Subject: Studies in the News 05-34 (September 29, 2005)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Children and Family Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material ECONOMY
   Cost of raising children
   Economic return on pre-k investment
   Child care's economic impact in Riverside
EDUCATION
   First Nations early childhood programs
   Working with families
   Declining ECE workforce qualifications
   Nurturing classrooms and at-risk children
   Literacy skills in early childhood
   Early support for at-risk children
   Closing the achievement gap
   Preschool and elementary school partnership
   Families and school readiness
   Explaining school readiness to legislators
HEALTH
   Cockroach allergies linked to asthma
   Children and declining employer health coverage
   Health coverage for special needs children
   States and the health of young children
   Young children and dental decay
   Early childhood tooth decay rising
   United States infant mortality rate
   Secondhand smoke harmful to fetus
   Keeping eligible families enrolled in Medi-Cal
   Infant mental health
   Language barriers to public mental health services
   Mothers of special needs children
   Medical homes and children's health policy
HUMAN SERVICES
   Assessing quality of child care
   Criminal background checks and subsidized child care
   Marriage and child well-being
   State child welfare legislation
   Children as caregivers for adults
STUDIES TO COME
   Exposure to traffic and childhood asthma
   Preschoolers imitate parent's habits
   Neighborhood safety and obesity
   Child welfare reform
   New parent support programs
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a service provided to the Legislature and Governor's Office by the State Library's Research Bureau. Weekly lists of current articles related to legislative issues will be supplemented by monthly lists focusing on a specific area of public policy. Prior lists can be viewed from the California State Library's Web site at www.library.ca.gov/CRB/SITN/.

This service works as before:

  • In addition to our regular Studies in the News, you may request any of our four monthly "Supplements" in the following areas by sending a reply to this e-mail (Please mark your choices).

  • _____ Health Care Policy

  • _____ Children and Family Policy

  • _____ Environment, Growth Management and Transportation Policy

  • _____ Employment, Training, Vocational Education, and Welfare to Work

  • You may get copies of these studies by e-mailing a request to <chenningfeld@library.ca.gov> (Christie Henningfeld oversees the State Library's Capitol office), by calling 319-2691, or by stopping by room 5210 in the Capitol.

  • If you would like us to try to get other studies, please e-mail information about each study you want to <chenningfeld@library.ca.gov>.

  • Please use the same avenues if you want to be off the distribution lists.

  • The list which follows shows only current additions to the collection. If you would like a cumulative list, or a cumulative list for only selected topics, please e-mail <chenningfeld@library.ca.gov>.
The following studies are currently on hand:

ECONOMY

CHILDREN

Expenditures on Children by Families, 2004. By Mark Lino. Miscellaneous Publication No. 1528-2004. (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, Alexandria, Virginia) 2005. 35 p.

Full Text at: www.cnpp.usda.gov/Crc/crc2004.pdf

["Since 1960, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has provided estimates of expenditures on children from birth through age 17.... Estimates are provided for major components of the budget by age of child, family income, and region of residence.... Results of this study should be of use in developing state child support guidelines and foster care payments as well as in family educational programs."]

[Request #S53401]

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The Fiscal Impacts of Universal Pre-K: Case Study Analysis for Three States. By Clive R. Belfield, Queens College, City of New York. Invest in Kids Working Paper No. 6. (Committee for Economic Development, Invest in Kids Working Group, Washington, DC) March 2005. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.ced.org/docs/report/report_ivk_belfield2005.pdf

["Economic evaluations find small-scale pre-k programs generate high economic returns to the state, and most states offer pre-k provision targeted to low-income families. This paper investigates the economic consequences of expanding pre-k provision so that it is universally accessible to all children. First, the model assumptions and framework are set out. Second, case studies for three states -- Massachusetts, Wisconsin, and Ohio -- are presented. For each state, the existing provision of pre-k is described, along with a policy scenario to ensure universally accessible pre-k. The costs of expanding provision are reported. Using national and state-specific data, the fiscal benefits to the state -- from higher tax revenues, lower crime expenditures, more efficient school systems, and lower health/welfare burdens -- are calculated. The costs and benefits are then compared. For each state, the fiscal benefits of making pre-k provision universally accessible outweigh the costs of the program. The conclusion sets out key issues relating to improvements in these models."]

