Subject: Studies in the News 02-68 (November 8, 2002)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

1852 - "An 1852 painting by George Caleb Bingham shows a voter being rewarded with whiskey outside a frontier polling place. Under the spoils system, lawmakers hired supporters for government posts, and they in turn donated part of their pay to help re-elect their patrons. "  www.usatoday.com/news/index/finance/ncfin251.htm  

1852 - "The most populous town in Placer County in 1852, polling 500 votes, Ophir … later became the center of quartz mining in the county. Founded in 1849 as 'The Spanish Corral,' Ophir received its Biblical name in 1850 because of its rich placers. "  www.visitplacer.com/museums/museums.html  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CALIFORNIA READER
   Early laws related to California Indians
CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Reducing urban violence
   U.S. crime rates
   Prison gang influence
   Identity theft
   Violence prevention
DEMOGRAPHY
   Household incomes declined
ECONOMY
   Biotechnology industries in California
   Profile of the state economy
   State regulation of funeral homes
   Intellectual property and new technology
   Court approval of Microsoft settlement
   TV culture for young adolescents
EDUCATION
   States' K-16 education systems
   Economic future tied to classrooms
   Internet access in public schools
   Library use and economic hard times
   Students not leaving failing schools
EMPLOYMENT
   Pension and portfolio losses
   Santa Monica's living wage law
ENERGY
   EPA fuel-economy standards dated
   Nuclear power plant security
   Cost of electrical infrastructure
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Environmental risks and national security
   Drinking water in urban areas
   Effects of fishing on marine ecosystems
   Smart growth practices
   Transportation and land use in the Sacramento region
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Citizens' views on state budget
   U.S. Supreme Court wrap-up
   Homeland security efforts
   Ethics handbook
   Case for a zero gift policy
   Professional ethics
   Gift restrictions
   Census 2000 and federal funding
   Alternate minimum tax
   Electronic government
HEALTH
   Fall in abortion rate
   Autism in California
   Defibrillators in public places
   Public access to defibrillators
   Appeals court bolsters medical marijuana
HOUSING
   Unstable housing for low-income families
   City population growth trends
   Condominium development litigation
HUMAN SERVICES
   Raising children in America
   Children are poorer after welfare reform
   Eligible parents stay off TANF
   Lost ground and welfare reform
INTERNATIONAL READER
   Global economy issues
TRANSPORTATION
   Small community air service
   Essential air service program options
WASHINGTON READER
   California Institute's briefing on federal issues
STUDIES TO COME
   Agro-terrorism threat
   Tools for invasive species management
   Status of wetland mitigation
   Government support for health care
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CALIFORNIA READER

CALIFORNIA READER

Early California Laws and Policies Related to California Indians. By Kimberly Jonston-Dodds, California Research Bureau, California State Library. CRB 02-014. (CRB, Sacramento, California) September 2002. 55 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/02/14/02-014.pdf

["This report contains information obtained from public records related to four examples of early State of California laws and policies that significantly impacted the California Indians’ way of life. These early examples include: the 1850 Act for the Government and Protection of Indians; State of California militia laws and policies related to 'Expeditions against the Indians'; and laws enacted during the first fifteen years of statehood that accommodated Indian tribes’ traditional fishing practices."]

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CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

COMMUNITY POLICING

"The Effectiveness of Community Policing in Reducing Urban Violence." By John M. MacDonald. IN: Crime & Delinquency, vol. 48, no. 4 (October 2002) pp. 592-618.

["Findings indicate that community policing had little effect on the control or the decline in violent crime. Proactive policing strategies related to arrest had an inverse effect on violent crime measures and were related to reductions in violent crime over time. Implications of these findings for criminal justice policy are discussed."]

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CRIME RATES

Crime in the United States – 2001. By Federal Bureau of Investigation. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) 2002. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius_01/01crime.pdf

[“A broad measure of major crime took its first jump in a decade during 2001, with increases in murder, rape, robbery and nearly every other category, the FBI reported…. Although experts offered a wide range of social, demographic and economic reasons for the uptick, one long-term analyst of crime data suggested that the diversion of police to anti-terrorism tasks after September 11 may have left the public somewhat less guarded from routine crime." Los Angeles Times (October 29, 2002) A11.]

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GANGS

"The Influence of Prison Gang Affiliation on Violence and Other Prison Misconduct." By Gerald G. Gaes and others, Federal Bureau of Prisons. IN: The Prison Journal, vol. 82, no. 3 (September 2002) pp. 359-385.

