Subject: Studies in the News 02-61 (October 11, 2002)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

1852 - "Daguerreotype (the first practical, popular method of photography) had a role in the westward movement.... Just as science was an intellectual frontier in the nineteenth century, the American West as a physical frontier. The daguerrotype was a dual product of science and art.... Long after it had been replaced by cheaper tintype and paper prints of a negative-based reproducible photography, the daguerreotype remained a valuable, if no longer practiced, tradition."  John Wood. Secrets of the Dark Chamber  

Ocober 1852 - "An opaque microscope is easily made by condensing sunlight upon the side of the object nearest the little magnifying lense, instead of letting the light pass through the object as in the former case. By this most simple means it is in the power of every daguerreotypist to greatly aid the naturalist in his researches, giving him in a few moments drawings of invisible objects penciled by Nature's own hand, which it would be impossible for him to obtain in any other way, and he also possesses himself with an invaluable collection of natural objects that would be of great interest to the public. "  John A. Whipple, Microscopic Daguerreotypes  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CALIFORNIA READER
   State of the state conference
CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Fighting crime with DNA
   Drug testing in schools
   Non-violent offenders jailed for drugs
   Alarming increase in hate crime
   Effect of terrorist attacks on children
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Tribal recognition decisions
   Considering the meaning of the Constitution
DEMOGRAPHY
   Farm household income and wealth
   Poverty increasing
ECONOMY
   Weak economic recovery forecast
   Environmental contamination of former defense sites
   The internet after September 11
   Unsolicited E-Mail
   The role of fiscal policy
EDUCATION
   Students and schools in Central Valley
   Best practices for learning disabled
   Exit-exam scores for learning disabled
   Competitive grants for education programs
   Base line for exit exams
   High school exit exam evaluation
   High exit exam requirements lowered number passing
EMPLOYMENT
   Private pension plans
ENERGY
   Wholesale generator investigation
   Traders manipulated power market
   Energy dealings ruled illegal
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Tighten tailpipe emission controls
   California environmental protection indicators
   Vernal pool protection
   Plan to limit Malibu coastal development
   Rush to protect redwoods
   California farmworkers and pesticides
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Court upholds limits on prayer
   Loss of state revenue
   State-federal balance of payments
   Budget and economic projections
   Federal grants for those affected by 9/11 events
   Strategy to secure cyberspace
   Competitive federal grants
   State fiscal conditions
   State tax revenue decline
HEALTH
   Emergency management for disabled
   Report cards for health care
   Public disclosure of HMO scores
   Federal share of program costs
   Allotments for medicare premiums
HOUSING
   Rental housing for America's poor families
   Census data produce shifts in fiscal picture
HUMAN SERVICES
   TANF and child care
   The graying of America
   Housing and homelessness programs
   Disabled parents and TANF
TRANSPORTATION
   Highway funding restored
   Securing transit systems
STUDIES TO COME
   Data on U.S. religious affiliation
   Tragedy of industrial agriculture
   Growth rate and economic forecast
   Public school choice
   Saving open space
   City fiscal conditions
   Fathers' involvement with infants
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CALIFORNIA READER

California: 2002: State of the State Conference Briefing Book. By the Milken Institute. (The Institute, Santa Monica, California) September 26, 2002. 90 p.

["Our 4th edition ... examines current pressing policy issues and puts them in the context of their long-term implications for the state's economy and its business climate.... This year's assessment covers major facets and issues facing the state's economy: Budget and Finance, Business Climate, Current Economic Conditions, Demographics, Industry, Real Estate, Technology and Venture Capital, and International Trade."]

[Request #S6169]

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CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

DNA

Fighting Crime with DNA. By Kelly Fox and Donna Lyons, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 10, No. 42. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) October 2002. 2 p.

["Every state has enacted legislation to establish DNA databases and require collection of samples from sex offenders and other violent criminals. Twenty-two states have expanded that requirement to include collection from all convicted felons; seven did so this year. Thirty states currently require collection of a biological sample from certain juvenile offenders and some include people found not guilty by reason of mental illness or insanity."]

[Request #S6170]

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DRUG TESTING

What You Need to Know About Drug Testing in Schools. By Office of National Drug Control Policy. (The Office, Washington, DC) August 2002. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/pdf/drug_testing.pdf

["Drug Guide for Schools Focuses on Treatment: Schools should offer help to students who use drugs rather than just expel them, the office urges.... Kicking students out of school without treatment can create 'drug-using dropouts,' an even bigger problem.... While the study provides guidelines for handling drug abuse among children, final decisions on what to do remain in the hands of school districts."] Chicago Tribune (August 30, 2002) N12.]