[Request #S53402]

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The Economic Impact of the Child Care Industry in Riverside County. By Brentt Brown, and others. (National Economic Development and Law Center, Oakland, California) 2005. 55 p.

Full Text at: www.rccfc.org/forms/RiversideCCEIRFinal.pdf

["A countywide study revealed Riverside County's pressing need for more child-care providers and unprecedented growth is compounding the problem. In 2003,the county ranked last in the state with the lowest percentage of child-care providers per child with both parents working, according to the California Child Care Resource and Referral Network. In 2004, the county had an estimated 1.85 million people with 408,000 children aged 13 and under and 228,203 children with both parents working. Rapid growth in the area is putting added pressure on the need for more child care centers." Early Education in the News (September 21, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S53403]

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EDUCATION

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Where to from Here?: Building a First Nations Early Childhood Strategy. A Dialogue Initiative Undertaken by the Assembly of First Nations: Discussion Paper. By Margo Greenwood, Childcare Resource and Research Unit. Prepared for the Assembly of First Nations, Health Secretariat. (University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada) February 28, 2005. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.acc-society.bc.ca/files_new/pdf_documents/AFN%20ECD%20Strategy2%20final.pdf

["The purpose of this document is to provide you ... with some background and history on AECD (Aboriginal Early Childhood Development) in Canada, including the development of government policies and funding intiatives."]

[Request #S53404]

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Parent-friendly Early Learning: Tips and Strategies for Working Well with Families. By Julie Powers. (Redleaf Press, St. Paul, Minnesota) 2005. 111 p.

["This book will help you turn parent problems into warm, confident relationships.... Detailed real-life scenarios in each chapter will help you create a climate of partnership, understand the background for each issue, avoid problems, and handle any conflict that does occur. The practical, user-friendly format allows teachers to start at any point in the book with the issues that are most pressing for them." NOTE: Parent-Friendly Early Learning... is available for loan.]

[Request #S53405]

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Losing Ground in Early Childhood Education: Declining Workforce Qualifications in an Expanding Industry, 1979-2004. By Stephen Herzenberg, Keystone Research Center, and others. (Economic Policy Institute, Washington, DC) 2005.

["This report has found that early childhood educators -- the people who take care of our nation's youngest children -- often earn less than $10 an hour, lack college degrees, and have no specialized training in childhood development. The report largely focuses on 'center-based' child care, as opposed to individuals who care for children in their own homes. It includes for-profit and not-for-profit child care centers, Head Start programs, and stand-alone preschools and nursery schools." San Jose Mercury News (September 15, 2005).]

Full National Report. 39 p.:
http://www.earlychildhoodworkforce.com/losingground/losing_ground-full_text.pdf

Losing Ground in California Childhood Education. 10 p.:
http://www.earlychildhoodworkforce.com/losingground/IB216A-CA.pdf

Low Workforce Qualifications in Florida... 10 p.:
http://www.earlychildhoodworkforce.com/losingground/IB216B-FL.pdf

Losing Ground in Massachusetts Early Childhood... 10 p.:
http://www.earlychildhoodworkforce.com/losingground/IB216C-MA.pdf

Changing Course in New Jersey... 10 p.:
http://www.earlychildhoodworkforce.com/losingground/IB216D-NJ.pdf

Losing Ground in New York Childhood Education. 11 p.:
http://www.earlychildhoodworkforce.com/losingground/IB216E-NY.pdf

Losing Ground in Pennsylvania Childhood Education. 9 p.:
http://www.earlychildhoodworkforce.com/losingground/IB216F-PA.pdf

Losing Ground in Wisconsin Childhood Education. 9 p.:
http://www.earlychildhoodworkforce.com/losingground/IB216G-WI.pdf

Tables of Center and Home Based Teachers and Administrators. 3 p.:
http://www.earlychildhoodworkforce.com/losingground/losing-state_ranking_tables.pdf

[Request #S53406]

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Role Play in the Reception Class: A Study of Pupil and Teacher Perspectives. By Sue Rogers and others. (Economic and Social Research Council, Swindon, United Kingdom) 2005. 26 p.

