Subject: Studies in the News 03-43 (July 7, 2003)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News
Children and Family Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material ECONOMY
   Economic development strategy for child care
EDUCATION
   Universal pre-k workforce in California
   Child care workers and literacy
   Massachusetts considers preschool for all
   Universal preschool and priority focus
   Unequal funding for poor and wealthy schools
HEALTH
   DDT and DDE and pregnancy
   Children's dental care and Medicaid
   Coordination of medical and dental care
   Improving access to prenatal care
HUMAN SERVICES
   License-exempt care and provider quality
   Regulations and the child care workforce
STUDIES TO COME
   Early malnourishment and later cognition
   Prenatal smoking and newborn behavior
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • Items in the State Library collection can be checked out to state officials and staff.

  • Access to all materials listed will be provided by the State Information Reference Center, either by e-mail to cslsirc@library.ca.gov or by calling 654-0261.

The following studies are currently on hand:

ECONOMY

CHILDREN

Investing in the Child Care Industry: An Economic Development Strategy for Kansas. By Louise Stoney and others. (The Mid-America Regional Council, Kansas City, Missouri) April 2003.

["This report quantifies the economic impact of the Kansas child care industry. Key findings include the following: Kansas families collectively spent $427.5 million to purchase child care in 2001. And when federal and state funding is added to these expenditures, gross receipts of the industry exceed $517 million; and, regulated child care establishments employ over 14,000 individuals - about as many as the state's hotel industry, apparel stores and important agricultural industries like feed grains, food grains and meat packing plants. The report urges Kansas to make child care a cornerstone of its economic development strategy and strengthen investments in early care and education. Several low-cost strategies 'for tough fiscal times' are included as well." ECPEN Listserv (June 19, 2003).]

Executive Summary. 4 p.:
http://www.marc.org/mccc/kseconimpactexecsum.pdf

Full Report. 36 p.:
http://www.marc.org/mccc/kseconimpactreportfinal.pdf

[Request #S8517]

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EDUCATION

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Universal Preschool in California: An Overview of Workforce Issues. By Dan Bellm and Marcy Whitebook, Center for the Study of Child Care Employment, Institute for Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley. (The Center, Berkeley, California) April 2003. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.iir.berkeley.edu/cscce/preschool.pdf

["The intention of this paper is to offer a detailed analysis of emerging workforce issues – not to provide definitive answers, but rather to guide policy makers, planners and advocates in asking the right questions as they design and develop a preschool system for California over the next several years...This paper will focus on these three issues – delivery mechanisms, workforce standards and professional development – in terms of how they relate to the universal preschool workforce. The discussion will review current conditions, emerging questions, research findings, gaps in available data, relevant activities in other states, and the range of decisions that California program planners and policy makers will face as they move ahead."]

[Request #S8518]

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Who Leaves? Who Stays? English Literacy Levels of the Early Care and Education Workforce: A Profile and Associations With Quality of Care. By Deborah Phillips and others. (Center For the Study of Child Care Employment, Berkeley, California) Winter 2003. 11 p.

Full Text at: ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~iir/cscce/english.pdf

["This report, which examines the literacy levels of early childhood educators in Alameda County, California, provides initial evidence bearing on the important but missing link between adult English literacy skills and children's literacy environments."]

[Request #S8519]

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Children in the Margins: Preschool For All. By Monica Brady-Myerov. (WBUR Morning Edition, Boston, Massachusetts) June 2, 2003. 4 p.

["This article is the text version of a broadcast about offering universal pre-kindergarden programs for all Massachusetts children. Advocates for universal preschool in Massachusetts say the state is already ahead because so many children are enrolled in preschool programs. They say the challenge is to provide the resources to the existing programs so that they can provide a better quality education to all young children."]

[Request #S8520]

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Targeting Investments for Universal Preschool: Which Families to Serve First? Who Will Respond? By Bruce Fuller and Danny Shih-Cheng Huang, Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE, Berkeley, California) 2003. 26 p.

Full Text at: pace.berkeley.edu/LA_REPORT.pdf

["This report offers a method that other states and local planners could employ to consider alternative criteria for prioritizing the needs of diverse communities -- informing how funding can be better targeted -- rather than relying solely on children's early school performance or supply indicators." CDPI Early Education in the News (July 6, 2003).]

[Request #S8521]

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EDUCATION FINANCE

What Research Says About Unequal Funding for Schools in America. By Bruce J. Biddle and David C. Berliner. (WestEd, San Francisco) 2003. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.wested.org/online_pubs/pp-03-01.pdf

["Schools in wealthy communities typically receive $15,000 or more per student per year, while those in poor communities must make do with less than $4,000. Wealthier communities benefit from smaller classes and better-trained and qualified teachers with higher salaries. So where's the public outcry? It's been silenced in part by suburban resistance, ideologically driven arguments, misleading reports and weak research." Connect for Kids (June 30, 2003).]

[Request #S8522]

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HEALTH

BIRTH DEFECTS

“DDT and DDE exposure in Mothers and Time to Pregnancy in Daughters.” By Barbara A. Cohn and others. IN: Lancet, vol. 361 no. 9376 (June 28, 2003 ) pp. 2205-2206 .

