Subject: Studies in the News 05-06 (March 17, 2005)


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Children and Families Commission


Contents This Week

Introductory Material ECONOMY
   Economic development strategies to promote child care
EDUCATION
   Qualities of high-performing high-poverty schools
   Grade retention and student achievement
   Socioeconomic status and academic achievement
   Leadership development in the infant-family field
   Hawaii state school readiness
   Longitudinal studies that inform PK-3
   Effects of delaying kindergarten
   Minnesota's early learning standards
   Financing quality early care and education
   Expanding educational reforms
   California preschool shortage and crime prevention
   Achievement gaps begin in preschool
   Assessing school readiness in Santa Clara
   Studies on pre-k issues
EMPLOYMENT
   Effect of subsidies on employment
HEALTH
   Risk of autism and allergies
   Children with autism
   Children and oral health
   Breastfeeding policy statement
HUMAN SERVICES
   Pre-kindergarten in community-based child care
   Child poverty in rich countries
   Social Security and families
   Impact of Social Security
   Welfare reform and children
   Children's food consumption and WIC participation
STUDIES TO COME
   Maternal labor force participation and child development
   Health care for low-income children
   Child mental health care in California
   Winning the war against childhood obesity
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News: Children and Family Supplement is a service provided to the First 5 California by the California State Library. The service features weekly lists of current articles focusing on Children and Family policy. Prior lists can be viewed from the California State Library's Web site at www.library.ca.gov/CRB/SITN/.

How to Obtain Materials Listed in SITN:

  • When available on the Internet, the URL for the full-text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

ECONOMY

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Economic Development Strategies to Promote Quality Child Care. By Mildred Warner and others, Cornell University. (Cornell University Department of City and Regional Planning, Ithaca, New York) 2004. 56 p.

Full Text at: government.cce.cornell.edu/doc/pdf/EconDevStrat.pdf

["Across the country as state and local teams have conducted economic analyses of the child care sector, they have faced the challenge of how to take the next step and build linkages between economic development and child care policy. The intent of this document is to: 1) educate the child care community in the core concepts of economic development, and 2) assist the economic development community to see the connections between their work and the child care sector.."]

[Request #S20050601]

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EDUCATION

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

Inside the Black Box of High-Performing High-Poverty Schools. By Patricia J. Kannapel and Stephen K. Clements, Prichard Committee for Academic Excellence. (The Committee, Lexington, Kentucky) February 2005. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.prichardcommittee.org/Ford%20Study/FordReportJE.pdf

["The review focused on eight elementary schools that had 50 percent or more low-income students and moderately high state test scores. The schools all had improved scores over time. Those schools also had little differences — fewer than 15 points — in achievement levels between white and African-American students, and between low- and middle-income students." Lexington Herald-Leader (February 3, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S20050602]

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"Second Time Around." By Susan Black. IN: American School Board Journal, vol. 191, no. 11 (November 2004) Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.asbj.com/2004/11/1104research.html

["An estimated 2.5 million youngsters a year are made to repeat a grade, a practice that research shows does struggling students more harm than good. This article calls for shifting the emphasis from retention to prevention -- programs and techniques designed to keep students from failing in the first place."]

[Request #S20050603]

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"A Matter of Class: Educational Achievement Reflects Family Background More Than Ethnicity or Immigration." By Sandraluz Lara-Cinisomo and others. IN: RAND Review, vol. 28, no. 3 (Fall 2004) Online. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/fall2004/class.html#top

["This study has found that the most important factors associated with the educational achievement of children are not race, ethnicity, or immigrant status. Instead, the most critical factors appear to be socioeconomic ones. These factors include parental education levels, neighborhood poverty, parental occupational status, and family income."]

[Request #S20050604]

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EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

"Leadership Development in the Infant-Family Field [Special Theme."] IN: Zero to Three, Journal of Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families, vol. 25, no. 2 (November 2004) pp. 1-55.