["In this article, automated data were used to evaluate the contribution of prison gang affiliation to violence and other forms of misconduct within prisons. The authors also examined a measure of gang embeddedness to see if, similar to street gang research, it can be shown that core members of a prison gang were more likely to commit violent crimes and other kinds of misconduct than were more peripheral members."]

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IDENTITY THEFT

Stealing Another's Identity. By Rita Thaemert, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 10, No. 33. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) August/September 2002. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/legis/lbriefs/identity.pdf

["More than 500,000 people a year are victims of identity theft.... At least 45 states have laws addressing identity theft.... Government efforts, at both the state and federal levels, to address identity theft call for a coordinated and comprehensive response. Deterring thieves requires sound legislation, the courts and law enforcement to apply the law, and the financial industry to secure consumers' personal information."]

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VIOLENCE

First Steps: Taking Action Early to Prevent Violence. By Rachel Davis and others, Prevention Institute. (The Institute, Oakland, California) 2002. 29 p.

Full Text at: www.preventioninstitute.org/1stSTEPS_main.pdf

["The evidence is clear that even early experiences of violence and witnessing destructive behaviors can adversely impact children's brain development, academic achievement and the capacity for healthy relationships, and boost the risk of being involved in future violence. So what can we do about it? This report offers concrete suggestions, from educating parents about safely storing guns to training health providers on the signs of substance abuse among parents and advocating for a refundable pre-tax child credit." Connect for Kids Weekly (November 4, 2002).]

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DEMOGRAPHY

POVERTY

Poverty in the United States: 2001. By Bernadette D. Proctor and Joseph Dalaker. And Money Income in the United States: 2001. By Carmen DeNavas-Walt and Robert W. Cleveland. U.S. Department of Commerce. (The Department, Washington, DC) September 2002.

["The percentage of Americans living in poverty grew last year, the Census Bureau reported ... while the percentage of poor Californians declined. But household incomes declined in the state as well as the nation, the study said, reflecting the country's struggle with economic recession.... The decline in income results from rising unemployment combined with stagnant wages and less overtime for those who are employed.... Nationally, 1.3 million more people slipped into poverty in 2001, bringing the ranks of the poor to 32.9 million." San Francisco Chronicle (September 25, 2002) A15.]

Poverty in The United States: 2001. 41 p. http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p60-219.pdf

Money Income in the United States: 2001. 33 p. http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p60-218.pdf

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ECONOMY

BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY

California's Bioscience Industries: Overview and Policy Issues. By Daniel Pollak, California Research Bureau, California State Library. Prepared for Assemblymember Howard Wayne. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) CRB-02-015. October 2002. 98 p.

["The potential commercial applications are so extensive that state and local governments across the country are eagerly trying to cultivate the bioscience industries as engines of economic prosperity. At the same time, the advance of the biosciences causes concerns, even fear, in some quarters, leading to controversies and calls for caution. The goal of this report is to provide an overview of California bioscience industies, and to outline the actual and potential role of state policy with respect to those industries."]

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CALIFORNIA

California: Profile of the State Economy. By Michael E. Porter, Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, Harvard Business School. Prepared for Governor Gray Davis (The Office of the Governor, Sacramento, California) 2002. 31 p.

Full Text at: www.isc.hbs.edu/california_02-26-02.pdf

["This document includes data on the performance and composition of the California economy. The data is based on ... a multi-year effort to statistically define clusters and analyze regional economies in the United States.... These regional differences matter, as the huge difference in economic performance across U.S. regions attest."]

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CONSUMER PROTECTION

“Whistling Past the Graveyard.” By Christopher Swope. IN: Governing, vol. 15. no. 12 (September 2002) pp. 20-23.

Full Text at: www.governing.com/archive/2002/sep/funeral.txt

[“State regulation of funeral homes, cemeteries, crematories and casket makers is in shambles. Oversight, where it exists, is full of cracks, and enforcement is a low priority. States are doing little to make sure consumers aren’t ripped off at their most vulnerable time: while grieving for a lost loved one.”]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Copy Fights: The Future of Intellectual Property in the Information Age. By Adam Thierer and Clyde Wayne Crews, Cato Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) August 2002. 295 p.

["Current disputes in intellectual property law [include]: how to reform intellectual property law; the specific debate over the remarkably controversial Digital Millennnium Copyright Act; the question of what role digital rights management technolgies can and should play in protecting copyrights; and finally, the increasingly contentious issue of 'business method patents.'"]