[Request #S6171]

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DRUGS

Distorted Priorities: Drug Offenders in State Prisons. By Ryan S. King and Marc Mauer, The Sentencing Project (The Project, Washington, DC) September 2002. 19 p.

Full Text at: www.sentencingproject.org/news/distorted_priorities.pdf

["Blacks Disproportionately Jailed For Drugs, Study Says: Many drug offenders in state prisons are black males with no history of violence or high-level drug dealing.... The project says that just over half of these state inmates -- 58 percent, or 124,885 people -- are nonviolent offenders.... Blacks are 56 percent of drug offender inmates, while 23 percent are Latinos. Their respective proportions of all monthly drug users nationwide are 13 percent and 9 percent." Associated Press (September 20, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S6172]

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HATE CRIMES

Hate Crime in California. By Rey del Rio and others, Division of Criminal Justice Information Services, California Department of Justice. (The Department, Sacramento, California) September 11, 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at: caag.state.ca.us/cjsc/publications/hatecrimes/hc01/preface.pdf

["Statewide, agencies reported an alarming increase in violent hate crimes. More than 73 percent of reported hate crimes(2,261 total events) were violent, a 28.2 percent increase over 2000 (1,957 total events)." Contra Costa Times (September 19, 2002) A1.]

[Request #S6173]

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TERRORISM

The Nation's Children Still Feeling Effects of Terrorist Attacks. By Stacey Harris, The Children's Health Fund. (The Fund, New York, New York) August 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.childrenshealthfund.org/marist4.htm

["Kids Show Ability to Heal; But Most Haven't Forgotten the Attacks, Experts Say: 42 percent of parents nationwide told researchers that their children still exhibit at least one significant reaction to last year's attack, symptoms that can include nightmares, anxiety, depression, headaches or clinginess." Sacramento Bee (September 4, 2002) A1.]

[Request #S5968]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

AMERICAN INDIANS

Indian Issues: Basis for BIA's Tribal Recognition Decisions is Not Always Clear. By Barry T. Hill, Natural Resources and Environment, U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-936T. (The Office, Washington, DC) September 17, 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-02-936T

["Senate Committee Hears Criticism of Indian Recognition Process: The GAO said the Bureau of Indian Affairs recognition process is marred by delays and confusion about the basis of its decision making.... The BIA requires tribes to meet seven criteria for recognition, and there is 'great potential for disagreement' within the agency on how much evidence is necessary to meet those criteria, Barry T. Hill said." Associated Press State & Local Wire (September 18, 2002) 1.]

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CIVIL RIGHTS

Knowing It by Heart: Americans Consider the Constitution and its Meaning. By Steve Farkas and others. Conducted for the National Constitution Center by Public Agenda. (Public Agenda, New York, New York) 2002. 68 p.

Full Text at: www.publicagenda.org/PDFStore/PDFs/knowing_by_heart.pdf

["This survey found while most Americans admit they do not have detailed knowledge about the Constitution and Bill of Rights, they seem to have absorbed its core values of protecting the rights of all citizens. Most respondents were able to put aside their personal views on controversial issues such as homelessness and abortion to consider the rights of others. But two-thirds express concerns that the rich have more rights than others and that their right to privacy is under threat."]

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DEMOGRAPHY

POPULATION

"Farm Household Income and Wealth." Edited by By Douglas Bower. ERS Rural America No. 172. IN: Rural America, Vol. 17, Issue 2 (September 2002) pp. 1-61.

Full Text at: www.ers.usda.gov/publications/ruralamerica/ra172/ra172.pdf

["This issue features a series of articles on socioeconomic conditions in rural America, including.... Rural health issues, the implications of Medicare restructuring for Rural America, rural income inequality, and the well-being of rural farm operator households."]

[Request #S6176]

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POVERTY

Census Data Show Increases in Extent and Severity of Poverty and Decline in Household Income. Contact: Henry Griggs and Michelle Bazie. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 24, 2002. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/9-24-02pov.pdf

["Census data issued today show that poverty increased in 2001, while median household income fell, and the income gap between the affluent and the rest of society either tied or set new all-time recorded highs. Most analysts expect poverty to increase further -- and income to decline more — in 2002."]

[Request #S6177]

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ECONOMY

CALIFORNIA

The UCLA Anderson Forecast for the Nation and California. By the UCLA Anderson Forecasting Project, Anderson Graduate School of Management. And Quarterly Business Forecast Seminar: Packet. By Tom Lieser, Anderson Graduate School of Management, and others. (The School, Los Angeles, California) September 2002. Various pagings.