[Includes: "Zero to Three's Model of Leadership Development: Knowing and Doing in the Context of Relationships"; "Leadership Lessons from the State Early Childhood Policy Leadership Forum"; "Authentic Leadership: Lessons Learned on the Journey to Equity"; and others. NOTE: Zero to Three ... is available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S20050605]

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Hawaii State School Readiness. By the Good Beginnings Alliance. (The Alliance, Kamuela, Hawaii)

["The Hawaii State School Readiness Assessment is a critical component of the School Readiness Task Force’s strategy to improve school readiness and student achievement. This tool provides annual school and system level accountability for Hawaii’s investments in early childhood programs and services."]

Hawaii Preschool Content Standards: Curriculum Guidelines for Programs for Four-Year-Olds. 2003. 31 p.:
http://www.goodbeginnings.org/pdf/School%20Readiness/Preschool%20Content%20Standards.pdf

Hawaii State School Readiness Assessment: State Results. 2004. 3 p.:
http://goodbeginnings.org/pdf/hssra/2004/state-state.pdf

Family and Community Guidelines to Support Preschool Aged Child Development. 2004. 32 p.:
http://www.goodbeginnings.org/pdf/School%20Readiness/FCGuidelines.pdf

[Request #S20050607]

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Selected Longitudinal Studies that Inform PK-3. By Kimber Bogard, The Foundation for Child Development. (The Foundation, New York, New York) [2005]. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.fcd-us.org/uploadDocs/longstudycomparisonnew.pdf

["This table summarizes the structure of seven pre-K - 3 programs and the effect these programs have on children." Moving Ideas News listserv (February 23, 2005).]

[Request #S20050608]

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Delaying Kindergarten: Effects on Test Scores and Childcare Costs. By the Pardee RAND Graduate School, The RAND Corporation. (The Corporation, Santa Monica, California) February 2005. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/RB/RB9082/RAND_RB9082.pdf

["Is it beneficial to delay the age at which children begin kindergarten? New research finds that kids who enter at age 6 instead of age 5 — especially kids from disadvantaged families — do significantly better on standardized tests and learn more from schooling. But delaying entry also leads to substantial additional childcare costs — especially for poor families. These findings argue that policymakers may need to view entrance age policies as a package — one that considers both cognitive and noncognitive consequences."]

[Request #S20050609]

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Early Childhood Indicators of Progress: Minnesota's Early Learning Standards. By Gail Roberts and others. (Minnesota Department of Education, Roseville, Minnesota) 2005. 67 p.

Full Text at: education.state.mn.us/content/086302.pdf

["Parents can use these standards to guide their everyday interactions with their children in recognition of their role as their children’s first and most important teachers. These standards can also be used to provide more focused curriculum, individualized instruction and assess the progress young children make as they prepare to enter school, recognizing that children grow in different ways and enter school at different levels of development."]

[Request #S20050610]

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Financing Quality Rating Systems: Lessons Learned. By Louise Stoney, Alliance for Early Childhood Finance. Prepared for United Way of America Success by Six. (The Alliance, New York, New York) September 2004. 34 p.

Full Text at: www.earlychildhoodfinance.org/handouts/Louise_Stoney_QRS_Financing_Paper.pdf

["This report addresses the need for child care and early education quality rating systems (QRS), and provides some examples. QRSs are easily understood rating systems, like the five-star ratings commonly used to assess restaurants and hotels, which rate the quality of child care and early education programs." Early Education in the News (January 23, 2005).]

[Request #S20050611]

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EDUCATION REFORM

Expanding the Reach of Educational Reforms: What Have We Learned About Scaling Up Educational Interventions? By RAND Education, RAND Corporation. Research Brief. (The Corporation, Santa Monica, California) 2004. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/RB/RB9078/RAND_RB9078.pdf

[“The process of developing and scaling up education reforms is interactive and complex, requiring cooperative interactions among program developers, policymakers, and school authorities. Successful scale-up efforts have four properties: widespread implementation, deep changes in classroom practices, sustainability, and a sense of ownership of new practices and policies among teachers and school leaders. Reform efforts must take into account a set of eight core tasks: developing and providing support for implementation at each school site, evaluating and improving the intervention, obtaining financial support, building organizational capacity, marketing, adopting to local contents, and sustaining the reform over time.”]