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United States of America v. Microsoft Corporation. U.S. District Court, District of Columbia. 98-12329(CKK). November 1, 2002.

["Microsoft Corp. largely escaped punishment in the landmark court ruling. In accepting the antitrust settlement that Microsoft had reached with the Justice Department, U.S. District Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly gave the Redmond, Wash., software giant almost everything it was looking for. California and the eight other states that had been pressing for stricter sanctions against the company were rebuffed." Los Angeles Times (November 3, 2002) C1.]

Memorandum Opinion. 97 p.
http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/microsoft/usms110102opn.pdf

Order. 2 p.
http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/microsoft/usms110102ord.pdf

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MEDIA

Growing Up with Television: Everyday Learning Among Young Adolescents. By JoEllen Fisherkeller. ( Temple University Press, Philadelphia) 2002. 211 p.

[Includes: "Coming to Terms with TV Culture and Everyday Learning;" "The Dynamics of Everyday Learning;" "The Dilemmas of Growing up with Multiple Media and Cultures;" and others. NOTE: Growing up with Television ... is available for 3-day loan.]

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EDUCATION

EDUCATION POLICY

States' K-16 Education Systems. By the Research Department, Minnesota House of Representatives. Information Brief. (The Department, Minneapolis, Minnesota) September 2002. 17 p.

["Typically, executive branch state agencies, not state legislatures, initiate K-16 activities. According to the Education Commission of the States, 24 states are formally engaged in K-16 activities. Only Florida, South Carolina, and Oregon initiated such activities before 1995. Twelve states receive federal of private funding for K-16 activities."]

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EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

State Technology and Science Index: Comparing and Contrasting California. By Ross DeVol and others, Milken Institute. (The Institute, Santa Monica, California) September 2002. 120 p.

Full Text at: www.milkeninstitute.org/nst/nst.pdf

["State Schools Get Good Asset News: California's economic future is tied to classrooms, especially for sciences and technology, according to a study.... The state is near the top in technology assets ... but most of that is due to the ability to attract talent from other states. California needs to increase its educational funding, especially on the university level and especially among minority students, to stay competitive." Press-Telegram (September 20, 2002) E10.]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 1994-2001. By E.D. Tabs, National Center for Education Statistics. The U.S. Department of Education. (The Department, Washington, DC) September 2002. 80 p.

Full Text at: nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/2002018.pdf

["The center reports that while public schools have progressed in their efforts to expand Internet access, gaps still remain.... In schools with the highest minority enrollment -- 50 percent or more -- a smaller percentage of classrooms had online access compared with schools with lower minority enrollments. The trend also extended to schools with a high concentration of lower-income students." National Journal's Technology Daily (September 18, 2002) 1.]

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LIBRARIES

Public Library Use and Economic Hard Times: Analysis of Recent Data. By The Library Research Center, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. Prepared for The American Library Association. (The Association, Washington, DC) 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.ala.org/pio/presskits/nlw2002kit/lrc_data.pdf

["Use of Public Libraries Grows with Internet: The Center surveyed 18 of the country's 25 largest public libraries --including the Sacramento Public Library -- and found that overall usage has been rising for several years.... Average monthly circulation has been up as much as 12 percent when compared to 2000." Sacramento Bee (September 19, 2002) D1.]

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SCHOOL STANDARDS

"Few So Far Use Law Allowing School Transfers." By Mary Leonard and Anand Vaishnav. IN: Boston Globe (August 29, 2002) A3.

["Across the country, an overwhelming majority of the 3.5 million children entitled under a new federal law to transfer out of failing public schools are staying put, school officials say.... A central feature of the education law ... has gone largely unfulfilled because state and local school districts, with little direction from Washington, have not implemented the policy promptly."]

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EMPLOYMENT

RETIREMENT

“The Pension Offensive: Public Pension Officials Are Getting Aggressive About Holding Companies Accountable For Portfolio Losses.” By Penelope Lemov. IN: Governing, vol. 15, no. 12 (September 2002) pp. 24-26.

Full Text at: www.governing.com/9pension.htm

["Public pension officials have suffered from the vagaries of the stock exchange in the past. What's pushing them now to flex their muscles and demand corporate refunds and reforms is the feeling that they've been had.... There's pressure on them to be more aggressive in holding corporations and investment bank advisers accountable in the future."]