["California's economic downturn will drag on through the end of the year or longer, with little improvement in employment, income and consumer spending until 2003, forecasters at UCLA predict in a report. Moreover, the eventual recovery will be weak, pushing down the state's jobless rate only slightly by 2004." San Francisco Chronicle (September 25, 2002) B1.]

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DEFENSE CUTS & CONVERSIONS

Environmental Contamination: Corps Needs to Reassess Its Determinations That Many Former Defense Sites Do Not Need Cleanup. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-658. (The Office, Washington, DC) August 23, 2002. 84 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-02-658

["Errors Found in Defense Cleanups: More than one in three of the nation's former defense sites declared environmentally clean by the Army Corps of Engineers still contain unexploded ordnance, hazardous and explosive waste.... The finding by the GAO calls into question the Army Corps' pronouncements since 1984 that 4,000 of 9,181 sites potentially eligible for the military's cleanup program needed no further study or decontamination." Associated Press Online (September 23, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S6179]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

One Year Later: September 11 and the Internet. By Steven Schneider and others, Pew Internet and American Life Project. (The Project, Washington, DC) September 5, 2002. 65 p.

Full Text at: www.pewinternet.org/reports/pdfs/PIP_9-11_Report.pdf

["Internet Marks Anniversary in Own Way: In the hours after the hijackers crashed planes into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the world flocked to the Web for information and support. The Web became a virtual 'public commons,' according to a study.... The e-ribbon which Google placed on its site [on the anniversary] is a symbolic reminder of the central role the Internet played in helping people cope with the attacks and the aftermath." Contra Costa Times (September 12. 2002) 1.]

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The Problem of Spam: Unsolicited Commercial E-Mail. By Pam Greenberg, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 10, No. 40. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) October 2002. 2 p.

["Twenty-six states have enacted laws regulating spam. These laws generally: Prohibit misrepresenting or falsifying an e-mail's origin or routing information, using a third party's Internet address without permission, or including misleading information in the subject line of a message.... At least eight bills in the 107th Congress target spam."]

[Request #S6181]

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U.S. ECONOMY

The Role of Fiscal Policy. By Carl E. Walsh, University of California, Santa Cruz. Prepared for the Federal Reserve Board, San Francisco. FRBSF Economic Letter No. 2002-26. (The Bank, San Francisco, California) September 6, 2002. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/2002/el2002-26.pdf

["In recent weeks, a number of signs have appeared suggesting that the recovery of the U.S. economy from the recent recession is on a bumpy path.... This Economic Letter discusses some of the issues involved in using fiscal policy to help stabilize short-run fluctuations in the economy."]

[Request #S6182]

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EDUCATION

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

Student and School Indicators for Youth in California's Central Valley. By Anne Danenberg and others. Public Policy Institute of California (The Institute, San Francisco, California) 2002. 96 p.

["This sourcebook provides a statistical portrait of elementary, secondary, and postsecondary education in the Central Valley. The authors examine trends over time in school resources, course enrollment, and student achievement in the major regions of the Central Valley, comparing trends in these regions to those in the rest of the state."]

Research Brief:
http://www.ppic.org/publications/PPIC164/PPIC164RB.pdf
Full Report:
http://www.ppic.org/publications/PPIC164/ppic164fulltext.pdf

[Request #S6183]

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DISABILITIES

Differentiating Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities; Best Teaching Practices for General and Special Educators. By William N. Bender. (Corwin Press, Inc., Thousand Oaks, California) 2002. 195 p.

["These classroom-proven strategies empower the teacher to target instructional modifications to the content, process, and products for students with learning disabilities in the general and special education classroom. These best practices are the most up-to-date tactics available and specify numerous ways to differentiate instruction for students with learning disabilities."]

[Request #S6185]

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Ryan Smiley et al. v. California Department of Education. United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. 02-15552, 02-15553. September 4, 2002. 2 p.

["Blow to Disabled Students Who Rely on Testing Help: Ruling Affects High School Exit Exams: California's school officials can decide whether to count the scores of learning-disabled students who use calculators, spell-checkers or other devices during their high school exit exams, a federal appeals court ruled." San Francisco Chronicle (September 5, 2002) A19.]

[Request #S6186]

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EDUCATION FINANCE

Inventory of Competitive Grants for Education Programs. By the Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Special Analysis. 02-02 (FFIS, Washington, DC) August 27, 2002.3 p.

["This Special Analysis provides an inventory of all the competitive grants managed by the U.S. Department of Education for which state and local governments are eligible to apply. There are 89 education programs, totaling approximately $5.2 billion."]

[Request #S6187]

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EDUCATIONAL TESTING

State High School Exit Exams: A Baseline Report. By Naomi Chudowsky and others. Center on Education Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) August 2002. 148 p.

