue and discusses some recent explanations relating these phenomena to another development that has been much in the news recently, namely, an increase in the pace of technical progress.]

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ENERGY

Evaluation of the Green Power and Public Benefits Programs of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power For the City of Los Angeles City Controller. By Barrington-Wellesley Group, Inc. (The Controller, Los Angeles, California) August 2002. 152 p.

Full Text at: www.lacity.org/ctr/audits/03-07-Report.pdf

["Los Angeles Controller Laura Chick released an audit that found instances of mismanagement and waste in the Department of Water and Power's Green Power and Public Benefits programs, especially in developing use of renewable power sources. Chick called for City Council hearings on her conclusions." Los Angeles Times (August 30, 2002) B3.]

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Initial Report on Company-Specific Separate Proceedings and Generic Reevaluations; Published Natural Gas Price Data; and Enron Trading Strategies. By the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. (The Commission, Washington, DC) August 2002.

Full Text at: www.ferc.fed.us/electric/bulkpower/pa02-2/Initial-Report-PA02-2-000.pdf

["In a report that offers California hope for an extra $1 billion in refunds for electricity market abuses, federal regulators said the natural gas prices used to calculate the refunds may have been manipulated. FERC also launched formal investigations of five energy companies suspected of manipulating electricity prices and indicated it may target their corporate profits for repayments." Sacramento Bee (August 14, 2002) A1.]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

BEACHES

Testing the Waters 2002: A Guide to Water Quality at Vacation Beaches. By the Natural Resources Defense Council. (The Council, Washington, DC) August 2002. Various pagings; Appendices.

Full Text at: www.nrdc.org/water/oceans/ttw/titinx.asp

["The council reported that in 2001 there were 13,410 beach closings nationwide because of pollution, a 19 percent increase from 2000. Many of the closings were attributed to the presence of bacteria associated with fecal contamination ... but over half were attributed to unknown sources." New York Times (August 25, 2002) 14.]

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CALIFORNIA

California's Natural Resource Programs: Where Does the Money Come from and Where Does It Go? By J. Fred Silva, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) August 2002. 20 p.; Appendices.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/publications/PPICEO5/PPICEO5.pdf

["This report offers a thorough analysis of the state's often-overlooked natural resource programs. While only 4 percent of the state's budget is spent on natural resources, that figure is expected to increase in the future. The report looks at program expenditures and revenues between 1978-79 and 2000-01." California Policy Forum Newswire (August 22, 2002) 1.]

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DROUGHT

Paving Our Way to Shortages: How Sprawl Aggravates Drought. By Betsy Otto, American Rivers, and others. (American Rivers, Washington, DC) August 2002. 34 p.

Full Text at: www.amrivers.org/docs/PavingOurWay1.pdf

["The rapid expansion of paved-over and developed land in metropolitan areas has made already intense drought conditions even worse, a report says....The authors of the report, which studied the effects of development on water supplies in 18 rapidly growing metropolitan areas, said they were not trying to come up with precise numbers for any region, but wanted to show the magnitude of the problem....The model used in the study to compute the loss of ground-water infiltration does not apply to Southern California and other arid regions, where rainfall evaporates quickly and much of the drinking water comes from snowmelt hundreds of miles away, the report's authors said." Los Angeles Times (August 29, 2002) A6.]

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FORESTRY

Healthy Forests: An Initiative for Wildlife Prevention and Stronger Communities. By the Office of President George W. Bush. (The Office, Washington, DC) August 22, 2002. 22 p.

Full Text at: www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/healthyforests/Healthy_Forests_v2.pdf

["Bush Defends Logging Initiative as a Better Means of Management Against Forest Fires: President Bush asserted that his proposal to allow more logging in national forests would prevent catastrophic blazes and lift local economies.... Mr. Bush outlined several means intended to encourage the thinning of national forests by the timber industry." New York Times (August 23, 2002) A13.]

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HABITAT PROTECTION

Economic Reasons for Conserving Wild Nature. By Andrew Balmford, University of Cambridge, and others. IN: Science, vol. 297, no. 5583 (August 9, 2002) pp. 950-953.

