Subject: Studies in the News 04-76 (November 22, 2004)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

1854 - "In 1854 the Republican Party formed under the direction of John C. Fremont. In 1856, the Republicans became a national party when John C. Fremont was nominated for President under the slogan: "Free soil, free labor, free speech, free men, Fremont." Even though they were considered a "third party" because the Democrats and Whigs represented the two-party system at the time, Fremont received 33% of the vote. Four years later, Abraham Lincoln became the first Republican to win the White House. http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4jan/h4jan16.html"    

1854 - "During 1854 John C. Fremont made his fifth expedition west and traveled across Kansas, southern Colorado and Utah. He brought along photographer Solomon Nunes Carvalho, who took hundreds of daguerreotypes. The images were published in 2000 in "Sights Once Seen: Daguerreotyping Fremont’s Last Expedition Through the Rockies." In 1851, citizens of California had elected him a senator, and he became the territorial Governor of Arizona in 1878. Today, however, Fremont's youthful accomplishments as an explorer and mapmaker are more celebrated than his subsequent political career. http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/history/h4jan/h4jan16.html"    

Contents This Week

Introductory Material

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Classification of high risk prisoners
   Overhaul of CYA
   Impact of three strikes law 10 years later
   Mental health services for youth
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Economic performance on reservations
   Indian casinos
DEMOGRAPHY
   American community survey
   Immigration enforcement
ECONOMY
   Farm programs and states' role
   Alternative financial service providers
   Media affects perceptions of the economy
   Sharing tribal gaming revenues with the states
   Trends in incomes, wages, and taxes
   Financial services industry regulation changes
EDUCATION
   Older adults and after-school programs
   Citizenship education
   Changing demand for postsecondary education
   Students lack of preparedness for college or work
   Benefits of a strong educational system
   Fiscal crisis and management assistance team
ENERGY
   Secrecy regarding natural gas pricing
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Climate change scenarios for California
   Clean air reductions in San Joaquin Valley
   Labeling of transgenic corn recommended
   Climate change effects
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   State of the judiciary
   U.S. not prepared for bioterror attack
   California information technology strategic plan
   Government e-mails as public records
   State-wide technology prgrams
   Social security numbers and public records
   Valuable state property
   Problems with term limits
   Voters' view of politics in California
HEALTH
   State abortion laws
   Medicare modernization act
   Outpatient treatment for mental illness
   Prescription drug sales online
HOUSING
   American community survey
   Great divide in mortgage lending
   California homebuilding in fire and flood zones
   Housing regulation cost theory
HUMAN SERVICES
   Families cycling on and off welfare
TRANSPORTATION
   State policy for hydrogen
STUDIES TO COME
   Case studies on term limits
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

PRISONERS

Classification of High-Risk and Special Management Prisoners. By James Austin and Kenneth McGinnis, National Institute of Corrections, U.S. Department of Justice. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2004. 104 p.

Full Text at: www.nicic.org/pubs/2004/019468.pdf

["Although high-risk and special management inmates constitute a small percentage of the national inmate population, a disproportionate amount of staff and agency resources must be allocated to them to maintain prisoner safety and institution security. Therefore, reducing the special management population can have significant cost implications for an agency."]

[Request #S4435]

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PRISONS

Margaret Farrell v. Walter Allen III. Alameda County Superior Court. RG 03079344. Consent Decree. November 2004. 22 p.

Full Text at: www.cya.ca.gov/media/Signed_Consent_Decree.pdf

["Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger unveiled plans for an overhaul of California's prisons for the young, turning his focus to a system that has been widely maligned for its violence, substandard healthcare and failure to steer wayward youths toward a law-abiding future. The governor's announcement, along with the appointment of a special master, marked the settlement of a lawsuit challenging conditions in the California Youth Authority, where some of the state's most troubled and violent juvenile convicts are confined. The agreement must still be approved by a federal judge." Los Angeles Times (November 17, 2004) A1.]

[Request #S4476]

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THREE-STRIKES LAW

Three Strikes and You're Out: An Examination of the Impact of Strikes Laws 10 Years after their Enactment. By Vincent Schiraldi and others. Justice Policy Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2004. 23 p.

Full Text at: www.justicepolicy.org/article.php?list=type&type=102

["On The 10th Anniversary of Three Strikes, a new study shows counties using three strikes less frequently have larger declines in crime than those that 'strike out' more. African Americans 'struck out' at 12 times the rate of whites. Most strikes defendants are sentenced for nonviolent offenses."]