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WAGES

Supplemental Analysis of Santa Monica Living Wage Ordinance. By Robert Pollin and Mark Brenner, University of Massachusetts, Political Economy Research Institute. (The Institute, Amherst, Massachusetts) October 2002. 33 p.

Full Text at: www.umass.edu/peri/pdfs/RR4.pdf

["A new report confirms that Santa Monica's living wage law will provide substantial benefits to low-income workers, and that affected businesses can readily afford the higher wages. The unprecedented endorsement from economists for local wage legislation includes many prominent academics." HandsNet Webclipper Digest (October 18, 2002) 1.]

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ENERGY

Guesses per Gallon; Lab Test, Outdated Standards Leave EPA Fuel-Economy Ratings in Question. By Rick Popely. IN: Chicago Tribune (October 6, 2002) 1.]

["The EPA has not changed the way it calculates fuel economy since 1985, when it reduced mileage estimates generated in laboratory tests by 'correction factors' of 10 percent for city driving and 22 percent for highway driving to make the numbers closer to what motorists achieve in the real world.... The EPA has administrative authority to revise the fuel-economy numbers, as it did in 1985, but the agency says it lacks the funding to research what drivers get."]

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NUCLEAR POWER

Nuclear Power Plant Security: Voices from Inside the Fences. By the Project on Government Oversight (The Project, ) September 12, 2002. 120 p.

Full Text at: www.pogo.org/environment/eo-020901-nukepower.html

["To increase security after the September 11 attacks, the Palisades nuclear power plant, like plants around the country, sharply increased the number of guards on duty. To do so, it put the guards on 12-hour shifts instead of 8, often six days a week instead of five. The guards are still on the schedule, and they say it has made them tired, error-prone and cranky. But if they complain, they say, they are threatened with the loss of their jobs or sent for psychiatric evaluation." New York Times (October 20, 2002) [online.]]

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UTILITIES

The Economics of Electric System Municipalization: Infrastructure Acquisition and its Effect on Consumer Rates. By R. Sean Randolph, Bay Area Economic Forum, and others. (The Forum, San Francisco, California) October 2002. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.bayeconfor.org/pdf/MUDreportfinal.pdf

["The report is a sequel to the 2001 municipal power analysis and examines in greater detail both the determinants of consumer rates for municipal utilities and investor-owned utilities alike, and the tradeoff between infrastructure acquisition costs and power production costs that will ultimately determine whether the municipalization of power will produce consumer benefits."]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

CLIMATE CHANGE

Environmental Security: A Case Study of Climate Change. By Elizabeth Chalecki, Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security. (The Institute, Oakland, California) August 2002. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.pacinst.org/environment_and_security/env_security_and_climate_change.pdf

["If political, social, cultural, and most importantly economic systems are to remain secure and viable, the environment must also remain secure and viable. This makes global environmental conditions a legitimate national security concern for all countries."]

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DRINKING WATER

What's on Tap? Grading Drinking Water in U.S. Cities. By the National Resources Defense Council. (The Council. San Francisco, California) October 2002.

["The water that residents of California's largest cities get from their taps might meet most government safety standards, but it still poses some health risks and needs to be treated more thoroughly, according to a study by an environmental organization. The report concluded that antiquated waterworks and pollution are combining to affect the quality of drinking water residents receive in many cities, including Los Angeles and San Francisco." Los Angeles Times (October 30, 2002) B7.]

Executive Summary. 1 p.
http://www.nrdc.org/water/drinking/uscities/execsum.asp

Fresno. 17 p.
http://www2.nrdc.org/water/drinking/uscities/fresno.pdf

Los Angeles. 24 p.
http://www2.nrdc.org/water/drinking/uscities/la.pdf

San Diego. 18 p.
http://www2.nrdc.org/water/drinking/uscities/sd.pdf

San Francisco. 15 p.
http://www2.nrdc.org/water/drinking/uscities/sf.pdf

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FISHERIES

Ecological Effects of Fishing in Marine Ecosystems of the United States. By Paul K. Dayton, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, and others. Prepared for the Pew Oceans Commission. (The Commission, Arlington, Virginia) October 2002. 45 p.

Full Text at: www.pewoceans.org/reports/POC_EcoEffcts_Rep2.pdf

["The report urges the United States to immediately change the way it manages marine fisheries.... The report says marine resources can be better protected for future generations by creating vast no-kill reserves akin to national parks and by dividing the rest of the ocean into economic zones for commercial and recreational fishing." San Diego Union-Tribune (October 30, 2002) B1.]