[“Women who were exposed while still in the womb to the pesticide DDT are more likely to experience delays in getting pregnant, according to a study of California mothers and daughters…. The report … is the first scientific evidence that DDT that collects in women’s bodies can affect their female offspring many years later, when they reach adulthood and attempt to reproduce.” Los Angeles Times (June 27, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S8523]

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DENTAL CARE

Children's Dental Care Access in Medicaid: The Role of Medical Care Use and Dentist Participation. By Karen Vanlandeghem and others. Issue Brief No. 2 (Child Health Insurance Research Initiative, Rockville, Maryland) June 2003. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.ahrq.gov/about/cods/chirident.pdf

["This issue brief examines children's dental care use in certain state Medicaid programs and various strategies for improving access to dental care. It found that less than 40 percent of Medicaid-enrolled children received dental care. The brief also stated that Medicaid-enrolled children are far more likely to receive medical care than dental care." CDF Child Health Information Project (June 20, 2003).]

[Request #S8524]

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The Interface Between Medicine and Dentistry in Meeting the Oral Health Needs of Young Children. By Richard E. Hegner, Health Care Consultant of Columbia. Prepared for the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry's Filling Gaps Project. (Children's Dental Health Project, Washington, DC) June 2003. 30 p.

Full Text at: www.cdhp.org/Index.asp?PA=3&XX=115&XX=102&XX=127&XX=104

["These two groups Dental Health Project (DHP) and American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) are working together to explore the issues concerning the coordination of medical and dental primary care systems. The paper states 'a maldistrubution of general practice dentists and a shortage of pediatric dentists' contribute to children's lack of access to needed dental care. 'About 80 percent of dental caries is concentrated in 25 percent of the pediatric population' the paper also states." CDF Child Health Information Project (June 20, 2003).]

[Request #S8525]

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PRENATAL CARE

Promoting Access to Prenatal Care: Lessons from the California Experience. By Paula Bravement and others. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (The Foundation, Menlo Park, California) Spring 2003. 86 p.

Full Text at: www.kff.org/content/2003/3332/3332_Access_to_Prenatal_Report.pdf

["Improving access to prenatal care has been a public policy priority in the United States for the past 15 years. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Healthy People 2010 objective for the nation include the goal that, by the year 2010, 90% of all pregnant women --including those in high-risk subgroups -- begin pernatal care during the first three months of pregnancy. While health promtion and timely assessment and treatment of health risks are needed by all pregnant women, prenatal care can be particularly important for low-income women, who lack onging preventive health care before pregnancy."]

[Request #S8527]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

Who Leaves? Who Stays?: Change and Stability Among Publicly Subsidized License-Exempt Child Care Providers. By Marcy Whitebook and others. (Center For the Study of Child Care Employment, Berkeley, California) Winter 2003. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.iir.berkeley.edu/cscce/license.pdf

["To the extent that child care is seen as a vehicle to promote children's later success in school -- the goal of First Five California -- there is a tension between the growing reliance on subsidized license-exempt care and the strong pressure for policies that guarantee some modicum of provider training and ensure investments in the stability and professional development of the child care workforce.... Although some license-exempt care is stable and of high quality, research suggests that children in informal settings are less likely to engage in activities that promote literacy and learning, or to use educational toys and materials, and are more likely to gain educational input from television rather than by active teaching by a provider.... More systematic exploration is needed of license-exempt subsidized care and of the policies related to this growing sector of publicly supported child care."]

[Request #S8529]

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"Do Child Care Regulations Affect the Child Care and Labor Market?" By David M. Blau. IN: Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol. 22, no. 3 (Summer 2003) pp. 443-446.

["Child care regulations vary widely across states, and it is often asserted that the average quality of child care is low in the U.S., in part as a result of lax regulations. But if tougher regulations raise the average quality of child care, they also result in higher cost and lower supply. This paper analyzes the effect of child care regulations on outcomes in the child care and labor markets."]

[Request #S8530]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

HEALTH

HUNGER

"Malnutrition at Age 3 Years and Lower Cognitive Ability at Age 11 Years." By Jianghong Liu and others. IN: Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 157, no. 6 (June 2003) pp. 593-600.

["A study of children in Mauritius that controls for many socioeconomic factors has found that malnourished 3-year-olds not only have poorer cognition, but their deficits persist through age 11. Children with three indicators of malnutrition had a 15.3-point deficit in IQ at age 11." Connect for Kids (June 16, 2003).]

[Request #S8526]

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SMOKING

"Smoking During Pregnancy and Newborn Neurobehavior." By Karen L. Law, and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 111, no. 6 (June 2003) pp. 1318-1323.

["These findings suggest neurotoxic effects of prenatal tobacco exposure on newborn neurobehavior. Dose-response relationships could indicate neonatal withdrawal from nicotine. Research directed at understanding the effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy on infants can lead to improved public health outcomes... Women who smoke just six or seven cigarettes a day give birth to babies who are more jittery, stiffer and more difficult to console, behavioral changes akin to those seen in drug-exposed infants."]

[Request #S8528]

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