Subject: Studies in the News 05-4 (February 25, 2005)


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Children and Families Commission


Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   California's preschool shortage and crime
ECONOMY
   Economic impact of childcare industry in Illinois
   South Dakota's child care industry
   Electronic media and young children
EDUCATION
   Out-of-school time
   Preschool class size and benefits/costs
   Early childhood education in Germany
   Indicators to measure school readiness
   Parental support for school readiness
   School readiness and race/ethnicity
   Preschool teacher standards in California
   Preschool teacher qualifications
   Teacher credentialing for preschool teachers
HEALTH
   Health coverage for California's children
   Raising children with special needs at home
   Overweight in preschool children
   Diet quality of American preschoolers
   SCHIP and dental care access
HUMAN SERVICES
   CDPI's reponse to the CPR
   Child care quality and poor families
   Balancing work and family
   Well-being of young immigrant children
   Welfare reform model and children
STUDIES TO COME
   Cultural issues and children's sleep
   Parent attitudes and immunization safety
   Immunizations and young children
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News: Children and Family Supplement is a service provided to the First 5 California by the California State Library. The service features weekly lists of current articles focusing on Children and Family policy. Prior lists can be viewed from the California State Library's Web site at www.library.ca.gov/CRB/SITN/.

How to Obtain Materials Listed in SITN:

  • When available on the Internet, the URL for the full-text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CRIME PREVENTION

Public Safety Can't Wait: California's Preschool Shortage, A Missed Opportunity for Crime Prevention. By Brian Lee and Louise van der Does. (Fight Crime, Invest in Kids, Washington, DC) 2005. 21 p.

Full Text at: www.fightcrime.org/ca/waitlist/capreschool.pdf

["This report shows a pervasive lack of access to publicly funded preschool. Three out of four of the 861 public preschools queried in this report indicated they have waiting lists that are sometimes years long. The study said more than 300,000 children 3 to 5 years old who are eligible for subsidized preschool are not being served." NIEER Online Newsletter (February 11, 2005).]

[Request #S20050401]

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ECONOMY

CHILDREN

The Economic Impact of the Early Care and Education Industry in Illinois. By Action for Children, Chicago Metropolis 2020, and the Illinois Facilities Fund. (Action for Children, Chicago, Illinois) 2005. 42 p.

Full Text at: www.actforchildren.org/_uploads/documents/live/EIS_Report.pdf

["According to this report, the early care and education industry enables businesses to recruit employees, decrease employee turnover and absenteeism, and increase productivity. Furthermore, the early care and education industry allows the working parents of Illinois to earn over $21 billion annually. The early care and education industry also ensures a strong future economy by preparing children for academic success, and generates nearly 56,000 jobs and more than $2 billion in gross receipts annually." Family Initiative Newsletter (February 16, 2005).]

[Request #S20050402]

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Economic Impact of the Child Care Industry in South Dakota. By Carole Cochran, South Dakota Kids Count and the University of South Dakota, Randy Steufen, and Kari Sandberg. (The University, Vermillion, South Dakota) November 2004. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.usd.edu/brbinfo/kc/pdf_files/SDChild%20Care1102.pdf

["Like agriculture, tourism and health care, South Dakota’s child care industry is vital to the state’s economy. Child care providers purchase services from other industries and many have significant investments in buildings. Child care workers earn wages and pay taxes. Perhaps most significantly, the child care industry makes it possible for parents to work in agriculture, tourism, health care — and every other sector of the economy. It also prepares children for future success in schools and the workforce."]

[Request #S20050403]

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MEDIA INDUSTRY

The Effects of Electronic Media on Children Ages Zero to Six: A History of Research. By Marie Evans Schmidt and others, Center on Media and Child Health, Children's Hospital Boston. Prepared for the Kaiser Family Foundation. (The Foundation, Menlo Park, California) January 2005. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.kff.org/entmedia/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.cfm&PageID=50552

["This issue brief provides an overview of the major research that has been conducted on various aspects of children's media use, summarizes the findings of seminal studies in this area, and highlights issues that have not been researched to date. Only peer-reviewed publications that included participants ages 6 or younger are included in the research review. The review of findings is organized by decade to show the theoretical and methodological evolution of the research. The report begins with the first research in this area, which was conducted in the 1960s, and extends to the present. A full list of all reviewed studies can be found in the reference list. Conclusions, including lessons learned and future directions for research, are also presented." MCH Alert (February 11, 2005).]