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GROWTH MANAGEMENT

Putting The Pieces Together: State Actions to Encourage Smart Growth Practices in California. By The Urban Land Institute (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2002. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.smartgrowthcalifornia.uli.org/download/CASGInitiative.pdf

["Amid projections of 58 million residents by the year 2040, the Urban Land Institute is calling for the state to encourage more 'smart growth,' ... and development with ... more transit and less loss of farmland." Sacramento Bee (October 5, 2002) D1.]

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Thinking About the Future of Our Region: Transportation and Land Use Study. By The Sacramento Area Council of Governments (SACOG, Sacramento, California) October 25, 2002. 51 p.

Full Text at: www.sacog.org/forum2002/presentations/DraftTLUStudylongversion.pdf

["The 'base case' portrays what the region would look like in 2050 if it were to accommodate the economic and population growth likely over the next five decades using current land-use and transportation policies and patterns.... For SACOG, developing the base-case analysis is just the first step in its Transportation and Land Use Study, in which it will be providing the technical tools for local governments and the public to test alternative policies and find better futures." Sacramento Bee (October 23, 2002) B6.]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

CALIFORNIA

Californians and Their Government. By Mark Baldassare. Public Policy Institute. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) September 2002. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/publications/CalSurvey30/survey30.pdf

["A majority of Californians (54%) disapprove of the legislature's handling of the state budget. Most (73%) say it is a good thing that a two-thirds vote of the legislature is needed to pass a state budget. And 53% say they would oppose an initiative to do away with the supermajority requirement."]

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COURTS

"The Supremes: U.S. Supreme Court Wrap-Up." By Douglas W. Kmiec. IN: California Lawyer (September 2002) pp. 17, 68.

["The Supreme Court's decisions during this past term were remarkably diverse in subject matter. After a hiatus of some years, California contributed another landmark case to the Court's takings jurisprudence. Lake Tahoe landowners unsuccessfully petitioned the Justices to find a Fifth Amendment obligation to pay compensation for a 'temporary' development moratorium that was in place for a period of years."]

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EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

America Still Unprepared - America Still in Danger. By Gary Hart and Warren B. Rudman. Council of Foreign Relations. (The Council, New York, New York) 2002. 40 p.

Full Text at: www.cfr.org/pdf/Homeland_Security_TF.pdf

[“The report … recommends immediate action to better secure the nation’s ports, roads and railways.... Government officials also must redouble their efforts to prepare police, fire and emergency medical personnel to respond to a bioterrorist attack and to better link local, state and federal authorities, the report says.” Los Angles Times (October 25, 2002) A14.]

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ETHICS

Ethics Handbook for Neighborhood Council Governing Board Members. By the City Ethics Commission. (The Commission, Los Angeles, California) August 2002. 14 p.

Full Text at: www.ci.la.ca.us/eth/PDF/report_ncouncilHandbook.pdf

["This handbook summarizes significant provisions of the City and State ethics laws that are designed to promote fair and open government."]

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"The Case for a Zero Gift Policy: Commentaries." By Herbert Fain. IN: Public Integrity (Winter 2002) pp. 61-80.

["A zero gift policy may discourage employees from interacting with nonprofits, businesses, and the public at a time when we are trying to encourage greater interaction and partnerships. A more reasonable and workable solution would be a de minimus policy allowing the acceptance of gifts of a specified minimum value, along with mechanisms for independent third party review and disclosure of all items received."]

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“Enron, Accountancy, and Professional Ethics.” By Gerald E. Caiden. IN: Public Integrity, vol. 4, no. 4 (Fall 2002) pp. 321-332.

[“The Enron scandal, like Watergate raises fundamental issues about morality in high places that will never quite go away, no matter what may be done to prevent any recurrence.... While the search for perfectibility may be fruitless, the more society tackles deviance such as corruption, vice and immorality, the closer it gets to good governance and cleaner hands crucial in building confidence in all public institutions and maintaining civilized social relations.”]

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Gift Restrictions -- It's Not a Physics Lesson. By Ginger Sampson and Peggy Kerns, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 10, No. 29. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) June/July 2002. 2 p.

["Massachusetts, Wisconsin, and South Carolina are considered 'no cup of coffee states.' In these states, a lobbyist cannot give a legislator anything, including a cup of coffee.... About a quarter of states restrict gifts of any monetary value, with certain exceptions, such as food and beverages."]