[Request #S4436]

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YOUTH

Youth Who are Waiting for Community Mental Health Services in the United States. By the Committee on Government Reform - Minority Staff, U.S. House of Representatives. Prepared for Representative Henry A. Waxman and Senator Susan Collins. (The Committee, Washington, DC) 2004. 19 p.

["Without access to treatment, some youth with serious mental disorders are placed in detention without any criminal charges pending against them. In other cases, some youth who have been charged with crimes but are able to be released must remain incarcerated for extended periods because no inpatient bed, residential placement, or outpatient appointment is available. This misuse of detention centers as holding areas for mental health treatment is unfair to youth, undermines their health, disrupts the function of detention centers, and is costly to society."]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

AMERICAN INDIANS

The Wealth of Indian Nations: Economic Performance and Institutions on Reservations. By Terry L. Anderson and Dominic P. Parker. Presented to the Sovereignty and Indian Affairs Seminar. Prepared for the American Enterprise Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) October 20, 2004. 42 p.

Full Text at: www.aei.org/docLib/20041020_Anderson_Parker.pdf

["Despite recent growth partly due to gambling, per capita income for Native Americans living on reservations in 1999 was $7,846 compared to a U.S. average of $21,587. Why does this bastion of poverty persist in a sea of wealth? Just as a growing number of studies show that private property, a consistent rule of law, and limited government are crucial for encouraging investment in the developing world, we argue that the same holds for reservation economies."]

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Indian Casinos: Another Tragedy of the Commons? By Ronald N. Johnson. Presented to the Sovereignty and Indian Affairs Seminar. Prepared for the American Enterprise Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) October 20, 2004. 42 p.

Full Text at: www.aei.org/docLib/20041020_Johnson.pdf

["The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act requires states to negotiate in 'good faith' with tribes seeking to develop Las Vegas-style casinos.... The result has been the socially costly pursuit of wealth transfers as state and local governments have come to realize the enormity of the funds generated by Indian casinos. Among other consequences, in hopes of influencing the rules of the game and the negotiation process, tribes have now become major contributors to political campaigns."]

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DEMOGRAPHY

CENSUS

American Community Survey: Key Unresolved Issues. By the U.S. Government Accountability Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) October 7, 2004. 120 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-05-82

["Congress asked the GAO to review operational and programmatic aspects of the Census Bureau's American Community Survey that will affect the reliability of small geographic area data.... In commenting on a draft of this report, the Secretary stated that Commerce has already addressed most of the key issues identified in this report. We believe, however, that the matters are not being fully addressed and need further attention by Commerce."]

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IMMIGRATION

Immigration Enforcement: DHS Has Incorporated Immigration Enforcement Objectives and Is Addressing Future Planning Requirements. By U. S. Government Accountability Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) October 8, 2004. 23 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-05-66

["The former Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS) had five interior immigration enforcement objectives to address federal immigration law violations.... After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the INS and other federal agencies began merging their law enforcement functions into the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.... GAO addressed the following questions: 1) What is the status of The Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement's (ICE) efforts to incorporate the legacy of INS interior immigration enforcement objectives? 2) How is ICE developing budget needs, workforce plans, and performance measures for immigration-related objectives?"]

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ECONOMY

AGRIBUSINESS

"Devolution of Farm Programs Could Broaden States' Role in Ag Policy." By Susan Offutt and others, Economic Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. IN: Amber Waves, vol. 2, no. 5 (November 2004) pp. 14-21.

Full Text at: www.ers.usda.gov/amberwaves/november04/pdf/feature_devolution.pdf

["U.S. farms vary greatly in size, specialty, and household characteristics. U.S. regions differ markedly in natural resource endowments. And states themselves are widely divergent in terms of their preferences as to how funds from agricultural programs should be spent. Given this diversity, can the delivery of agricultural programs be better tailored to distinct state and local circumstances? Devolution, or the transfer to states of federal funds and/or control of those funds, is one way of adapting national policies to suit local preferences more closely and of recognizing that program delivery costs can vary geographically."]

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BANKING

An Analysis of Alternative Financial Service Providers. By Kenneth Temkin and Noah Sawyer, Metropolitan Housing and Communities Policy Center, Urban Institute. Prepared for the Fannie Mae Foundation. (Knowledgeplex, Washington, DC) 2004. 42 p.