["Humanity Loses $250 Billion a Year in Wild Habitat: The economic value of wild ecosystems far outweighs the value of converting these areas to cropland, housing or other human uses.... From tropical forests to ocean reef systems, about half of an ecosystem's total economic value is lost when that ecosystem is converted from its wild state to human use." Environment News Service (August 20, 2002) 1.]

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PETROLEUM

The Solution Needed to Keep Pump Prices Under $2. By Tim Hamilton, Petroleum Industry Consultant and others. Prepared for the Commission for The Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights. (The Foundation, Santa Monica, California) 2002. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.consumerwatchdog.org/ftcr/rp/rp002661.pdf

["Gas Study Knocks Choices; Selling 1 Octane May Save: Selling a single grade of gasoline at the pump would put a cap on incessant price spikes in California, ending refiners' ability to manipulate supplies, according to a study.... The consumer group found that California drivers are overpaying billions for gasoline because West Coast refiners have manipulated supplies." Daily News of Los Angeles (August 29, 2002) B1.]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

ACCOUNTABILITY

PPIC Statewide Survey: Californian's and Their Government. By Mark Baldassare. Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) August 2002. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/publications/CalSurvey29/survey29.pdf

["This survey series is designed to provide policymakers, the media, and the general public with objective, advocacy-free information on the perceptions, opinions, and public policy preferences of California residents. The current survey is the tenth... and will be conducted on a periodic basis throughout the 2002 election cycle. It focuses on the social, economic, and political trends and public policy preferences that underlie ballot choices in statewide races and citizen's initiatives."]

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AGRICULTURE

House Agriculture Appropriations for FY 2003 and California Implications: Special Report. The California Institute for Federal Policy Research (The Institute, Washington, DC) August 29, 2002. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.calinst.org/pubs/ag03h.pdf

["The following represents a quick analysis of the bill from a California perspective.... [Including] Agriculture Research Services ... Emerging Diseases ... Biobased Products and Bioenergy ... Plant Crop Genome Sequencing ... Proposed Closures ... Transgene Activity Research ... Genetic Resources ... Watershed and Flood Prevention ... Food Stamps [and others]."]

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COURTS

"Memory Faults and Fixes." By Elizabeth F. Loftus. IN: Issues in Science and Technology, vol. 18, no. 4 (Summer 2002) pp. 41-50.

["Research has revealed the limits of human memory; now the courts need to incorporate these findings into their procedures.... Psychological studies have shown that it is virtually impossible to tell the difference between a real memory and one that is a product of imagination or some other process."]

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“Self-Serve Legal Aid.” By Margaret Graham Tebo. IN: ABA Journal, vol. 88, no. 8 (August 2002) pp. 38-43.

["As Nonlawyer Service Grow, Some Pro Se Litigants are Succeeding: Others Are Just Getting More Disillusioned with the Justice System.... California is among only a few states that regulate nonlawyer legal service providers, requiring proof of training to perform document-drafting work. In many other states, unhappy customers are left with only the Better Business Bureau or state offices of consumer protection to turn to."]

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FEDERAL BUDGET

Special Report: Senate Commerce-Justice-State Appropriations and California Implications. By The California Institute for Federal Policy Research (The Institute, Washington, DC) August 8, 2002. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.calinst.org/pubs/cjs03s.pdf

["[This] Special report presents a quick analysis ... from a California perspective ... of the Senate version of the fiscal year 2003 Appropriations for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, State and Related Agencies ... Total funding included in the bill is $47.1 billion."]

[Request #S5841]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

"Contract Hoops and Loopholes: Guide to Managing Technology." By Ellen Perlman. IN: Governing, vol. 15, no. 10 (July 2002) pp. 53-60.

Full Text at: www.governing.com/archive/2002/jul/manageit.txt

["With a high failure rate for outsourcing IT projects, everybody from legislators to CIOs is scrambling to put safeguards in place.... Many governments simply underestimate the expertise required and the changes in departments' business processes that have to take place."]

[Request #S5842]

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STATE BUDGET

A Summary of Recommendations for Reforms to the State Budget Process. By Charlene Wear Simmons, California Research Bureau, California State Library. CRB Note, Vol. 9, No. 1. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) August 2002. 13 p.; Appendices.

["Assemblyman Joe Canciamilla ... would have the state shift to a two-year budget cycle, change its fiscal year to October 1-September 30 to coincide with the federal government, create a mandatory budget reserve and devote the first year of each biennial session solely to the oversight and evaluation of existing programs and department." Sacramento Bee (September 1, 2002) A3.]