Full Text at: www.ctredpol.org/pubs/StateHighSchoolExitExams13Aug2002.pdf

["School exit exams given 'yellow light': A report says educators should proceed cautiously toward a more rigorous, but fair, education. Jack Jennings, director of the Center, says 'It's good to bring more rigor to high schools ... but states have to make sure kids are exposed to the subject matter on the tests.' Within six years, 24 states will have exit exams in place -- affecting seven out of 10 students in U.S. schools." USA Today (August 15, 2002) 7D.]

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STANDARDIZED TESTING

California High School Exit Examination (CAHSEE): Year 3 Evaluation Report. By Lauress L. Wise and others, Human Resources Research Organization. IR-02-28. Prepared for the California Department of Education, (The Department, Sacramento, California) June 28, 2002. Various paging.

Full Text at: www.cde.ca.gov/statetests/cahsee/eval/2002/2002humrro.html

["Passing rates for students taking the CAHSEE for the first time in 2002 were very similar to passing rates for the 9th graders who took the CAHSEE in 2001. Overall, 65 percent of first-time test takers passed the English Language Arts portion ... while 44 percent of those taking the mathematics portion for the first time passed it."]

[Request #S6189]

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California High School Exit Examination (CAHSEE). By The Department of Education. (The Department, Sacramento, California) 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.cde.ca.gov/statetests/cahsee/cahsee.html

["Fewer than half of the high school students who took the second year of exams passed the English and math portions -- even though the required scores had been lowered sharply as a political gesture. Had the higher passing grades been maintained, its likely that a third or fewer would have passed. The gaps between white students in affluent suburban districts and nonwhite and/or non-English speaking students in poor inner city and rural districts were immense. If the exit exams counted now, only tiny percentages of African American and Latino students would win diplomas." Sacramento Bee (October 2, 2002) A3.]

[Request #S6190]

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EMPLOYMENT

RETIREMENT

Answers to Key Questions About Private Pension Plans. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-745SP. (The Office, Washington, DC) September 18, 2002. 64 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-02-745SP

["This document ... includes questions and answers about the types of plans that private employers may sponsor, the benefits these plans provide, and the basic requirements that govern how these plans are administered."]

[Request #S6191]

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ENERGY

UTILITIES

Wholesale Generator Investigation Report. By Larry Chaset and others, California Public Utilities Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) September 17, 2002. 70 p.

Full Text at: www.cpuc.ca.gov/word_pdf/misc/generation+report.pdf

["This report analyzes the operations, bids and production and transmission of electricity on the 38 blackout and service interruption days of the five largest non-utility electricity generators.... Based on an hour-by-hour and plant-by-plant analysis of this data, this report concludes that most of California's power blackouts and service interruptions need not have occurred."]

[Request #S6192]

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"As Blackouts Hit California, Traders Manipulated Market." By Scott Thurm and others. IN: Wall Street Journal (September 16, 2002) 1+.

["A detailed examination of recently released internal memos by Enron Corp. lawyers, transcripts of trader conversations gathered by investigators, and scores of interviews with market participants and regulators yields a comprehensive look at how the U.S. energy industry cashed in on and contributed to California's energy crisis."]

[Request #S6193]

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Public Utilities Commission of the State of California v. El Paso Natural Gas Company et al. U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Docket No. RP00-241-006. September 23, 2002. 23p.

Full Text at: www.ferc.fed.us/RP00-241-006-09-23-02.pdf

["Energy Dealings Ruled Illegal; El Paso Corp. Created an Artificial Natural Gas Shortage in California, Judge Says: Findings Could Bolster Case for Refunds: 'El Paso pipeline did in fact withhold substantial capacity that it could have made available to its California delivery points -- a clear exercise of market power,' (Judge Curtis L.) Wagner wrote." Los Angeles Times (September 24, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S6194]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR POLLUTION

Driving Emissions to Zero: Are the Benefits of California's Zero Emission Vehicle Program Worth the Costs? By Lloyd Dixon and others, Rand Science and Technology. MR-1578-RC/S&T (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2002. 129 p.; Appendices.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR-1578

["California Should Drop Bid to Eliminate Tailpipe Emissions: The controversial zero-emissions vehicle mandate is too costly a means of meeting federal air quality standards, said Lloyd Dixon, author of the report.... In the last decade, gasoline-powered, internal combustion engines have grown far cleaner." Associated Press State & Local Wire (September 18, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S6195]

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CALIFORNIA

Environmental Protection Indicators for California. By the California Resources Agency and the California Environmental Protection Agency. Prepared for The California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (The Office, Sacramento, California) 2002. 303 p.