Full Text at: content.knowledgeplex.org/kp2/cache/kp/11816.pdf

["This report explores demographic issues related to check cashing outlets, payday lenders, pawnshops, rent-to-own stores and auto-title lenders, collectively called 'alternative financial service providers' in 8 US cities, including Los Angeles. It examines poverty, race/ethnicity, the presence of banks within communities and whether regulations affect the number and location of these providers." Institute for the Study of Homelessness and Poverty newsletter (September 6, 2004) 1.]

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ECONOMIC THEORY

Consumer Sentiment and the Media. By Mark Dom, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, and Norman Morin Board, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System. Working Paper, No. 2004-09. (The Bank, San Francisco, California) October 22, 2004. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/papers/2004/wp04-09bk.pdf

["News media affects consumers perceptions of the economy through three channels. First, the news media conveys the latest economic data and the opinions of professionals to consumers. Second, consumers receive a signal about the economy through the tone and volume of economic reporting. Last, the greater the volume of news about the economy, the greater the likelihood that consumers will update their expectations about the economy."]

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GAMBLING

Tribal Gaming: Sharing Revenue with States. By Judy Zelio, National Conference of State Legislature. NCSL Legisbrief. Vol. 12, No. 37. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) October 2004. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/programs/statetribe/trgaming.htm

["The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 specifies that states may not tax tribal gaming revenues. Tribes can agree to share a limited portion of their gaming proceeds with state and local governments, however, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior. In Arizona, California, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, New York and Wisconsin some tribal governments have agreed to share casino revenues with the state, often in exchange for the exclusive right to conduct such gaming."]

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INCOME

Less Cash in Their Pockets: Trends in Incomes, Wages, Taxes, and Health Spending of Middle-income Families, 2000-03. By Lawrence Mishel and others, Economic Policy Institute. Briefing Paper, No. 154. (The Institute, Washington, DC) October 21, 2004. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.epinet.org/content.cfm/bp154

["This report measures the net effect of the recession that started in March 2001, the income tax reductions legislated at the federal level, and the health care costs facing families on middle-class family incomes. [It] estimates the inflation-adjusted change between 2000 and 2003 in three income measures: pre-tax incomes, after-tax incomes, and after-tax and after-health-spending incomes." Moving Ideas (October 27, 2004) 1.]

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SECURITIES REGULATION

Financial Regulation: Industry Changes Prompt Need to Reconsider U.S. Regulatory Structure. By the Government Accountability Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) October 6, 2004. 173 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-05-61

["In light of the passage of the 1999 Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and increased competition within the financial services industry at home and abroad, the GAO was asked to report on the current state of the U.S. financial services regulatory structure. This report describes the changes to the financial services industry, focusing on banking securities, futures, and insurance; the structure of the U.S. and other regulatory systems, changes in regulatory and supervisory approaches; efforts to foster communication and cooperation among U.S. and other regulators, and the strengths and weaknesses of the current regulatory structure."]

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EDUCATION

AFTER SCHOOL PROGRAMS

Experience After School: Engaging Older Adults in After-school Programs. By Experience Corps. (Experience Corps, Washington, DC) 2004. 80 p.

Full Text at: www.experiencecorps.org/images/pdf/toolkit.pdf

["This guide ... is designed to provide practical, hands-on information to existing after-school program staff and senior service organizations interested in partnering with after-school programs.... Contents include information on effective ways to design programs; recruit, support, and retain older adults; estimate the costs involved, and evaluate the program’s effectiveness."]

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CIVICS

Citizenship Education: Trends Show Need for Stronger Citizenship Education. By the Education Commission for the States. The Progress of Education Reform. Vol. 5, No. 2. (The Commission, Denver, Colorado) 2004. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/51/34/5134.pdf

["This issue focuses on what some of the latest research says policymakers can do to improve citizenship education.... A key finding is that a majority of younger Americans (57%) are disengaged from civic life and do not share older generations' views about the responsibilities of citizenship. The report also finds a 'downward generational spiral' in electoral participation."]

