Subject: Studies in the News 02-63 (October 23, 2002)

Studies in the News:
Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement

Contents This Week

Introductory Material EDUCATION
   Community college transfers
   Report card for higher education
   Science education reform
   California's student aid program
   Women’s experience in college engineering
   California's disability insurance clients
   Intentional job discrimination
   Employment law and high-tech development
   Technology transfer to low-income communities
   Sex-based occupational segregation
   Workers compensation 'carve outs'
   Public opinion on poverty and policy
   Existing programs could reduce poverty
   TANF work requirements
   Poverty and economic security
   Consequences of welfare reform
   New welfare implementation
   Studies in the News, September 6, 2002
   Studies in the News, September 19, 2002
   Studies in the News, October 11, 2002
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:



State Policy and Community College–Baccalaureate Transfer. By Jane V. Wellman, Institute for Higher Education Policy. Prepared for the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education and the Institute for Higher Education Policy. National Center Report. 02-6. (The Center, San Jose, California) April 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at:

["This paper discusses the importance of two-year to four-year (2/4) transfer performance as a state policy issue, reviews national research about transfer patterns, and presents findings about state policy and transfer performance in six states. It concludes by offering recommendations to state policymakers for improving 2/4 transfer performance."]

[Request #S6230]

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Measuring Up 2002: The State-by-State Report Card for Higher Education. By the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. (The Center, San Jose, California) 2002. 192 p.

Full Text at:

["Many Are Ill-Prepared for College, Study Finds: State offers low-cost education, but does a so-so job of getting pupils ready, report says: California was found to be the first in affordability, eighth in deriving economic benefits from the higher education received by its residents, 35th in college completion and 37th in preparing students for college." Los Angeles Times (October 2, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S6233]

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Merging University Students into K-12 Science Education Reform. By Valerie L. Williams. (RAND Science and Technology Policy Institute, Santa Monica, California) 2002. 81 p.

["Highly competent skilled scientists are a rich resource in our society that may be useful in strengthening science and mathematics education in schools across the country."]

[Request #S6231]

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"How California's Ambitious Aid Program Stumbled Badly and Disappointed Many: Millions in Grants Go Unused While Students Complain of Having Eligibility Taken Away." By Jeffrey Selingo. IN: The Chronicle of Higher Education, vol. 48, issue 27 (March 15, 2002) [online.]

Full Text at:

["A bill to expand the Cal Grant program was signed in September 2000... The state would more than double the size of the existing program, to some $1.3-billion by 2006-07. But only 18 months later, the ambitious plan is falling far short of its lofty goals. One-third of the awards earmarked for recent high school graduates went unclaimed in 2001-02, as eligible students struggled with confusing paperwork and high schools failed to verify their grades." Education Commission of the States e-clips (March 11, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S6232]

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Women’s Experience in College Engineering (WECE) Project: Final Report. By Irene Goodman and others, Goodman Research Group, Incorporated. (The Group, Cambridge, Massachusetts) April 2002. 286 p.

Full Text at:

["The project is the first cross-institutional, longitudinal examination of undergraduate women's experiences and retention/persistence in engineering majors programs.... While women make up 56.8% of the total U.S. workforce, only 8.5% of the country's engineers are women.... The WECE project's chief goal was to identify aspects of women's educational experiences that are critical to their retention in engineering."]

[Request #S6234]

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Characteristics of California's Disability Insurance Clients: Working Paper; 2002-01. By Richard Holden and others, California Employment Development Department. (The Department, Sacramento, California) 2002. 28 p.

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["The purpose of this working paper is to identify and describe databases that are currently available for researchers and others with an interest in the operations of California's DI program.... The Program Estimates Group (PEG) Data provide DI planners and policy makers with historical information for planning decisions; for evaluating program effectiveness; and for analyzing the interaction of DI with Workers' Compensation and Unemployment Insurance programs.]

[Request #S6235]

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The Realities of Intentional Job Discrimination in Metropolitan America - 1999: California. By Alfred Blumrosen and Ruth Blumrosen, Rutgers School of Law-Newark. (EEO1, Jersey City, New Jersey) 2002.

["This study concludes that minority groups and women continue to be deliberately discriminated against by more than one-third of 200,000 large and mid-sized businesses across the United States. It found that non-white Californians faced a 25% chance of running into discrimination when applying for jobs, especially in customer service-heavy industries such as the medical, restaurant and retail fields. It provides a roadmap for public discussion of the continuing need for affirmative action and for the implementation of equal employment policies." Contra Costa Times (July 30, 2002) online.]

Full Report. Various pagings.:

California. 113 p.:

[Request #S6236]

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On the Move: California Employment Law and High-Tech Development. By Rob Valletta, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. FRBSF Economic Letter. No. 2002-24. (The Bank, San Francisco, California) August 16, 2002. 4 p.

["I discuss the role of employee mobility and knowledge transfer in the development of tech centers, and I describe an underlying feature of employment law that may help support tech innovation in California and a few other states.... In regard to some products whose development benefits from the rapid cross-fertilization of ideas, states like California, and perhaps Colorado, whose laws support mobility of intellectual capital, may have an edge."]

[Request #S6237]

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Creating Capital, Jobs and Wealth in Emerging Domestic Markets; Financial Technology Transfer to Low-Income Communities. By Glenn Yago and others, Milken Institute. (The Institute, Santa Monica, California) September 2002. 27 p.