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STATE OVERSIGHT

Legislative Oversight of the Executive Branch. By Charlene Wear Simmons, California Research Bureau, California State Library. CRB 02-013. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) August 2002. 24 p.

["This report ... provides a general discussion of legislative oversight.... Legislative oversight is important to maintaining the checks and balances of representative government, and ensuring a vital legislative role in state government through review, monitoring and supervision of administration. Effective legislative review of executive branch actions responds to increasing public concerns about government performance."]

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HEALTH

ACCESS TO CARE

Evaluations of Continuums of Care for Homeless People: Final Report. By Martha B. Burt and others. Prepared for the US Department of Housing and Urban Development. (HUD, Washington, DC) 2002. 230 p.

Full Text at: www.huduser.org/publications/pdf/continuums_of_care.pdf

["This comprehensive study examines the continuums of care for homeless people throughout the United States. Critiquing the agenda of the Continuum of Care (CoC), a system designed to help homeless people as well as those at imminent risk of becoming homeless, this report examines their development, current structure, and possible future." The Scout Report (August 30, 2002).]

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AIR POLLUTION

Smaller, Closer, Dirtier: Diesel Backup Generators in California. By Nancy Ryan and others, Environmental Defense. (The Defense, Oakland, California) August 2002. 92 p.

Full Text at: www.environmentaldefense.org/documents/2272_BUGsreport.pdf

["Diesel Generators Pose Health Risk, Report Says: The Sacramento Valley is home to 544 diesel-powered backup generators (BUGs).... Sacramento ranked sixth among 14 regions statewide in the number of diesel-powered generators.... The report also says that diesel emissions are particularly harmful to young children, who are most vulnerable to developing asthma and other respiratory ailments....The report offers a number of policy recommendations for backup generators." Sacramento Bee (August 29, 2002) B2.]

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ALCOHOL & DRUG USE

National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse: Teens, Parents and Siblings. By The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. (CASA, New York, New York} August 2002. 66 p.

Full Text at: www.casacolumbia.org/usr_doc/TeenSurvey2002.pdf

[“Teenagers say marijuana is easier to buy than cigarettes or beer – one in three say they can find it in a matter of hours – but only 25 percent admit having tried it, a national survey finds…. The annual survey didn’t specify whether drugs are easy or difficult to buy at school, but 63 percent of students said their schools are ‘drug free,’ nearly double the number who said the same in 1998. It’s the highest percentage since 1996.” Sacramento Bee (August 21, 2002) A8.]

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CHILDREN

The Eighth Annual Report on the Conditions of Children in Orange County. By County of Orange California. (The County, Santa Ana, California) 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.oc.ca.gov/HCA/cscc/report

["Orange County's annual report on the state of children offers a mixed picture: One in three children lives in poverty, but juvenile arrests and teen pregnancies are down." Los Angeles Times (August 28, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S5848]

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HEALTH INSURANCE

HMOs and Rural California. By the Office of the Legislative Analyst. (The Office, Sacramento, California) August 8, 2002. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2002/hmos_rural_ca/8-02_hmos_rural_ca.pdf

["The Legislative Analysts discuss reasons for the recent withdrawals of health coverage by health maintenance organizations (HMOs) from rural areas and recommend a number of steps that they believe will create a more attractive health care marketplace for HMOs. In those rural areas where these steps are not enough to attract HMOs, they identify ways communities can develop their own health care systems."]

[Request #S5849]

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MEDI-CAL

Beyond Medi-Cal: Health Insurance Coverage Among Former Welfare Recipients. By Carole Roan Grescenz and Jacob Alex Klerman, Rand Corporation. Medi-Cal Policy Institute. (The Institute, Oakland, California) August 2002. 33 p.

Full Text at: www.medi-cal.org/documents/BeyondMediCal.pdf

["Although health insurance provided to former California welfare recipients through Medi-Cal, the state's Medicaid program, "remains far from universal," many receive coverage through employer-sponsored health plans, according to this report. The results suggest a need for further program outreach to former welfare recipients who qualify for but have not enrolled in Medi-Cal and complementary strategies to increase employer-sponsored health coverage." Daily Health Policy Report (August 27, 2002)]

[Request #S5850]

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VACCINES

“Economic Analysis of Influenza Vaccination and Antiviral Treatment for Healthy Working Adults.” By P.Y. Lee and others. IN: Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 137, no. 4 (August 20, 2002) pp. 225-231.