Full Text at: www.oehha.org/multimedia/epic/2002reptpdf/EntireEPIC%20Report.pdf

["It's a worthy effort that might one day be a model for other parts of government. The report.... gathers together in one place information on dozens of indicators of California's environmental quality. From air and water quality to pesticide exposure and animal habitat, the report dispassionately chronicles the health of California's physical surroundings." Sacramento Bee (September 15, 2002)B5]

[Request #S6196]

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Proposed Critical Habitat for Threatened and Endangered Vernal Pool Species. By The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (The Service, Washington, DC) September 24, 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: sacramento.fws.gov/ea/News_Release/Vernal_Pool%20CH/NR_%20Vernal%20Pool_CH.htm

["The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposed designating about 1.7 million acres in 36 California counties .... where vernal pools would get 'special management.'" San Francisco Chronicle (September 25, 2002) A18]

[Request #S6197]

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COASTAL ACCESS

City of Malibu Local Coastal Program Land Use Plan: Adopted by the California Coastal Commission. (The Commission, Ventura, California) September 13, 2002. 128 p.

Full Text at: www.coastal.ca.gov/ventura/malibu-lup-final.pdf

["Plan to Limit Coastal Development OK'd: Decision will open beaches and protect Malibu habitat: The panel designated nearly half the city as environmentally sensitive habitat, with more than 10% of all privately held land falling in the protected zone.... The move will control construction and renovation of multi-million-dollar homes nestled on steep slopes of the Santa Monica Mountains." Fresno Bee (September 14, 2002) B3.]

[Request #S6198]

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FORESTRY

"California Rushes to Protect Redwoods." By Peter Rimrite. IN: San Francisco Chronicle (September 5, 2002) p. A1+. And "Algae Assault Hits Redwoods, Firs." By Edie Lau. IN: Sacramento Bee (September 5, 2002) p. A1+.

["Davis Seeks Bush Aid As Tests Confirm 'Oak Death' in State Tree: The presence of the microbe, Phytophthora ramorum, in redwoods ... means two of the state's most valuable resources could be in danger from a scourge that has already laid waste to tens of thousands of black oak, coast live oak and tan oak trees.... For now, the state's strategy for controlling the spread of the organism is regulating the shipment of wood products from infested areas." Sacramento Bee (September 5, 2002) p. A1+.]

[Request #S6199]

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PESTICIDES

Fields of Poison 2002: California Farmworkers and Pesticides. By Margaret Reeves and others. Pesticide Action Network California. (The Network, San Francisco, California) 2002. 40 p.

["The state's pesticide laws still fail to protect some 700,000 people who harvest California's crops, despite a decrease in reported poisonings.... The study found an average of 475 poisoning cases annually among farmworkers between 1997 and 2000, a decrease from the 665 cases annually between 1991 and 1996. But the study claims that during tough economic times, there is gross underreporting because victims are more afraid to assert rights to medical care and worker compensation." San Francisco Chronicle (September 18, 2002) 1.]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

CHURCH & STATE

Irv Rubin et al., v. City of Burbank. Court of Appeal of California, Second Appellate District, Division Two. B148288. September 9, 2002. 8 p.

["Court Upholds Limits on Prayer: Reference to Christ Prompted Burbank Suit: Government agencies in California can't open their public meetings with sectarian prayers, like those that invoke the name of Jesus Christ, a state appellate court ruled.... A decision on an appeal will be up to the City Council." San Francisco Chronicle (September 10, 2002) A13.]

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FEDERAL / STATE RELATIONS

A New Stimulus Package: States Stand To Lose Substantial Revenue. By Iris J. Lav, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 2002. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/8-22-02sfp.pdf

["Because virtually all states must balance their budgets, new federal tax cuts that flow through to state revenues -- will force states to make budget cuts and/or raise additional taxes. If new tax breaks are enacted, states will be in the untenable position of giving unintended large tax breaks to some of their wealthiest residents while in many cases raising taxes on middle-income families and cutting programs for low-income households."]

[Request #S6202]

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Do States Give More Than They Receive? By Trinity Tomsic, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 10, No. 34. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) August/September 2002. 2 p.

["Twenty two states had a positive balance of payments in FY 2000, while 28 states paid more in federal taxes than they received in revenue. Overall, states gave the federal government almost $290 billion more than they got back.... [California's negative per capita balance of payments FFY 2000 was -$1,862, Connecticut's negative per capita balance was the largest of the 50 states, -$4,327.].

[Request #S6203]

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FEDERAL BUDGET

The New Congressional Budget Office Forecast and the Remarkable Deterioration of the Surplus. By Richard Kogan and Robert Greenstein, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 2002. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/9-3-02bud.pdf

["The $5.6 trillion, ten-year surplus projected in January 2001 has declined by $5.3 trillion, or 94 percent.... Last year's tax cut is the largest single reason the ten-year surplus has shrunk since January 2001. The tax cut amounts to 31 percent of the total deterioration, and when the tax cut provisions of the stimulus bill are added in, tax cuts account for about one-third of the total deterioration."]