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POST SECONDARY EDUCATION

Meeting the Challenges of Population Growth and the Future Demand for Postsecondary Education. By Mario C. Marinez, University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Prepared for Education Commission of the States. (The Commission, Washington, DC) 2004. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/54/60/5460.pdf

["This policy brief tracks state-level population changes in the 18 and older population and addresses the implications of those changes on the demand for postsecondary education over the next 15 years. Changes in the 18 to 24-year-old and 25-and-older populations will vary widely across states. These variations raise questions about how states should focus resources to provide the postsecondary services that will be needed to expand access, improve educational attainment and produce a competitive workforce."]

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Crisis at the Core: Preparing All Students for College and Work. By ACT Information for Life's Transitions. (ACT, Iowa City Iowa) 2004. 56 p.

Full Text at: www.act.org/path/policy/pdf/crisis_report.pdf

["American high school students are no better prepared for college than they were 10 years ago, according to [the study] one of the two big organizations that offer college entrance tests. ACT said that of the 1.2 million students throughout the country who took its tests this year, only 22 percent were ready for college-level work in English, mathematics and science. An additional 19 percent were prepared in two of the three areas, and could succeed in the third area 'by doing just a little bit more,' the study found." New York Times (October 14, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4449]

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PUBLIC EDUCATION

Whom Should Our Schools Serve? Synthesizing Knowledge and Character to Preserve a Democratic Citizenry. By Patricia Albjerg Graham, Harvard Graduate School of Education. Prepared for the American Association of School Administrators. (The Association, Arlington, Virginia) 2004. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.aasa.org/publications/sa/2004_05/Graham.htm

["Whose interests should the schools serve -- the nation's or my child's? Quite properly, ambivalence abounds in answer to this question as we wrestle with the need to do both simultaneously.... What we need is not a one-sided response to a perceived crisis. What we need is a balance that recognizes the particular school responsibility for literacy and numeracy, important as they are, but also recognizes the schools' subsidiary obligation to nurture character, just as important for a democracy as well. Being smart is not enough; being good is necessary also."]

[Request #S4450]

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SCHOOL FINANCE

The Fiscal Crisis and Management Assistance Team: Its Recommendations, If Implemented, Should Help Financially Troubled School Districts. By California State Auditor, California Bureau of State Audits. 2003-129. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) 2004. 45 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/bsa/pdfs/2003-129.pdf

["Our review of FCMAT’s involvement at 10 school districts revealed that FCMAT provides findings and recommendations that are valuable and should help improve the financial health of school districts. All of the school districts we reviewed appeared to have implemented or partially implemented some of the recommendations we selected to review, although due to various factors, including the severity and nature of their problems, several of them continue to experience financial difficulties."]

[Request #S4451]

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ENERGY

ENERGY

University of California Regents v. Reliant, et al. Complaint. Alameda County Superior Court. November 1, 2004. 30 p.

["The University of California Regents filed a lawsuit against more than 25 energy companies Monday, claiming that they unfairly hiked natural gas prices during the California energy crisis in 2000.... UC claims that natural gas providers secretly 'worked together to manipulate and fix' the retail gas prices in California to gain profits, a violation of state law. .... The lawsuit claims the companies reported false natural gas sales to publishers who report gas prices, which drove California prices up to six times the national average." Daily Californian (November 4, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4452]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR POLLUTION

Climate Change Scenarios for California: Overall PIER Strategy and Perspective. By Guido Franco. Climate Change Research Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program California Energy Commission. (The Program, Sacramento, California) October 28, 2004. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.energy.ca.gov/pier/notices/2004-10-28_seminar/2004-10-28_FRANCO.PDF

["This is first study to use a new computer program to examine airborne pollutants' effect on a regional climate. Coupled with possible reduced precipitation from global warming, the effect could be a more limited supply of water for the state's growing population." Associated Press (October 29, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4453]

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Proposed 2004 State Implementation Plan for Ozone in The San Joaquin Valley. By the California Air Resources Board. (The Board, Sacramento, California) October 28, 2004. 46 p.

Full Text at: www.arb.ca.gov/planning/sip/sjv04/sjv_04_ozone_sip_staff_rpt.pdf

["This plan identifies the clean air strategies needed to bring the Valley into compliance with the federal 1-hour ozone standard by 2010. It builds on already adopted controls and the strategies in the Valley’s 2003 State Implementation Plan (SIP) for inhalable particulate matter, then adds new Ozone SIP commitments that provided the last increment of reductions to meet the 1-hour standard."]