Full Text at: www.annals.org/issues/v137n4/pdf/200208200-00005.pdf

["Despite the cost, even healthy adults benefit from an annual flu shot because they miss fewer days of work and spend less on treatment." Sacramento Bee (August 20, 2002)A5.]

[Request #S5851]

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HUMAN SERVICES

TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

Fiscal Effect on California: Congressional Welfare Reform Reauthorization Proposals. By Mary Ader and others, Legislative Analyst's Office (The Office, Sacramento, California) August 29, 2002. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2002/congress_welfare/8-02_congress_welfare.pdf

["Congress currently is considering different approaches to the reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program. We estimate that the House reauthorization bill (H.R.4737) would result in net state costs of about $2.2 billion over the next five years. By contrast, we estimate that the version passed by the Senate Finance Committee would result in net state savings of $140 million over the same period.... The Legislature should advise the Congressional delegation of its priorities as the process moves forward."]

[Request #S5852]

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WELFARE

Who Returns to Welfare? By Pamela Loprest, Income and Benefits Policy Center, Urban Institute. Series B, No. B-49. (The Institute, Washington, DC) September 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310548_B49.pdf

["No Cause for Celebration; For Poor People, 5 Years of Welfare Reform Created Only Hardships: According to the Urban Institute, although thousands of Americans left welfare during the 1990s, many -- as much as one in five -- are returning because of the poor economy.... Without additional transitional services to help these people find and keep jobs, the report predicted those numbers were certain to grow in the future." Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (September 1, 2002) 3B.]

[Request #S5853]

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Welfare Time Limits: State Policies, Implementation, and Effects on Families: Executive Summary. By Dan Bloom and others. Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. Prepared for the Department of Health and Human Services. (MDRC, New York, New York) July 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/Reports2002/welfaretimelimits/wtl_execsummary.pdf

["A central theme that emerges from all the study components is that time limits are far more complex than they seem. This complexity is evident in the states’ diverse policy choices, the way time limits are implemented at the local level, and the difficulties in interpreting data and studies about time limits."]

[Request #S5859]

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WELFARE REFORM

Faith-Based Initiatives in Welfare Reform. By Courtney Jarchow, National Conference of State Legislatures. Welfare Reform Series. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) 2002. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/statefed/welfare/faithbrief.pdf

["State policymakers are increasingly considering expanding the scope of contracting with religious organizations to deliver social services. A high level of interest exists, as does the recognition that many challenges remain. The use of explicitly religious social service providers continues to be an issue in many state legislatures and also is being discussed in the federal TANF reauthorization debate."]

[Request #S5854]

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INTERNATIONAL READER

Address by President Vicente Fox on the Occasion of his Government's Second Annual Report. By President Vicente Fox. (Internet System of the Mexican Presidency, Mexico City, Mexico) September 1, 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.presidencia.gob.mx/?P=42&Orden=Leer&Tipo=Pe&Art=3612

["President Vicente Fox extended an olive branch to a sharply divided Congress, urging Mexico's legislators to 'give democracy a chance.' Fox, appearing relaxed and confident during his second state of the nation address, insisted the change Mexicans so desperately desire has finally begun. But he acknowledged that 'there is much more to do. I know that Mexico demands better results.'" San Diego Union Tribune (September 2, 2002) A1.]

[Request #S5855]

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NATIONAL READER

NATIONAL READER

The National Guard and Homeland Security. By Jack Spencer for The Heritage Foundation. Executive Memorandum. No. 826. (The Foundation, Washington, D.C.) July 29, 2002. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.cfm&PageID=14352

["The National Guard is the logical element of the U.S. armed forces to act as the lead military agency for homeland security. By law and tradition, the Guard connects local communities to the government. Units located in every American community have the capabilities, legal authority, and structure to respond quickly to attacks on the homeland.]