["The innovations described in this report are all examples of financial technologies which could help redress the information asymmetries and capital gaps between the key providers of capital in the U.S. and the increasing diverse users of capital, particularly those in the low and moderate income and emerging domestic market communities."]

[Request #S6238]

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"Sex-Based Occupational Segregation in U.S. State Bureaucracies, 1987-97." By Brinck Kerr and others. IN: Public Administration Review, vol. 62, no. 4 (July/August 2002) pp. 412-423.

["Our findings indicate high levels of occupational segregation among administrative cadres in agencies with distributive and regulatory policy commitments; however professional workforces in these agencies have become less gender segregated over time.... We argue that researchers need to examine the relationship between glass walls and other kinds of sex-based employment impediments, such as glass ceilings."]

[Request #S6240]

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"'Carve-Outs' from the Workers' Compensation System." By David I. Levine and others. IN: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol. 21, no. 3 (2002) pp. 467-483.

["This study examines one innovative form of decentralized self-regulation -- workers' compensation in the California construction industry. In California and 11 other states, construction unions and management can bargain to create an alternative workers' compensation system (a 'carve-out') that replaces much of the state run system."]

[Request #S6241]

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New Opportunities? Public Opinion on Poverty, Income Inequality and Public Policy: 1996-2002. By Tamara Draut, Demos: A Network for Ideas and Action. (Demos, New York, New York) October 2002. 36 p,

Full Text at:

["This study was first published in 2001 and is now updated with new polling data, drawing on over two dozen surveys. It examines areas of broad support among the public as well as enduring conflicts and divisions. The central conclusion is that there are new opportunities for building a public consensus around the goals of reducing poverty and economic insecurity."]

[Request #S6243]

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Extreme Poverty Rising, Existing Government Programs Could Do More. By Sheila R. Zedlewski and others, The Urban Institute. Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies Series B, NO. B-45. (The Institute, Washington, DC) April 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at:

["Full Participation in Safety Net Programs Could Lift 3.8 Million Out of Poverty: 'If policymakers improved participation in Food Stamps, Supplemental Security Income, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, and the Earned Income Tax Credit, poverty could fall by 20 percent -- extreme poverty could be reduced by 70 percent, explains Sheila Zedlewski, researcher and study co-author." AScribe Newswire (April 26, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S6244]

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Research Supports Caution on TANF Work Requirements. By David Carroll, California Budget Project (The Project, Sacramento, California) July 2002. 2 p.

Full Text at:

["Newly synthesized research indicates that federal policymakers should exercise caution before increasing work requirements under the TANF block grant. The synthesis... also indicates that augmenting welfare recipients’ earnings with supplemental grants, as California does, is the only welfare policy that has been demonstrated to improve child well-being."]

[Request #S6245]

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Crossing Divides: New Common Ground on Poverty and Economic Security. By Tammy Draut and others, Demos. (Demos, New York, New York) 2002. 44 p.

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["The report analyzes four public policies that have been developed or expanded over the past decade: the Earned Income Tax Credit, Individual Development Accounts, the State Children's Health Insurance Program, and Empowerment Zones. The report places development of these policies within the context of shifts in values and in how debates over economic security are framed."]

[Request #S6246]

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Consequences of Welfare Reform: A Research Synthesis. By Jeffrey Grogger and others, RAND Labor and Population Program. DRU-2676-DHHS,2002. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) July 2002. 332 p.

Full Text at:

["A Decade of Welfare Reform: What We've Learned About Welfare Usage and Economic Outcomes: To get the actual effect of welfare policies on welfare-related outcomes, the program staff have synthesized the current state of knowledge from the growing base of research literature in this area.... The favorable impacts of reform as a whole on income and poverty ... may diminish as more recipients exhaust their benefits." Labor and Population Research Brief (2002) 1.]

[Request #S6247]

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Implementing Welfare Reform Across the Nation. By Pamela A. Holcomb and Karin Martinson. The Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) August 2002. 8 p.

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["This brief discusses the key features of the new welfare system, including primary strategies for moving people to work, institutional changes in the service delivery system, and program implementation issues. The timing, pace, and intensity of these dimensions of welfare reform have varied tremendously within and across states, making sweeping generalizations about "what is really happening" under welfare reform risky. This brief provides a local perspective; state-level changes are not explicitly addressed, although they may be a driving force behind many local-level changes described here."]

[Request #S6248]

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[This section links to items in Studies in the News since the last Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement.]


"Employment, Education, and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 02-52 (September 6, 2002).

Full Text at:

[Includes: "Minimum wage;" "Congressional welfare reform reauthorization proposals;" "Returning to welfare;" "Welfare time limits;" "Faith based initiatives in welfare reform;" "Technical change and wage gap;" and others].

[Request #S5789]

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"Employment, Education and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 02-55 (September 19, 2002)

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[Includes: "Birth to university and beyond: Education goals from preschool to college: Latinos in higher education;" "State's workers and families well-being;" "State's labor markets;" "Employer health benefitsChanges to food stamp programs;" "Medi-Cal for families leaving welfare;" "Reauthorization of TANF," and others].

[Request #S5795]

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"Employment, Education and Human Services." IN: Studies in the News, Issue 02-61 (October 11, 2002)

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[Includes: "Impact of education on income;" "Statistical profile of college students;" "Foreign student program;" "Sexual orientation-based employment discrimination;" "Federal child care funding;" "Welfare reform and work requirements;" and others.]

[Request #S5796]

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