[Request #S20050404]

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EDUCATION

AFTER SCHOOL PROGRAMS

All Work and No Play?: Listening to What Kids and Parents Really Want from Out-of-School Time. By Ann Duffett and Jean Johnson. Prepared for the Wallace Foundation. (Public Agenda, New York, New York) 2004. 60 p.

Full Text at: www.publicagenda.org/research/pdfs/all_work_no_play.pdf

["This survey of teens and parents found the vast majority of students regularly participate in organized activities in their out-of-school time. Most students believe kids who participate are better off than those who don't. While the policy debate revolves around whether after-school programs improve academic achievement ... low-income and minority parents are considerably more likely to want activities that emphasize academics."]

[Request #S20050405]

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CLASS SIZE REDUCTION

Class Size: What's the Best Fit? By W. Steven Barnett and others. Preschool Policy Matters. Issue 9. (National Institute for Early Education Research, New Brunswick, New Jersey) December 2004. 12 p.

Full Text at: nieer.org/resources/policybriefs/9.pdf

["The relationship between class size and cost deserves consideration. Just as smaller classes benefit young children, smaller classes also cost more. Therefore policy makers and parents face a tradeoff. They must weigh the value of the gains to children from reducing class size against the costs. This is a difficult task, made more difficult by the fact that the costs are easily measured while the benefits may be hard to see and measure without rigorous research. This brief provides information on costs and guidance on comparing the benefits from smaller classes to those costs."]

[Request #S20050406]

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EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in the Federal Republic of Germany. OECD Country Note. (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France) November 2004. 71 p.

Full Text at: www.oecd.org/dataoecd/42/1/33978768.pdf

["Invited by the participating countries, OECD expert teams evaluate each country’s policy, programs and provision for children from birth to compulsory school age. Germany was the nineteenth country to be visited. This report reviews the ECEC issues observed, and suggests solutions and recommendations for the consideration of the competent authorities."]

[Request #S20050407]

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SCHOOL READINESS

Getting Ready: Findings from the National School Readiness Initiative, a 17 State Partnership. By Rhode Island Kids Count. (Rhode Island Kids Count, Providence, Rhode Island) February 2005.

Full Text at: www.gettingready.org/matriarch/d.asp?PageID=303&PageName2=pdfhold&p=&PageName=Getting+Ready+%2D+Full+Report%2Epdf

["The National School Readiness Indicators Initiative is a multi-state initiative that developed sets of indicators at the state level to track results for children from birth through age eight.... Based on the experience of the 17 states, a core set of common indicators was identified that can be used to measure progress towards school readiness and early school success. The school readiness indicators that are included in this report were selected because they have the power to inform state policy action on behalf of young children. They emphasize the importance of physical health, economic well-being, child development and supports for families. Indicators are grouped according to key areas that can be affected by policy action, including: Ready Children, Ready Families, Ready Communities, Ready Services, and Ready Schools." NAEYC Update (February 17, 2005).]

Executive Summary. 12 p.:
http://www.gettingready.org/matriarch/d.asp?PageID=303&PageName2=pdfhold&p=&PageName=Getting+Ready+%2D+Executive+Summary%2Epdf

Full Report. 88 p.:
http://www.gettingready.org/matriarch/d.asp?PageID=303&PageName2=pdfhold&p=&PageName=Getting+Ready+%2D+Full+Report%2Epdf

[Request #S20050408]

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A Governor's Guide to School Readiness: Building the Foundation for Bright Futures. By Anna Lovejoy and Elisabeth Wright, National Governors Association Center for Best Practices. (The Association, Washington, DC) 2005. 44 p.

Full Text at: www.nga.org/cda/files/0501GOVGUIDEREADINESS.pdf

["States can do more to help prepare children to succeed in school by providing support services for their parents in programs aimed at early childhood intervention, according to a report by the National Governors Association's Task Force on School Readiness. The report outlines a series of recommendations for states to develop school readiness programs that focus on helping parents and families prepare children to start school. For example, the report calls for increased pre-kindergarten programs, support for non-English speaking families and special attention for children with special needs and those in foster care." ECS e-Clips (January 26, 2005).]