[Request #S4454]

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BIOTECHNOLOGY

Maize and Biodiversity: The Effects of Transgenic Maize in Mexico: Key Findings and Recommendations. By the Commission for Environmental Cooperation. (The Commission, Montreal, Canada) November 8, 2004. 55 p.

Full Text at: www.cec.org/files/PDF//Maize-and-Biodiversity_en.pdf

["An international review of a controversy over bioengineered genes in Mexican corn recommends that Mexico combat the biotech intrusion by requiring labeling or milling of kernels imported from countries such as the United States....The environmental commission was set up under the North American Free Trade Agreement and is composed of the heads of the environmental protection agencies in Canada, Mexico and the United States." Sacramento Bee (November 9, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4455]

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CLIMATE CHANGE

Observed Impacts of Global Climate Change in the U.S. By Camille Parmesan, University of Texas at Austin, and Hector Galbraith, University of Colorado, Boulder. (Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Arlington, Virginia) November 2004. 56 p.

Full Text at: www.pewclimate.org/docUploads/final%5FObsImpact%2Epdf

["Parmesan and Galbraith acknowledge that nothing in the report would strike the average person as particularly alarming. They also allow that some of the past century's warming might have happened even if humans hadn't been pumping carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. But they argue that the changes they describe should be taken as a 'very clear signal' that climate change will have significant effects in coming decades. 'The canaries in the coalmine are squawking, and we should absolutely take that seriously,' Galbraith said." Associated Press Online (November 15, 2004) 1.]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

COURTS

State of the Judiciary. By Chief Justice Ronald M. George. Presented to the State Bar Annual Meeting (Judicial Council of California, San Francisco, California) October 9, 2004. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.courtinfo.ca.gov/reference/soj100904.htm

["Ronald M. George, chief justice of California, told the State Bar of California that the judicial branch still faces budget challenges, but that a new change in the process gives courts greater independence and stability. In his address, George praised judges and lawyers as 'committed guardians of the rule of law and of the rights of all Californians.'" Los Angeles Times (October 15, 2004) B2.]

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EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

"Taking the Measure of Countermeasures: Leaders' Views on the Nation's Capacity to Develop Biodefense Countermeasures." By Lynne Gillifan, and others. IN: Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, vol. 2, no. 4 (October 12, 2004) pp. 1-8.

Full Text at: www.biosecurityjournal.com/PDFs/v2n404/GILFILLAN.pdf

["A report found widespread agreement among 30 bioterrorism experts from industry, academia and the government that the nation is not prepared to combat a major epidemic. San Francisco Chronicle (November 1, 2004) A1.]

[Request #S4458]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

California State Information Technology Strategic Plan. By Clark Kelso, Chief Information Officer, State of California. (Center for Digital Government, Sacramento, California) November 2004. 49 p.

Full Text at: media.centerdigitalgov.com/PDF/CaliforniaITStrategicPlan.pdf

["The plan outlines the future of IT in California and ... will guide the acquisition, management and use of technology within the executive branch of state government for the next five years. The report outlines the problems facing California IT and the solutions the CIO's office proposes." Government Technology (November 8, 2004) 1.]

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Electronic Communications: Are They Public Records?. By Pam Greenberg, National Conference of State Legislatures. Legisbrief. Vol. 12, No. 39. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) October 2004. 2 p.

["Only five states have addressed explicitly in statute the issue of whether government officials' e-mails should be public records. In a few states, courts have ruled on the issue. In many states, the issue has not been definitely determined, but is increasingly likely to surface."]

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Breaking Down Technological Barriers. By Matthew Diana Hinton Noel, National Conference of Stare Legislatures. NCSL Legisbrief. Vol. 12, No. 41. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) October 2004. 2 p.

["The Assistive Technology Act of 1998 provided financial assistance to states to develop a statewide program of technology-related assistance. Assistive technology is defined as 'any item, piece of equipment or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.'"]

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PUBLIC RECORDS

Social Security Numbers: Governments Could Do More to Reduce Display in Public Records and on Identity Cards. By the U. S. Government Accountability Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) November 9, 2004. 65 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-05-59

["Social Security numbers are a key piece of information used for committing identity crimes. The widespread use of SSNs by both the public and private sectors and their display in public records have raised concerns over how SSNs might be misused.... In light of this concern, GAO was asked to examine: (1) the extent to which SSNs are visible in records made available to the public, (2) the reasons for which government collects SSNs in records that display them to the public, and (3) the formats in which these records are stored and ways that the public gains access to them."]