["Young children may be missing out on 'pretend' games like pirates and spacemen due to the demands of the school curriculum, according to this research. The project found that classes were not always designed to meet the needs of 4-5 year olds. Children of this age learn to make friends and use their imagination through role play. They are capable of sustained and complex imaginative play. Pressures on time and space, as well as the need to teach literacy leaves little time for anything else."]

[Request #S53407]

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Developing Literacy Skills in the Early Years: A Practical Guide. By Hilary White. (Paul Chapman Publishing, London, England) 2005. 132 p.

["Many young children need targeted support and encouragement to help develop their literacy skills. This book contains tried and tested activities to improve listening, verbal reasoning, and language skills in young children and shows you how to turn theory into fun, practical ideas for the classroom.... for those working with children aged 3 and over." NOTE: Developing Literacy Skills... is available for loan.]

[Request #S53408]

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"Can Instructional and Emotional Support in the First-grade Classroom Make a Difference for Children at Risk of School Failure?" By Bridget K. Hamre and Robert C. Pianta, University of Virginia. IN: Child Development, vol. 76, no. 5 (September/October 2005) pp. 949-967.

["This study examined ways in which children's risk of school failure may be moderated by support from teachers. Participants were 910 children in a national prospective study. Children were identified as at risk at ages 5 - 6 years on the basis of demographic characteristics and the display of multiple functional (behavioral, attention, academic, social) problems reported by their kindergarten teachers. By the end of first grade, at-risk students placed in first-grade classrooms offering strong instructional and emotional support had achievement scores and student -- teacher relationships commensurate with their low-risk peers; at-risk students placed in less supportive classrooms had lower achievement and more conflict with teachers. These findings have implications for understanding the role that classroom experience may play in pathways to positive adaptation."]

[Request #S53409]

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EDUCATION REFORM

Getting Smarter, Becoming Fairer: A Progressive Education Agenda for a Stronger Nation. By Cynthia G. Brown, Center for American Progress, and others. (The Center and the Institute for America's Future, Washington, DC) August 2005. 104 p.

Full Text at: www.americanprogress.org/atf/cf/{E9245FE4-9A2B-43C7-A521-5D6FF2E06E03}/TASKFORCEREPORTFINAL.PDF

["The educational achievement gaps of African-American children and other children of color is increasingly becoming a threat to America's economic and social growth, states this report.... The report recommends investments of $325 billion of federal money over 10 years, with the largest budget, $8.7 billion, to go towards preschool and early education for low-income 3- and 4-year olds and full-day kindergarten for all children. The second largest budget under the recommendations would be $8.4 billion to increase financial aid for low-income students and establish other programs to help low-income high school students go to college." The Wilmington Journal (August 31, 2005).]

[Request #S53411]

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PRESCHOOL

Developing a Shared Vision of Preschool for All: The New Haven / Kidango Model. By Paul Miller, Kidango, and others. (Kidango, Fremont, California) 2005. 47 p.

Full Text at: www.earlyeducation.org/pfareport.pdf

["This report documents the results of a long commitment of Kidango, a private sector provider, and New Haven Unified School District to provide PFA throughout one District in California. The commitment led to a strategic planning process between the District, Kidango, families and the community. The report is a collection of recipes for implementing PFA in a community and a review of lessons learned. This report examines the importance of establishing quality relationships with families, school districts, kindergarten teachers and the community." Early Education in the News (September 11, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S53412]

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SCHOOL READINESS

Families as Primary Partners in their Child's Development and School Readiness. By Kathy Seitzinger Hepburn, Georgetown University Center for Child and Human Development. Prepared for the Annie E. Casey Foundation. (The Foundation, Baltimore, Maryland) December 2004. 162 p.