[Request #S20050612]

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PRESCHOOL EDUCATION

Public Safety Can’t Wait: California’s Preschool Shortage, A Missed Opportunity for Crime Prevention. By Brain Lee and Louise van de Does, Fight Crime: Invest In Kids California. (Fight Crime, Oakland, California) 2005. 21 p.

Full Text at: www.fightcrime.org/ca/waitlist/capreschool.pdf

[“Most publicly funded preschools in California have long waiting lists, shutting out thousands of poor children who could benefit from early learning programs, according to this report on the consequences of the state's preschool shortage. The study found that 326,758 children ages 3 to 5 years old who were eligible for subsidized preschool were not being served and seventy-six percent of publicly funded programs reported waiting lists that sometimes were years long.” Los Angeles Times (February 9, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S20050613]

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SCHOOL READINESS

Closing Achievement Gaps. By Ron Haskins, Brookings Institution, and Cecilia Rouse, Princeton University. The Future of Children Policy Brief. (The Institution, Washington, DC) Spring 2005. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/dybdocroot/es/research/projects/wrb/publications/pb/20050301foc.pdf

["By the time black and Hispanic children reach kindergarten, they are on average already far behind their more advantaged peers in reading and math readiness. Such disparities in achievement persist or even increase during the school years. Educational programs for parents and preschool education programs for children have the potential to narrow these disparities by at least half."]

[Request #S20050614]

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Assessing School Readiness in Santa Clara County. Results from the 2004 School Readiness Assessment Project, Santa Clara County, California. By Applied Survey Research (Santa Clara County Partnership for School Readiness, United Way Silicon Valley, San Jose, California) 2005. 126 p.

Full Text at: www.uwsv.org/ReadyForSchoolReport.pdf

["The purpose of this assessment was to: 1. gather a portrait of children entering kindergarten in Santa Clara County; 2. determine the demographic and family factors associated with the children's readiness scores; 3. determine whether there is a relation between children's school readiness scores schools' ranking on the API index; and, 4. determine teachers' expectations as it relates to children's school readiness scores."]

[Request #S20050615]

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NCEDL Pre-Kindergarten Study [Issue Theme.] By FPG Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Early Developments. Vol. 9, No. 1. (The Institute, Chapel Hill, North Carolina) Spring 2005. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.fpg.unc.edu/%7ENCEDL/PDFs/ED9_1.pdf

["Over past 4 years, work at National Center for Early Development & Learning at FPG has been devoted to research on public pre-K classrooms, teachers and children. This issue of Early Developments is devoted entirely to the findings of this research. Articles in this issue include these: "Pre-K in the States, How Is the Pre-K Day Spent?" "Who Goes to Pre-K and How Are They Doing?" "Who Are the Pre-K Teachers?" "What Are Pre-K Classrooms Like?" and others.]

[Request #S20050616]

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EMPLOYMENT

EMPLOYEE BENEFITS

The Effects on Employment and Wages When Medicaid and Child Care Subsidies are No Longer Available. By Heather Boushey, Center for Economic and Policy Research. (The Center, Washington, DC) February 2005. 69 p.

Full Text at: www.cepr.net/publications/joyce_report_db1.pdf

["The author finds that working mothers need a seamless fabric of public and private health insurance benefits to stay employed. Medicaid benefits, however, often phase out before a mother has access to employer-based health insurance. This means that few mothers – only one-in-ten – make the transition from Medicaid to employer-provided health insurance. This has important implications: those who do transition to employer-based health insurance are nine times more likely to stay employed."]

[Request #S20050617]

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HEALTH

AUTISM

"Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders." By Lisa A. Crowen and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 2 (February 2005) pp. e135-e138.

Full Text at: pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/115/2/e135

["Expectant mothers suffering from asthma, allergies or a type of skin disease have a higher risk of giving birth to an autistic child. Asthma, allergies and psoriasis symptoms during pregnancy - especially if diagnosed in the second trimester - doubled the risk of autism in children, according to researchers from Kaiser Permanente in Oakland, Calif. The researchers said there was no statistical link between autism in children and 44 autoimmune diseases in mothers, including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and multiple sclerosis. The exception was psoriasis, which doubled the risk of autism." The Newark New Jersey Star-Ledger (February 8, 2005).]