[Request #S6204]

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FEDERAL GRANTS

Inventory of Federal Grants for Those Affected by 9/11 Events. By the Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Special Analysis, 02-03. (FFIS, Washington, DC) August 27, 2002. 2 p.

["The Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) recently included a list of federal grants that can be used to deal with the effects of September 11, 2001.... The table provides the grant name, the CFDA number, the most recent funding level and whether the grant is a formula or project grant. The CFDA list includes 28 programs for which state and local governments are eligible."]

[Request #S6205]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

The National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace: Draft for Comment. By the President's Critical Infrastructure Protection Board. (The Board, Washington, DC) September 18, 2002. 65 p.

Full Text at: www.whitehouse.gov/pcipb/cyberstrategy-draft.pdf

["Threats and Responses: The Internet; Revamped Proposal Suggests Strategies to Tighten Online Security: The document describes a society that has grown increasingly dependent on networked computer systems, and thus increasingly vulnerable to cyberterrorists.... The report raised fears among civil liberties advocates that the proposals rely heavily on more surveillance of computer networks -- and those who use them." New York Times (September 18, 2002) A21.]

[Request #S6206]

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LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Competitive Grant Update. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Competitive Grant, 02-09. (FFIS, Washington, DC) October 3, 2002. 8 p.

[Includes: "Grants for Injury-Control Research Centers;" "Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products;" "Field Experiences in Public Health Nursing;" "Advanced Education Nursing Traineeships (AENT);" "Healthy Tomorrrows Partnership for Children Program;" "American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) National Resource Center for Substance Abuse Services;" "State Emergence Response Capacity;" "Wetland Program Development Cooperative Agreement;" "Assistance to Firefighters--Fire Prevention and Safety Program;" and others.

[Request #S6207]

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STATE FINANCES

State Fiscal Conditions Continue To Deteriorate: Federal Assistance Badly Needed. By Iris J. Lay, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 23, 2002. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/9-20-02sfp.pdf

["This paper summarizes the status of fiscal conditions facing state governments, noting that many states have experienced the sharpest year-over-year decline in revenues since the 1980s. Few tactics remain to close expected budget gaps next year except for cuts in essential services. As a result, the federal government should immediately move to provide assistance, possibly in upcoming legislation to adjust Medicare reimbursement rates." Policy Action Network (September 25, 2002) online.]

[Request #S6208]

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STATE REVENUES

State Tax Revenue Decline Accelerates. By Nicholas W. Jenny, Fiscal Studies Program, Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government. State Revenue Report No. 49 (The Institute, Albany, New York.) September 2002. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.rockinst.org/publications/fiscal_studies/RR49.pdf

["State tax revenue dropped by 10.4 percent in the April-June quarter of 2002, the fourth straight quarter of decline.... Personal income tax revenue, which was down by 22.3 percent, accounted for most of the overall decline.... The Far West fared the worst this quarter, with 1.2 percent decline in total tax collections."]

[Request #S6209]

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HEALTH

DISABILITIES

Emergency Management for People with Disabilities. By L. Cheryl Runyon and Jo Donlin, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 10, No. 37. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) October 2002. 2 p.

["Fifty-four million U.S. citizens have disabilities. Should a catastrophe occur, most people with disabilities lack plans for a safe evacuation.... Vermont, California and Florida have established task forces to improve emergency preparedness plans.... People with disabilities should be involved in the review of emergency plans and the development of training materials."]

[Request #S6210]

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HEALTH CARE

Report Cards for Health Care: Is Anyone Checking Them? By Rand Health. RB-4544. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2002. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/cgi-bin/Abstracts/ordi/getabbydoc.pl?doc=RB-4544

["Health care report cards are constructed from information gathered from several national surveys of health care quality.... The information provided includes reputation, mortality rates, accreditation status, and results of some annual surveys.... We identified a variety of ways that researchers and authors could increase the usability of report cards."]

[Request #S6212]

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HEALTH INSURANCE

Relationship Between Low Quality-of-Care Scores and HMOs' Subsequent Public Disclosure of Quality-of-Care Scores, By Danny McCormick and others IN: JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, no. 12 (September 25, 2002) pp 1484 - 1490.

["Employer, Government purchasers of health insurance, individual consumers, and lawmakers are seeking more information on the quality of health care. Recently, the President's Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry called for widespread public disclosure of quality data by all health care provider organizations including health plans."]