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FEDERAL AID

Effect of Census 2000 Undercount on Federal Funding to States and Selected Counties, 2002-2012. By National Economic Consulting. Prepared for U.S. Census Monitoring Board, Presidential Members (PriceWaterhouseCoopers, New York, New York) August 7, 2001. 65 p.

Full Text at: www.cmbp.gov/reports/080601.pricewaterhouse/downloads/undercount_080601.pdf

["According to early estimates, there were 19 states with undercount rates below the national average (and therefore benefit from the use of unadjusted data), whereas California and the other 30 states had above-average undercount rates (and would therefore benefit from adjusted data usage). Within the state, California counties with undercount rates exceeding the national average include Alameda, Fresno, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Joaquin." California Capitol Hill Bulletin (October 10, 2002) 5.]

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INCOME TAXES

The Individual Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT): Problems and Potential Solutions. And The AMT: Out of Control. By Leonard E. Burman, Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) September 2002.

["Middle Class May Face Big Tax Increases: Nearly all middle- and upper-middle-class families will lose some of the income tax cuts scheduled during the next eight years as they are forced to pay a separate tax originally intended to make sure that the rich cannot live tax-free, a study found.... If nothing is changed, by 2010 about 36 million taxpayers will face it." San Francisco Chronicle (September 19, 2002) B2.]

AMT Out of Control, 8 p.
http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310565_AMT_OutofControl.pdf

AMT: Problem and Potential Solutions, 78 p.
http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/410561_AMT-DP-final.pdf

[Request #S6669]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Electronic Government: Proposal Addresses Critical Challenges. Testimony of Linda D. Koontz before the House Subcommittee on Technology and Procurement Policy, Committee on Government Reform. The U.S. General Accounting Office GAO-02-1083T (The Office, Washington, DC) September 18, 2002. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-02-1083T

["Federal Government Faces Significant Challenges in Managing Information Resources and Technology.... These challenges include: improving the collection, use, and dissemination of government information; strengthening agency information security; constructing sound enterprise architectures; fostering mature systems acquisition [and] developing IT human capital strategies."]

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HEALTH

ABORTION

Pattern in the Socioeconomic Characteristics of Women Obtaining Abortions in 2000-2001. By Rachel K. Jones and others. IN: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, vol. 34 no. 5 (September/October 2002) pp. 226-235.

Full Text at: www.agi-usa.org/pubs/journals/3422602.pdf

["The [abortion] rate fell 11 percent between 1994 and 2000.... The rate among girls ages 15 to 17 declined a dramatic 39 percent.... Researchers were surprised by a sharp increase in abortions among poorer women." The San Francisco Chronicle (October 9, 2002) A5.]

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AUTISM

The Epidemic of Autism in California: Report to the Legislature on the Principal Findings from the Epidemiology of Autism in California: A comprehensive Pilot Study. By the M.I.N.D. Institute, University of California, Davis (The Institute, Sacramento, California) October 17, 2002. 70 p.

Full Text at: mindinstitute.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/news/study_final.pdf

["The growth of autism cases in California has been startling: from 4,911 cases in 1993 to 18,640 cases as of July [2002]....'This study will prove to be a landmark in that is clearly dispels many myths and misconceptions regarding the reality of the widely discussed epidemic of autism.'" LAtimes.com (October 18, 2002) 1 p.]

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HEART DISEASE

“Public Use of Automated External Defibrillators.” By Sherry L. Caffrey and others. IN: New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 16 (October 17, 2002) pp. 1242-1247.

[“Even ordinary people with no special training can save lives with the heart-jolting defibrillators that are being put in public places around the country…. Many heart specialist and others want to install these simplified, automated devices in airports, malls and even in homes to save victims of sudden cardiac arrest.” Sacramento Bee (October 11, 2002) A8.]

[Request #S6673]

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Public Access to Defibrillators. By Kae Warnock and L. Cheryl Runyon, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 10, No. 31. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) August/September 2002. 2 p.

["To survive sudden cardiac arrest, an electrical defibrillation shock must be delivered quickly.... State, local and federal agencies are beginning to require Automatic External Defibrillators in public places, such as airports, capitols, government buildings, day care centers, schools and swimming pools.... All states have enacted defibrillator laws or adopted regulations regarding their use."]

[Request #S6674]

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MARIJUANA

Marcus Conant, et al. v. John P. Walters, et al. U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. 00-17222. October 29, 2002.