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STATE REVENUES

High-Value Urban Properties in the State's Inventory: A Report to the Governor. By the California Performance Review. (The Review, Sacramento, California) November 2004. 119 p.

Full Text at: www.cpr.ca.gov/pdf/86244_WebBk2.pdf

["Malibu beach house, the aging San Quentin State Prison and Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum have been included on a list of properties estimated to be worth more than $4 billion that California could sell or remake into more profitable enterprises, state officials announced.... But it is far too early to predict if anything on the list would be sold. Many of the properties present huge obstacles to a transfer of ownership and sales could face potential opposition from state lawmakers, local officials and residents." Los Angeles Times (November 5, 2004) 1.]

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TERM LIMITS

Adapting to Term Limits: Recent Experiences and New Directions. By Bruce E. Cain, University of California, Berkeley, and Thad Kousser, University of California, San Diego. (Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco, California) November 2004.

["Lawmakers today lack the experience 'to weed out bad bills' in committees and are more likely to rewrite legislation at the last minute and then rush it through without thorough debate.... The study also found that a 'citizen' Legislature hasn't materialized, as Proposition 140 backers promised. Many legislators are simply rotating into other offices instead of going home to private-sector jobs." Sacramento Bee (November 15, 2004) 1. Adapting to Term Limits will also be available for 3-day loan.]

Full Report. 128 p.
http://www.ppic.org/content/pubs/R_1104BCR.pdf

Research Brief. 2 p.
http://www.ppic.org/content/pubs/RB_1104BCRB.pdf

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VOTERS & VOTING

Voters' View of Politics in California: Dissatisfaction, Distrust, and Withdrawal. By Mark Baldassare and others, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) November 2004. 2 p.

["The California public expressed a high level of dissatisfaction with the acrimonious tone of the 2002 governor's election, the limited access they had to candidates, and the lack of attention to the issues confronting the state. If the current trends of public dissatisfaction and voter disengagement persist, it is likely that we will see a continuing trend of declining trust in state government and its elected officials, which could seriously affect the future of democratic society in California."]

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HEALTH

ABORTION

Abortion Laws in the States. By Leah Oliver, National Conference of State. NCSL Legisbrief. Vol. 12, No. 38. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) October 2004. 2 p.

["State laws address numerous aspects of the issue. Some of the most commonly debated and enacted bills relate to 'partial birth abortion,' public funding for abortion, 'informed consent,' or waiting periods before abortions, and fetal homicide."]

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MEDI-CAL

CBO's Analysis of Regional Preferred Provider Organizations Under the Medicare Modernization Act. By Lyle Nelson, Congressional Budget Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) October 2004. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=5997&sequence=0&from=7

["The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) made many changes to the Medicare program including changes that increased the incentives for preferred provider organizations (PPO's) to serve broad regions of the country.... This paper decribes how the Congressional Budget Office analyzed the likely effects of the MMA's provisions for regional PPO's.]

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MENTAL HEALTH

Assisted Outpatient Treatment for Mental Illness. By Michelle Herman, National Conference of State Legislatures. NCSL Legisbrief. Vol. 12, no. 40. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) October 2004. 2 p.

["Currently, 41 states have an assisted outpatient treatment program. Some states require that patients meet a 'dangerous standard' or pose immediate harm to themselves or others before outpatient treatment is mandated. Others states provide treatment for people with repeated hospitalizations and complex histories, who may suffer severe cognitive deterioration and who lack the ability to make informed medical decisions or to provide for their own care."]

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PRESCRIPTION DRUGS

Prescription Drugs Online. By Susannah Fox, Pew Internet and American Life Project. (The Project, Washington, DC) October 10, 2004. 17 p.

Full Text at: www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Prescription_Drugs_Online.pdf

["Approximately a quarter of all Americans have researched prescription drugs online, but only a few are buying pharmaceuticals through the Internet. With the price of prescription drugs increasingly becoming a political hot button, the study illustrated that only four percent of Americans have purchased drugs online, and that the majority of those purchased them from U.S.-based sites. The study also revealed that 62 percent of Americans think buying prescription drugs online is less safe than purchasing them at a local pharmacy." Internetnews.com (October 13, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4469]

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HOUSING

COMMUNITY PLANNNING

2004 American Community Survey. By Belden and Russonello and Stewart Research and Communications. Prepared for Smart Growth America and National Association of Realtors. (Smart Growth America , Washington, DC) October 2004. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.smartgrowthamerica.com/NAR-SGAsurvey.pdf

["The 2004 American Community Survey covers many opinions that Americans hold about where they live, where they would like to live, and the policies for getting there. The survey reveals three main points: 1) Americans favor smart growth communities with shorter commute times, sidewalks, and places to walk more than sprawling communities; 2) The length of their commute to work holds a dominant place in American's decisions about where they live; 3) Americans want government and business to be interested in existing communities before putting resources into newer communities farther out from cities and suburbs."]