[Request #S6213]

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MEDICAID

Final FY 2004 FMAPs. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief, 02-50. (FFIS, Washington, DC) September 24, 2002. 8 p.

["The federal share of program costs--the FMAP--is based on the relationship between each state's per capita personal income and the national average per capita personal income over three calendar years....The FMAP is recalculated each year....The minimum FMAP is 50 percent, the maximum FMAP is 83 percent, but no state has exceeded 80 percent since the 1960s....Twenty-seven states will receive increased FMAPs in FY 2004 and 11 will experience declines....On a per capita basis, the slowest growth was experienced in Nevada, Michigan, Oregon, California and Washington."]

[Request #S6214]

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MEDICARE

HHS Releases Allotments for Medicare Part B Premiums. By Federal Fund Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief. 02-49. (FFIS, Washington, DC) September 16, 2002. 4 p.

["On August 30, 2002, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) released fiscal year (FY) 2002 state allotments for the payment of Medicare Part B premiums to qualified individuals....This program expires after FY 2002 under current law....While an extension is not clear....Part B pays for physician services, lab and x-ray services, durable medical equipment, outpatient and other services....Part B beneficiaries share the cost of the program through the payment of premiums and cost-sharing."]

[Request #S6215]

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HOUSING

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

Rental Housing for America's Poor Families: Farther Out of Reach Than Ever: 2002. By Winton Pitcoff and others, National Low Income Housing Coalition (The Coalition, Washington, DC) 2002. Various Pagings.

Full Text at: www.nlihc.org/oor2002/index.htm

["For the fourth consecutive year, the minimum wage was insufficient to cover the rent for adequate housing anywhere in the U.S., and Southern California has one of the widest affordability gaps, according to a study of 2001 statistics by the coalition.... The group found that U.S. workers must earn at least $14.66 an hour to pay rent on a standard two-bedroom apartment." Los Angeles Times (September 22, 2002) 2.]

[Request #S6216]

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FEDERAL HOUSING PROGRAMS

Census Data Produce Shifts in CDBG Allocations. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief, 02-48. (FFIS, Washington, DC) August 27, 2002. 8 p.

["The 2000 census population data have produced shifts in federal fiscal year 2002 allocations for the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) programs. The use of 2000 census poverty and housing date is expected to produce even more substantial shifts for FY 2003.... CDBG funds may be used for a wide variety of projects designed to revitalize neighborhoods, promote economic development or provide improved community facilities or services."

[Request #S6217]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

States Have Slowed Their Use of TANF Funds for Child Care in the Last Year. By Rachel Schumacher and Tanja Rakpraja. Center For Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 23, 2002. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/DMS/Documents/1032806810.14/view_html

["Since 1996, states have made use of their options to redirect TANF funds to provide child care assistance to a growing population of low-income working families, as well as to work to improve the quality of child care for disadvantaged children. Use of TANF for child care has flattened, and some states have begun to make difficult choices that will have the effect of reducing access to child care assistance or delaying key investments in improving the quality of children’s child care experiences."]

[Request #S6218]

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ELDERLY

"The Graying of America." Edited By Rosanna Mentzer Morrison. ERS FoodReview No. 25-2. IN: Food Review, vol. 25, no. 2 (September 2002) pp. 1-48.

Full Text at: www.ers.usda.gov/publications/FoodReview/Sep2002/frvol25i2.pdf

["This issue of FoodReview presents a selection of articles on the elderly in America. Topics covered include demographic characteristics, diet quality, food expenditures, food security, food stamp use, and risk of foodborne disease. Another article examines food loss and plate waste in the school lunch program."]

[Request #S6219]

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HOMELESS

"Superwaiver" Would Allow Fundamental Changes to Public Housing and Homelessness Programs. By Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 16, 2002. 14 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/9-16-02hous.pdf

["As this analysis explains, the superwaiver would pose risks for poor families and individuals who benefit from these programs.... In short, the superwaiver proposal has profound implications and poses serious risks. This radical change is not necessary. Congress can provide flexibility by establishing more options for states in these programs.... This can be done without Congress acquiescing in the unprecedented shift in governance that the superwaiver represents."]

[Request #S6220]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

Disabled Parents and TANF. By Andrea Wilkins, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 10, No. 41. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) October 2002. 2 p.

["Caseworkers are likely to encounter two groups of disabled recipients, those who are eligible for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and should be diverted to that program and those with disabilities insufficient to qualify for SSI benefits who may require special services within the TANF program ... [such as] periodic screening, program exemptions and work accommodation plans."]

[Request #S6221]

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TRANSPORTATION

HIGHWAYS

Appropriations Action May Bridge Highway Funding Chasm. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief. 02-47. (FFIS, Washington, DC) August 27, 2002. 2 p.