["The federal government may not revoke a doctor's license to dispense medication, or investigate a physician, for recommending marijuana to sick patients, a federal appeals court in San Francisco ruled.... 'The government has not provided any empirical evidence to demonstrate that [the lower court injunction] interferes with or threatens to interfere with any legitimate law enforcement activities,' wrote Mary M. Schroeder, the circuit's chief judge. The government's policy strikes 'at core 1st Amendment interests of doctors and patients,' added Schroeder." Los Angeles Times (October 30, 2002. A1.]

[Request #S6675]

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HOUSING

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

Affordable Housing: A Quiet Crisis For Families With Children. By the Childrens Defense Fund. (The Fund, Washington, DC) October 10, 2002. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.childrensdefense.org/pdf/houscrisis_OCT02.pdf

["Stable housing is essential for families to keep their jobs and protect their children. Rising housing costs have hit low-income families hard, according to this report. While moderate and upper-income families get tax relief for mortgage interest payments, federal direct spending on housing assistance for low-income families has decreased substantially since 1976. Housing appropriations are among the choices facing Congress in the lame duck session after the election." Connect for Kids Weekly (November 4, 2002)]

[Request #S6709]

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COMMUNITY PLANNNING

Living on the Edge: Decentralization Within Cities in the 1990's. By Alan Berube and Benjamin Forman. The Brookings Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) October 2002. 20 p.

Full Text at: http://www.brookings.edu/es/urban/publications/berubeformanedge.pdf

["There were notable trends in the spatial pattern of neighborhood growth and decline across U.S. regions; the bulk of central city population growth occurred at the suburban edge, and many cities experienced extensive population decentralization within their own borders."]

[Request #S6676]

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CONDOMINIUMS

The Impact of Construction-Defect Litigation on Condominium Development: Detailed Research Findings. And The Impact of Construction-Defect Litigation on Condominium Development. By Cynthia Kroll and others, California Policy Research Center, University of California. CPRC Brief. Vol. 14, No. 7. (The Center, Berkeley, California) October 2002.

["This Brief summarizes study findings about the impact of construction-defect litigation on condominum development in California. The purpose of the study was to inform the policy debate -- principally between builders and insurers on one side, and attorneys for homeowner plaintiffs on the other -- over whether defect litigation is reducing the amount of affordable, for-sale attached housing built in California."]

Detailed Research Findings. 68 p.
http://www.ucop.edu/cprc/condorpt.pdf

Brief. 4 p.
http://www.ucop.edu/cprc/condobrf.pdf

[Request #S6710]

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HUMAN SERVICES

PARENTS

A Lot Easier Said Than Done: Parents Talk About Raising Children in Today's America. By Steve Farkas and others, Public Agenda. Prepared for State Farm Insurance Companies and Family Friendly Programming Forum. (Public Agenda, New York, New York) 2002. 54 p.

Full Text at: www.publicagenda.org/PDFStore/PDFs/easier_said_than_done.pdf

["This study found that a large majority of parents say American society is an inhospitable climate for raising children, where parents can never let down their guard in the face of popular culture, drugs and crime. In fact, nearly half the parents surveyed said they worry more about protecting their child from negative social influences than about paying the bills or having enough family time together. While low-income parents report greater time and financial pressures, a plurality still say social influences worry them more." Chicago Sun Times (October 31, 2002) A1.]

[Request #S6677]

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POVERTY

Children in Single-Parent Families Living in Poverty Have Fewer Supports after Welfare Reform. Research-in-Brief. By Deanna M. Lyter and others, Institute for Women's Policy Research. (The Institute, Washington, DC) September 2002. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.iwpr.org/pdf/d451.pdf

["This study finds that children in extreme poverty are living in deeper poverty in 2000 than they were in 1996. Cash assistance, health insurance, and food stamp programs that helped these children under AFDC are not as effective at reaching children in extreme poverty under TANF."]

[Request #S6678]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

Left Behind or Staying Away? Eligible Parents Who Remain Off TANF. By Sheila R. Zedlewski. (The Urban Institute, Washington, DC) September 30, 2002. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/310571_B51.pdf

["Of all individuals eligible for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), only about half participate, according to this study. That rate makes for the lowest estimated take-up in decades.... States need to ensure that diversion policies, designed to encourage employment and discourage enrollment among those that only need emergency help, do not turn away some of the most vulnerable families. Programs that assess family needs before requiring evidence of job search would serve very poor families more effectively."]