[Request #S20050409]

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School Readiness: Closing Racial and Ethnic Gaps [Issue Theme.] IN: The Future of Children, vol. 15, no. 1 (Spring 2005)

Full Text at: www.futureofchildren.org/usr_doc/Volume_15_No_1.pdf

["This issue ... focuses on children’s lives before they get to school in an effort to understand how to close the racial and ethnic gaps in educational outcomes. The issue addresses the following questions: • How large are the racial and ethnic gaps in school readiness? • How much of the gap is due to differences in children’s socioeconomic background or to genetics? • How much do disadvantages like poor health, poor parenting, low-quality preschool childcare, and low birth weight contribute to the gaps? • What lessons can we learn from new research on brain development? • What do we know about what works and what does not work in closing the gap? The questions elicit complex answers from the authors of the eight articles in the issue, but the message of this volume is that, taken together, family socioeconomic status, parenting, child health, maternal health and behaviors, and preschool experiences likely account for most of the racial and ethnic gaps in school readiness.

Executive Summary. 2 p.:
http://www.futureofchildren.org/usr_doc/School_Readiness_Summary.pdf"

Full Report. 195 p.:
http://www.futureofchildren.org/pubs-info2825/pubs-info.htm?doc_id=255946

[Request #S20050410]

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TEACHERS

Compensation and Comparable Worth: What Lies Ahead for California's Preschool Teachers? By Dan Bellm and Marcy Whitebook, Center for the Study of Child Care Employment. (The Center, Berkeley, California) 2004. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.iir.berkeley.edu/cscce/pdf/compensation.pdf

["A central part of the Preschool For All discussion in California is the setting of appropriate education and training standards for preschool teachers. Thus far, most states have decided that the appropriate standard for head teachers in Pre-K programs is a bachelor's degree as well as some kind of certification or credential in early childhood education. But currently in California, teacher standards in preschool education fall well below the bachelor's degree level, and there is no Pre-K credential in place. This policy brief examines the history and current status of preschool teacher certification in California; explores the landscape of Pre-K certification in other states; and identifies options and issues as California moves forward in planning for Preschool for All." Early Education in the News (January 17, 2005).]

[Request #S20050411]

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TEACHING CREDENTIALS

Raising Preschool Teacher Qualifications: With a Case Study on How New Jersey's Early Childhood Teachers are Getting Four-Year Degrees and Certification Under a Four-Year Deadline. By Julia Coffman and M. Elena Lopez. (Trust for Early Education, Washington, DC) 2003. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.trustforearlyed.org/docs/NJAbbottBrief.pdf

["Two decades of research confirms that teacher qualifications significantly affect the quality of care and education provided to young children, and that higher qualifications contribute to more positive short- and long-term child outcomes.... The state of New Jersey offers a good case study on how to raise early childhood teacher qualifications and what it takes to make that policy successful. Five years ago, acting under the long-running Abbott v. Burke court case, the New Jersey State Supreme Court ruled on the qualifications teachers of three- and four-year-olds in the state's lowest-income school districts needed. As a result, the State required those teachers to have a bachelor's degree plus early childhood certification within a four-year timeline, and put together a set of financial and other supports to back the new mandate." NOTE: Raising Preschool Teacher Qualifications ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S20050412]

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Teacher Credentialing in Early Care and Education: Prospects for Universal Preschool in California, and Lessons from Other States. By Dan Bellm and others, Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California at Berkeley. Building California's Preschool for All Workforce: A Series of Policy Briefs. (Center for the Study of Child Care Employment, Berkeley, California) 2004. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.iir.berkeley.edu/cscce/pdf/credentialing.pdf

[This policy brief, "examines the history and current status of preschool teacher certification in California; explores the landscape of Pre-K certification in other states; and identifies options and issues as California moves forward in planning for Preschool for All. Research included a survey of teacher requirements and certification in all states that have a publicly funded preschool program. Of the 15 states whose programs currently serve 10 percent or more of their four-year-old child populations, all but California, Colorado and Georgia have set the BA degree plus certification as their standard for preschool head teachers."]

[Request #S20050413]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

Lasting Returns: Investing in Health Coverage for California's Children. By Agnes Lee and others. (California Budget Project, Sacramento, California) February 2005. 78 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/2005/0501childrenshealth.pdf

["The report finds that one out of nine California children were uninsured during all or part of 2003. Most were in working families, and many were eligible for existing health coverage programs. The report outlines options for increasing the enrollment of eligible children in existing programs and discusses innovative strategies for expanding coverage. The report also explores a range of financing options, including expanding the amount of federal funding California receives through Medicaid and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), raising additional state and local tax revenues, and using other sources of state and local funding."]