[Request #S4470]

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HOMEBUYING

The Great Divide 2004: Home Purchase Mortgage Lending Nationally and in 120 Metropolitan Areas. By Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now. (The Association, Washington, DC) October 2004. 23 p.

Full Text at: www.acorn.org/fileadmin/ACORN_Reports/hmda2004/Great_Divide_2004.pdf

["This study of mortgage lending shows evidence of increased lending disparities where even upper-income African-Americans were more than twice as likely (2.6 times) to be turned down for loans than upper-income whites. Findings also show that larger gains in lending to minorities and lower income people were made in the earlier 1993-1998 time period, while disparities increased in the more recent five years since 1998. Although, lending to minorities and lower income families has increased, it is still at low levels compared to their share of the population and the quality of these loans has changed." Moving Ideas (November 3, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4471]

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HOUSING

Losing Ground: How Taxpayer Subsidies and Balkanized Governance Prop Up Home Building in Wildfire and Flood Zones. By Emmett Berg and Bill Boyarsky, Center for Governmental Studies. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) 2004. 150 p.

Full Text at: www.cgs.org/publications/docs/LosingGround.pdf

["The four main chapters of this report include surveys of three major public services (flood control, fire protection and insurance joint-underwriting authority) which influence and allow settlement of lands prone to fire and floods. The final chapter explores land use and governance topics drawing from information collected on individual cities and unincorporated communities situated along the base of the San Gabriel Mountains."]

[Request #S4472]

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The Effects of Land-use Regulation on the Price of Housing: What Do We Know? What Can We Learn? By John M. Quigley and Larry A. Rosenthal, Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy, University of California, Berkeley. (The University, Berkeley, California) April 2004. 74 p.

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/iber/bphup/working_papers/W04-002

["This paper offers some background on land-use regulatory practices, particularly in terms of their history and legal basis. A review of these practices leads to a taxonomy describing the incidence and effects of land regulation in housing markets. The review of empirical literature provides a detailed framework for evaluating and understanding what is known about effects and magnitudes."]

[Request #S4473]

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HUMAN SERVICES

WELFARE

A Profile of Families Cycling On and Off Welfare. By Lashawn Richburg-Hayes and Stephen Freedman, Manpower Development Research Corporation. (The Corporation, New York, New York) April 2004. 94 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/publications/396/full.pdf

["This report analyzes the experiences of a group that has garnered relatively little attention in previous research: welfare 'cyclers,' families who repeatedly return to welfare assistance. The report also considers whether welfare cyclers appear to be more advantaged or more disadvantaged than other welfare recipients in the labor market." Moving Ideas (October 27, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S4474]

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TRANSPORTATION

FUEL CONSUMPTION

State Policy for Hydrogen. By Matthew Brown and Christie Rewey, National Conference of State Legislatures. NCSL Legisbrief, vol. 12, no. 42. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) October 2004. 2 p.

["Hydrogen and hydrogen fuel cells may hold promise as ways to reduce vehicle emissions and reduce the nation's reliance on imported oil. Hydrogen technology is developing fast and shows a great deal of promise, but the day when hydrogen vehicles ply the streets of America is at least a decade away and even longer than that before the vehicles become commonplace."]

[Request #S4475]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

GENERAL GOVERNMENT

TERM LIMITS

The Test of Time: Coping with Legislative Term Limits. Edited by Rick Farmer and others. (Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, Maryland) 2003. 298 p.

["Case studies of key states offer depth and context for understanding the shifting institutional changes wrought by term limits at the state level.... Cross-state comparisons examine how legislatures, legislators, and political linkages -- such as lobbying and electoral competition -- have been affected by the imposition of legislative term limits." Publisher's Announcement (2003) 1. NOTE: The Test of Time ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S4480]

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