[Request #S6679]

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WELFARE REFORM

Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty and Beyond. Edited by Randy Albelda and Ann Withorn. (South End Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts) 2002.

["The downside of welfare reform is documented. This anthology analyses welfare issues in the context of broad political shifts, including globalization, the end of the family wage, the sexual revolution, and the rise of black liberation, feminism, and multiculturalism." Publisher's Announcement.]

[Request #S6711]

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INTERNATIONAL READER

Straddling Economics and Politics: Cross-Cutting Issues in Asia, the United States, and the Global Economy. By Charles Wolf. MR-1571. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2002. 211 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1571/

["The 38 essays in this book were written between the end of 1996 and the middle of 2001, and published in The Wall Street Journal [and other sources]. The subject matter covers a wide range of disparate issues ... organized into three parts: The Global Economy; The U.S. Economy and Foreign Policy [and] Asian Economics and Politics."]

[Request #S6680]

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TRANSPORTATION

AIRPORTS

Commercial Aviation: Air Service Trends At Small Communities since October 2000. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-432. (The Office, Washington, DC) 2002. 65 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-02-432

["This report examines the changing air service conditions in small communities. Our work focused on three objectives: describing the overall level of service ... examining how the nature and extent of air service changed ... after September 11 terrorist attacks ... and identifying key factors that have influenced these air service changes."]

[Request #S6681]

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Options to Enhance the Long-term Viability of the Essential Air Service Program. By the U.S. General Accounting Office. GAO-02-997R. (The Office, Washington, DC) August 30, 2002. 45 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-02-997R

["Concerned that air service to some small communities would suffer in a deregulated environment, the Congress established the Essential Air Service (EAS) in 1978.... Because there are clear indications that EAS program costs will increase in the near term, ... we identified and evaluated major categories of options to enhance the long-term viability of the program, each of which has associated potential effects."]

[Request #S6682]

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WASHINGTON READER

California Capitol Hill Bulletin. By the California Institute For Federal Policy Research. Vol. 9, Bulletin 30 (The Institute, Washington, DC) October 31, 2002 4 p.

Full Text at: www.calinst.org/bulletins/bull930.pdf

[Includes: "Bipartisan California Delegation Unites to Preserve California Heritage;" "Raisin/Grape Crisis Spurs Call For Federal Aid" and others.]

[Request #S6712]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

TERRORISM

Countering Agricultural Bioterrorism. By the Committee on Biological Threats to Agricultural Plants and Animals, National Research Council. (National Academy Press, Washington, DC) 2002. 194 p.

["U.S. Not Ready for Agro-Terrorism, Report Finds: The report offers no guess about how likely it is that terrorists might try to infect crops or animals with insect, bacterial or viral pests.... The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security ... formed earlier this year to address the very threats outlined in the new report." San Francisco Chronicle (September 20, 3002) B1.]

[Request #S6683]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

INVASIVE SPECIES

Halting the Invasion: State Tools for Invasive Species Management. By Meg Filbey, and others, Environmental Law Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) August 2002. 112 p.

["Even though many invasive species are not regulated or controlled federally, states have passed a wide array of laws designed to address invasive species problems. This report analyzes the current legal tools available at the state level to combat invasive species and identifies seventeen state tools."]

[Request #S6672]

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WETLANDS

Banks and Fees: The Status of Off-Site Wetland Mitigation in the United States. By the Environmental Law Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) September 2002. 199 p.

["The face of mitigation banking has changed substantially over the past 10 years -— from a small industry dominated by state and local governments to a quickly growing nationwide commercial enterprise dominated by entrepreneurs. Based on a two-year study of off-site compensatory mitigation, the report describes and analyzes wetland mitigation banks, in-lieu-fee mitigation, and umbrella banks, and recommends opportunities for improving their effectiveness." Publisher's Anouncement.]

[Request #S6713]

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HEALTH

HEALTH CARE POLICY

Leadership By Example: Coordinating Government Roles in Improving Health Care Quality. Edited By Janet M. Corrigan and others, Committee on Enhancing Federal Healthcare Quality Programs, Institute of Medicine. (National Academies Press, Washington, DC) 2002. 250 p.

Full Text at: search.nap.edu/books/0309086163/html/

["The federal government should offer financial incentives to providers who improve care and make data comparing quality of care publicly available, according to this report. The report, which examined safety and quality in six government health care programs, also called for government support to develop computerized clinical and patient records and a national health information infrastructure."] iHealthBeat (October 30, 2002)]

[Request #S6715]

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