[Request #S20050414]

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"Helping Families Raise Children With Special Health Care Needs at Home." By Chris Plauché Johnson and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 2 (February 2005) pp. 507-511.

["The best place for children with special needs is at home with families, not in institutions. Researchers look at what it takes to make that possible, and encourage pediatricians to help families meet the challenge. The report ... reflects the Healthy People 2010 goal of having no child or young adult (age 21 and younger) with special health care needs living in group homes or institutional care by the year 2010." Connect for Kids (January 31, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S20050415]

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"Overweight Among Low-Income Preschool Children Associated with the Consumption of Sweet Drinks: Missouri, 1999–2002." By Jean A. Welsh, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 2 (February 2005) pp. e223-e229.

["Sweet drinks -- whether Kool-Aid with sugar or all-natural apple juice -- seem to raise the risk of pudgy preschoolers getting fatter, new research suggests.... Welsh's research ... found that for 3- and 4-year-olds already on the heavy side, drinking something sweet once or twice a day doubled their risk of becoming seriously overweight a year later.... The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends limiting preschoolers to 4 to 6 ounces of juice per day. Some parents and schools are paying attention." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (February 7, 2005) 1.]

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"Changes in Diet Quality of American Preschoolers Between 1977 and 1998." By Sibylle Kranz, Pennsylvania State University, and others. IN: American Journal of Public Health, vol. 94, no. 9 (September 2004) pp. 1525-1530.

["Sugar and spice may be nice, but a new study says earlier guidelines may have misjudged how much of the former is healthy for children. Federal guidelines issued in 2002 suggested that children can take in as much as a quarter of their calories from added sugars (like those in fruit drinks). But a new Penn State study found that children ages 2-5 who ate 25 percent or more of their calories from added sugar had poorer nutrition and ate the fewest grains, vegetables, fruits and dairy products of all the children studied. The Institute of Medicine has clarified that the 25-percent figure was intended as a ceiling, not a goal." Connect for Kids (January 31, 2005) online.]

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DENTAL CARE

SCHIP Takes a Bite out of the Dental Access Gap for Low-Income Children. By Shanna Shulman and others, Mathematica Policy Research. Prepared for Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (Mathematica Policy Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts) November 2004. 22 p.

Full Text at: www.mathematica-mpr.com/publications/PDFs/schipdental.pdf

["Before the introduction of SCHIP in 1997, many low-income children had no dental coverage, significant barriers to care, and were disproportionately more likely to have untreated dental disease.... Most state SCHIP programs met or exceeded the Healthy People 2010 objectives for dental care. Although some barriers still remain, states are aware of and working toward addressing these challenges."]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

California Performance Review: A Child Care and Development Response. By the Child Development Policy Institute. (The Institute, Sacramento, California) October 2004. 49 p.

Full Text at: www.cdpi.net/cprresponse.pdf

["This response discusses proposals from the Governor's California Performance Review that relate to early care and education and programs for low-income families. Also provides CDPI's position on the proposals and ideas for alternative approaches." Action Alliance for Children (December 23, 2004).]

[Request #S20050419]

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"Child Care Quality: Centers and Home Settings that Serve Poor Families." By Bruce Fuller, Sharon Lynn Kagan, Susanna Loeb, and Yueh-Wen Chang. IN: Early Childhood Research Quarterly, vol. 19 (2004) pp. 505-527.

["The researchers called the quality of many home-based settings 'worrisome.' They also said that the strategy of giving parents vouchers to use for child care 'appears to legitimate and support low quality in many instances.' For centers, the differing worth across the sites raises questions about what tools can be used to improve centers: higher standards or better monitoring. The researchers also found a weak connection between positive social interactions between providers and children and the educational levels of the teachers. The finding suggests that requiring bachelor’s degrees for preschool teachers—a policy advocated by many in the early-childhood-education field—may not actually improve children’s development." Edweek.org (February 2, 2005).]

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FAMILIES

The Way We Work: How Children and Their Families Fare in a 21st Century Workplace. By Shelley Waters Boots, New America Foundation. New America Foundation Work & Family Program Research Paper. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) December 2004. 21 p.