[Request #S20050618]

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Special Education: Children with Autism. By the Government Accountability Office. GAO-05-220. (The Office, Washington, DC) January 2005. 40 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d05220.pdf

["There has been an increase of more than 500 percent in the last decade in the number of children diagnosed with autism and served by schools under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, according to this report." Connect for Kids Weekly (February 21, 2005).]

[Request #S20050619]

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DENTAL CARE

Bright Futures in Practice: Oral Health - Pocket Guide. Edited by Paul Casamassimo and Katrina Holt. (National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC) 2004. 49 p.

Full Text at: www.mchoralhealth.org/PDFs/BFOHPocketGuide.pdf

["This pocket guide offers health professionals an overview of preventive oral health supervision for five developmental periods - pregnancy and postpartum, infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence. The information is intended as an overview rather than as a comprehensive description of pediatric oral health."]

[Request #S20050502]

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INFANTS

"Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk - Policy Statement." By the American Academy of Pediatrics. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 2 (February 2005) pp. 496-506.

Full Text at: pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/115/2/496

["Considerable advances have occurred in recent years in the scientific knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding, the mechanisms underlying these benefits, and in the clinical management of breastfeeding. This policy statement on breastfeeding replaces the 1997 policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and reflects this newer knowledge and the supporting publications. The benefits of breastfeeding for the infant, the mother, and the community are summarized, and recommendations to guide the pediatrician and other health care professionals in assisting mothers in the initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding for healthy term infants and high-risk infants are presented. The policy statement delineates various ways in which pediatricians can promote, protect, and support breastfeeding not only in their individual practices but also in the hospital, medical school, community, and nation."]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

All Together Now: State Experiences in Using Community-Based Child Care to Provide Pre-Kindergarten. By Rachel Schumacher, Center for Law and Social Policy, and others. Prepared for the Brookings Institution. (The Center, Washington, DC) February 2005. 61 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/publications/all_together_now.pdf

["This paper studies the emergence of the mixed delivery model, in which pre-kindergarten is delivered in community-based settings and schools. It describes findings of CLASP survey of states that was undertaken to understand the policy choices, opportunities, and challenges of including community-based child care providers in their pre-kindergarten programs." Early Education in the News (March 2, 2005).]

[Request #S20050621]

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POVERTY

Child Poverty in Rich Countries 2005. By Peter Adamson, UNICEF: Innocenti Research Centre. Report Card No. 6. (The Centre, Florence, Italy) 2005. 40 p.

Full Text at: www.unicef-icdc.org/publications/pdf/repcard6e.pdf

["The proportion of children living in poverty, or on less than $1 per day, has risen in most of the world’s developed countries since the early 1990’s, according to this report. The report considers three main factors that have a crucial impact on child poverty: demographic & family factors; labour market factors including changes in parents’ earnings and employment; and government intervention. The results suggest there is significant potential for governments to reduce child poverty without spending more money."]

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SOCIAL SECURITY

Whose Security? What Social Security Means to Children and Families. By Nancy K. Cauthen, National Center for Children in Poverty. (The Center, New York, New York) February 2005. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.nccp.org/media/wsw05a-text.pdf

["Although Social Security is the single largest program providing support to American children, the debate over privatization has focused almost entirely on changes in benefits for retirees. Over 5 million children in the United States benefit from Social Security, either directly as beneficiaries or indirectly as members of households that receive a monthly Social Security check. Of the 48 million people who currently receive Social Security benefits, one in three is not a retiree; one in 15 is a child under the age of 18."]

[Request #S20050623]

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Social Security: Women, Children and the States. By the National Women's Law Center. (The Center, Washington, DC) February 2005. 61 p.

Full Text at: www.nwlc.org/pdf/sswomen&states2005.pdf

["The impact of Social Security reaches beyond retirees. The program also provides disability and life insurance protection for workers and their families. Nationally, 50 percent of Social Security beneficiaries receive all or part of their benefit either as the child, spouse or widow/widower of a worker, or as a disabled worker, according to this study. Because all Social Security benefits are based on the same formula, cuts in the benefits for retired workers — for example, shifting from wage-indexing to price-indexing benefits — would mean cuts in benefits for widows, children who receive benefits when a working parent is disabled or dies prematurely, and disabled workers." Connect for Kids Weekly (February 14, 2005).]