["Enacted appropriations have restored part of a projected 27 percent reduction in the highway obligation limitation for FY 2002.... The FY 2002 transportation appropriations bill (S.2808) would restore the limitation to the FY2002 level of $31.8 billion."]

[Request #S6222]

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PUBLIC TRANSIT

Mass Transit: Challenges in Securing Transit Systems. By Peter Guerrero, U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-1075T.(The Office, Washington, DC) September 18, 2002. 29 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-02-1075T

["Mass Transit Systems Attractive to Terrorists, Hard to Secure: The GAO said preliminary findings indicate the cost of making needed security improvements to mass transit systems 'could easily amount to billions of dollars.... The report said it is impractical to closely screen passengers or install metal detectors because transit systems must remain open ... in order to quickly move many people." Associated Press (September 18, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S6223]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

CULTURE AND SOCIETY

RELIGIOUS FREEDOM

Religious Congregations & Membership in the United States: 2000. By the Glenmary Research Center. (The Center, Nashville, Tennessee) September 20, 2002.

Full Text at: www.glenmary.org/grc/RCMS_2000/Catholic_release.htm

["A portrait of religion in America from a new report compiled by a broad coalition of religious groups.... The study ... includes the number of members and congregations for nearly 150 religious groups." Sacramento Bee (September 18, 2002)1.]

[Request #S6224]

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ECONOMY

AGRICULTURE

Fatal Harvest : The Tragedy of Industrial Agriculture. By Andrew Kimbrell. (Island Press, Washington, DC) 2002. 384 p.

["Big Food, Big Mistake; Fatal Harvest May Make You Wonder If Our Farm Factories Are Killing Us: Environmental essayists ... wax horrific upon modern food production practices that marginalize species diversity, poison the environment with pesticides and fertilizer runoff, waste water, destroy soils and threaten long-term human health through suspect genetic engineering." San Diego Union-Tribune (July 28, 2002) 2.]

[Request #S6225]

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CALIFORNIA

Economic Forecast and Industry Outlook for California and the Los Angeles Five-County Area. By the Los Angeles Economic Development Corporation. (The Corporation, Los Angeles, California) September 2002.

["A report ... found that France has squeaked by the state in inflation adjusted gross product, dropping California to the sixth spot worldwide in 2001.... California's inflation-adjusted gross product declined by 2.3 percent in 2001, compared with a 0.3 percent increase nationwide, the report states. While the forecast is for a small 0.8 percent growth rate in 2002, there is no guarantee that the state will quickly put aside its economic woes." San Francisco Chronicle (September 20, 2002) A2.]

[Request #S6184]

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EDUCATION

ETHNIC, RACIAL & CULTURAL DIVERSITY

Divided We Fail: Coming Together through Public School Choice. By Duncan Chaplin and others, The Century Foundation. (The Foundation, New York, New York) September 18, 2002. 68 p.

Full Text at: www.tcf.org/Publications/Education/dividedwefail.pdf

["This new report takes a look at how to promote equality and achievement in education, and offers a plan to improve both through economic integration of America's public schools.... The Task Force recommendations, for integration through public school choice rather than forced busing, are based on lessons learned from programs in Wisconsin, Missouri, North Carolina and Massachusetts."]

[Request #S6226]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

OPEN SPACE

Saving Open Space: The Politics of Local Preservation in California. By Daniel Press. University of California Press, Berkeley, California) December 2002. 220 p.

["Daniel Press describes land preservation efforts pursued by California communities and explains why some have succeeded better than others. [The book] concludes with policy recommendations based on lessons learned from the preservation success stories."]

[Request #S6227]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

City Fiscal Conditions in 2002. By the National League of Cities (The League, Washington, DC) 2002.

["Cities Forecast Bleak Futures for Their Budgets: The economic downturn and higher homeland security spending will hurt city finances.... For the first time since 1993, a majority (55 percent) of the surveyed finance officers said their cities are less able to meet their city's financial needs in 2002, compared to 2001." Nation's Cities Weekly (August 19, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S6228]

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HEALTH

TEEN PARENTING

"Young, Disadvantaged Fathers' Involvement with Their Infants: An Ecological Perspective." By L. E. Gavin and others. IN: Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 31, no. 3. (2002) pp. 266-276.

["This study found that many fathers were involved in the early care of their children; the quality of the father's relationship with his child's mother was a significant determinant of paternal involvement; fathers who were employed or had been employed in the past 12 months were more involved than those who were not employed; and that the child's gender was not associated with parental involvement." National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health's MCH Alert (September 20, 2002).]

[Request #S6229]

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