Full Text at: www.newamerica.net/Download_Docs/pdfs/Doc_File_2146_1.pdf

["Seventy percent of American families are headed by either two working parents or a single working parent. Work brings enormous benefits; but most working parents also face difficult trade-offs. The New America Foundation examined the effects of current working conditions on families and found that the lack of flexibility -- in paid leave, telecommuting or nontraditional hours -- has been linked to depression in women. Negative maternal attitudes tend to result in more negative behaviors among kids. Children with parents who works nights or evenings or who lack paid time off typically have lower reading and math test scores. To help keep workers and children healthy and productive, the foundation recommends expanding access to quality child care and adopting policies to encourage businesses to provide more flexible work arrangements and paid leave options. States should also consider altering the school day and school year calendar to meet the needs of parents, without sacrificing children’s education." Connect for Kids (January 18, 2005).]

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IMMIGRATION

The Health and Well-Being of Young Children of Immigrants. By Randy Capps and others, Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2004. 57 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311139_ChildrenImmigrants.pdf

["This report focuses on the health and well-being of young children under 6 in immigrant families, those with at least one parent born outside the United States. Eight key themes emerge from the research: 1) children of immigrants are a large share of the young child population; 2) most young children of immigrants are citizens living in mixed-status families; 3) over one-quarter of young children of immigrants have undocumented parents; 4) more young children of immigrants than natives live in two-parent families; 5) many young children of immigrants live in families with low incomes, have parents with low education levels and limited English proficiency, and interact less often with their parents; 6) young children of immigrants have higher levels of economic hardship but lower use of benefits than children of natives; 7) children of immigrants are more likely to have fair or poor health and to lack health insurance or a usual source of health care; and 8) children of immigrants are more often in parental care and less often in center-based child care."]

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WELFARE REFORM

How Welfare Reform Might Affect Children: Updating the Conceptual Model. By Kristin A. Moore and Martha J. Zaslow. Child Trends Research Brief. No. 2004-30. (Child Trends, Washington, DC) December 2004. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.childtrends.org/Files/welfareresbrief.pdf

["This research report presents a history of the study of welfare reform and how it has been seen to impact the well-being of children. In light of the impending reauthorization of welfare by the 109 th Congress, this report suggests a new model for determining how children are affected by welfare, taking into account such factors as the role of fathers in families leaving welfare, the impact on infants of mothers transitioning from welfare to work, and the quality of child care available to mothers going into the workforce." Family Strengthening Policy Center E-Newsletter (February 10, 2005).]

[Request #S20050423]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

HEALTH

CHILDREN

Cultural Issues and Children's Sleep: International Perspectives: [Special Supplement.] IN: Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 1 (January 2005) pp. 201-271.

["This issue examines the cultural variables that impact children's sleep. The articles explore a number of the most important cultural issues in the pediatric sleep field including co-sleeping, adolescent sleep patterns, and napping. The supplement is intended for use by educators, health professionals, researchers, and others as a resource for future work in this relatively new field of pediatrics." MCH Alert (February 4, 2005) 1.]

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IMMUNIZATIONS

"Immunization Attitudes and Beliefs Among Parents: Beyond a Dichotomous Perspective." By Deborah Gust and others. IN: American Journal of Health Behavior, vol. 29, no. 1 (January/February 2005) pp. 81-92.

["Parental attitudes about vaccination safety have often been viewed as dichotomous; that is, parents are either fully supportive of immunizations or are against them altogether. Recent studies, however, have touched on the broader nature of parental immunization safety concerns. Using the marketing technique of audience segmentation, the primary purpose of the study described in this article was to determine whether multiple distinct segments of parents exist based upon a variety of information including but not limited to (1) belief in immunizations and immunization safety, (2) interest and involvement in health issues, (3) influence of family and friends on immunization decisions, and (4) dependence on doctor's advice.... The authors conclude that "health care providers can improve the doctor patient relationship and use their influence to the fullest by understanding that parents do not fall into dichotomous categories regarding immunization and health attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors; rather, there is a spectrum of parent groups." MCH Alert (February 11, 2005).]

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"Implementation of Universal Influenza Immunization Recommendations for Healthy Young Children: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial with Registry-Based Recall." By Allison Kempe and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 1 (January 2005) pp. 146-154.

["These results demonstrated that, in an epidemic influenza year, private practices were able to immunize the majority of 6- to 21-month-old children in a timely manner. Although media coverage regarding the epidemic blunted the effect of registry-based recall, recall was effective in increasing rates early in the epidemic, especially for children between 1 and 2 years of age. The practices that achieved the highest immunization rates were proactive in planning influenza clinics to handle the extra volume of immunizations required."]

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