[Request #S5856]

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TRANSPORTATION

CALIFORNIA

Special Report: Senate Transportation Appropriations and California Implications. By The California Institute For Federal Policy Research (The Institute, Washington, DC) August 15, 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.calinst.org/pubs/trap03s.pdf

["This Special Report presents a quick analysis of the Transportation Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2003, S.2808 ... from a California perspective .... [including funding for] the Transportation Security Administration ...Federal Aviation Administration ... U.S. Coast Guard ... Federal Highway Administration ... Federal Transit Administration ... [and] Job Access and Reverse Commute Grants."]

[Request #S5857]

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FINANCING

California Department of Transportation: Seismic Retrofit Costs of State-Owned Toll Bridges Have Significantly Exceeded the Department's Original Estimates and May Go Even Higher. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits. 2001-122. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) August 2002. 52 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2001122.pdf

["This report concludes that the seismic retrofit costs of state-owned toll bridges have significantly exceeded Caltrans' original estimates for many reasons; however, the largest contributor is the east span replacement of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge with an estimated cost increase of $1.3 billion."]

[Request #S5858]

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LIGHT RAIL

Dialogue Begins on Structure, Financing of Rail Partnership. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief, 02-41. (FFIS, Washington, DC) July 16, 2002. 2 p.

["The U.S. Transportation Secretary Mineta has issued a policy statement outlining principles for a national passenger rail policy, and has asked governors to form a task force to work through the issues....The new NGA policy cites new stresses on the nation's transportation system following the events of September 11, 2001, and the need to relieve the increasingly congested highway and aviation systems. It urges continued financial support for intercity rail, but also the development of a federal-state partnership similar to existing highway, transit and aviation programs."]

[Request #S5860]

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ROADWAYS

"Inequities in Pedestrian Deaths: Times Study Finds Latinos, Seniors at Highest Risk; L.A. County Leads in Walker Fatalities." IN: Los Angeles Times (August 19, 2002) A1+.

["A Times analysis of more than 2,500 pedestrian deaths from 1993 through 2001 found that although the fatal accidents are concentrated in densely populated urban neighborhoods, the county's deadliest streets are not necessarily its busiest. The study also found that government efforts to improve pedestrian safety have not always occurred in areas with the most deaths."]

[Request #S4749]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

ECONOMY

CALIFORNIA

California County Projections -- 2000 edition. By the Center for Continuing Study of the California Economy. (The Center, Palo Alto, California) August 2002.

["This edition presents new county projections to 2010; projections of population, household, income and spending growth; an analysis of California's housing markets; increased attention to San Joaquin Valley counties; and the latest CCSCE insights on the state and national economy." NOTE: California County Projections ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S5861]

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California Economic Growth -- 2002 Edition. By the Center for Continuing Study of the California Economy. (The Center, Palo Alto, California) August 2002. 300 p.

[Includes: "The California Economy in 2001 and 2002;" "The U.S. Economy in the Decade Ahead;" "The California Economy to 2010;" "Key Issues Facing California;" "Regional Economic Growth;" "Los Angeles Basin;" "San Francisco Bay Area;" "San Diego Region;" and "Sacramento Region." NOTE: California Economic Growth will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S5862]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

BIOTECHNOLOGY

Animal Biotechnology: Science Based Concerns. By Debra Davis and others. National Academy Press. (National Research Council, Washington, DC) August 2002. 160 p.

Full Text at: www.nap.edu/catalog/10418.html

["The products of animal biotechnology, such as organs, tissues, or pharmaceuticals, can be used for direct human health needs and food.... The committee attempts to put the new technologies, which form the focus of this report, into perspective and to discuss some of what it has learned from past animal agricultural practices." NOTE: Animal Biotechnology ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S5863]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

TAXATION

The Great American Tax Dodge: How Spiraling Fraud and Avoidance Are Killing Fairness, Destroying the Income Tax, and Costing You. By Donald L. Barlett and James B. Steele. The University of California Press, Berkeley, California. October 2002. 311 p.

["[The authors]... expose the millions of Americans who are dodging their income taxes at every honest taxpayer's expense ... explain how Americans are cheating as never before, and why most are getting away with it.... This book also documents how Congress is deliberately undermining the income tax in order to replace it with a system that will provide the largest windfall ever for the richest Americans -- and increase the burden on everyone else." NOTE: The Great American Tax Dodge ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S5864]

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