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WELFARE REFORM

How Welfare Reform Might Affect Children: Updating the Conceptual Model. By Kristin A. Moore and Martha J. Zaslow. Child Trends Research Brief. No. 2004-30. (Child Trends, Washington, DC) December 2004. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.childtrends.org/Files/welfareresbrief.pdf

["This paper sketches a brief history of the study of welfare reform and children and shares early conceptual models of how this important social change might affect child well-being. The brief then presents a revised conceptual model that takes into account issues raised in the actual implementation of the reform following passage of 1996 welfare law, new research findings, and gaps in the existing research."]

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WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN PROGRAM

Issues in Food Assistance—Effects of WIC Participation on Children's Food Consumption. By Victor Oliveira and Ram Chandran, Economic Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report. No. 26-11. (The Service, Washington, DC) February 2005. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.ers.usda.gov/publications/fanrr26/fanrr26-11/fanrr26-11.pdf

["This study compared consumption patterns of WIC children with those of three different comparison groups: eligible nonparticipating children living in non-WIC households, eligible nonparticipating children living in WIC households, and children living in households whose income is too high to be eligible for WIC. The study provides strong evidence that participation in the WIC program increases consumption of at least some types of WIC-approved foods."]

[Request #S20050626]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

EMPLOYMENT

WOMEN

"The Effect of Maternal Labor Force Participation on Child Development." By Susanne James-Burdumy. IN: Journal of Labor Economics, vol. 23, no. 1 (January 2005) pp. 177-211.

["The effect of maternal employment on child development is examined using fixed effects models. Fixed effects results show that only one of three tests (PIAT math) was negatively affected by maternal hours and weeks worked in year 1 of the child's life. The PIAT reading score was negatively affected by weeks worked in year 1 but not hours worked in year 1. None of the tests were affected by weeks or hours worked in year 2. Finally, weeks worked in year 3 positively affected PIAT math scores."]

[Request #S20050627]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

"Access to Health Care for Children and Adolescents in Working Poor Families: Recent Findings From California." By Sylvia Guendelman and others. IN: Medical Care, vol. 43, no. 1 (January 2005) pp. 68-78.

["Recent strides have been made to increase health care coverage for low income children in California, but a significant number of children in working poor families remain uninsured, according to this study. It found that these children were far more likely to be uninsured and less likely to have a usual source of health care than were children from nonworking poor and nonpoor families. In addition, a larger proportion of children older than age 2 from working poor families either had never seen a dentist or had not received dental care in the previous two years of the survey." News-Medical.Net (January 4, 2005).]

[Request #S20050628]

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MENTAL HEALTH

"Quality of Publicly-Funded Outpatient Specialty Mental Health Care for Common Childhood Psychiatric Disorders in California." By Bonnie T. Zima, Neuropsychiatric Institute, UCLA, and others. IN: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 44, no. 2 (February 2005) pp. 130-144.

["According to this study, psychotropic prescriptions for children have increased two to three times in the past decade, a rate "outpac[ing] the scientific evidence to support their effectiveness and safety. Fewer than one-third of children taking such medications were monitored for changes in their weight, pulse, blood pressure and liver function. The study also found that half of children receiving state-funded mental health services were not screened for child abuse; in one-fourth of cases there was no consent form to allow the doctor to share information with patients' teachers or caseworkers; and half of all parents or other family members had not been included in counseling services. Researchers, however, 'were heartened' to find that the quality of care was consistent among demographic groups and urban and rural areas." California Healthline (January 20, 2005).]

[Request #S20050629]

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OBESITY

Fed Up! Winning the War Against Childhood Obesity. By Susan Okie. (National Academies Press, Washington, DC) 2005. 336 p.

Full Text at: www.nap.edu/catalog/11023.html

["Even conservative estimates show that 15% of all children are now considered to be overweight. Worldwide there are 22 million kids under five years old that are defined as fat. This book provides in-depth background on the issue of childhood obesity and gives honest, authoritative, science-based advice that constitute our best weapons in this critical battle." NOTE: Fed Up ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S20050630]

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