Full Text at: www.aecf.org/publications/data/families_sr.pdf

["This toolkit was developed to provide guidance, resource materials and references that will assist communities and families to work together to support each child's development and readiness for school. Each section includes an overview of a key content area (e.g., Parent Involvement and Leadership Roles); critical questions for communities; key strategies for families, providers and administrators; guides, tip sheets and checklists; annotated resources and promising practices." Early Education in the News (September 11, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S53413]

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Seven Things Policy Makers Need to Know About School Readiness: Revised and Expanded Toolkit. By Charles Bruner, State Early Childhood Policy Technical Assistance Network. (The Network, Des Moines, Iowa) January 2005. 40 p.

Full Text at: www.finebynine.org/pdf/7%20Things.pdf

["This toolkit provides easy-to-use materials that can be used to explain the importance of school readiness to legislators and other policy makers. Included are a background introduction, a set of fact sheets that can be duplicated and distributed, and speakers' notes."]

[Request #S53414]

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HEALTH

ASTHMA

"Predictors of Asthma-related Health Care Utilization and Quality of Life among Inner-city Patients with Asthma." By Juan Wisnivesky and others. IN: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 116, no. 3 (September 2005) pp. 636-642.

["Asthma is a serious chronic condition that currently affects approximately 15 to 17 million persons in the United States at a cost of $12.7 billion per year. Minority inner-city populations have disproportionately higher rates of asthma incidence, morbidity and mortality...Allergy to cockroaches was a strong predictor of [emergency department] ED visits, hospitalizations and asthma related quality of life."]

[Request #S53415]

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CHILDREN

Kids at Risk: Declining Employer-Based Health Coverage in California and the United States: A Crisis for Working Families. By UC Berkeley Center for Labor Research and Education and Working Partnerships USA. Policy Brief. (The Center, Berkeley, California, and Working Partnerships USA, San Jose, California) August 2005. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.wpusa.org/files/ChildrenHC.pdf

["The report finds that employer-based health coverage has eroded significantly over the past five years and that without immediate action this trend is likely to continue well into the future. If premiums continue to rise at current rates, 55% of the nation's children and fewer than half of California's children will be insured through a parent's employer by 2010. The predicted drop in employer-based health insurance and the corresponding rise in public programs and uninsurance among children reflect a significant shift of health care costs from employers to working families and the public sector."]

[Request #S53416]

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Public Coverage Provides Vital Safety Net for Children with Special Health Care Needs. By Ha T. Tu and Peter J. Cunningham, Center for Studying Health System Change. Issue Brief. No. 98. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 2005. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.hschange.org/CONTENT/778/778.pdf

["About 650,000 children with special health care needs did not have health insurance in 2003, although many were eligible for public health insurance programs, according to this study. The study -- which surveyed more than 7,000 children, 1,500 of whom had special health care needs -- found that 40% of special-needs children were enrolled in a public health insurance program such as Medicaid or SCHIP. The study also found that special-needs children are less likely to have private health insurance than other children, and families of children with special needs covered by public health insurance were nearly twice as likely to have trouble paying medical bills than families with special-needs children covered by private health insurance. According to the report, the results of the study contradict conventional wisdom that uninsured children generally are healthy and that uninsured children who are eligible for public coverage would enroll if they developed an illness." California HealthLine (September 9, 2005).]

[Request #S53417]

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The Role of States in Improving Health and Health Care for Young Children. By Vernon K. Smith, Health Management Associates. (The Commonwealth Fund, New York, New York) July 2005. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.cmwf.org/usr_doc/States_improving_hlt_young_children.pdf

["Based on discussions with officials from all key child health care programs administered by states, Smith finds that successful quality improvement ultimately depends on changes to the culture, traditions, and practice patterns of the health care delivery system. Within each state, policy leaders need to coordinate public and private efforts to: define indicators of quality and performance that can be measured; develop reimbursement methodologies that encourage quality performance; make information about quality performance available to the public; steer business to health care providers based on quality performance; educate parents; make the business case for quality improvement; and involve local communities more."]

[Request #S53418]

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DENTAL CARE

Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis - United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2002. By Eugenio D. Beltrán-Aguilar, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, and others. Morbidty and Mortality Weekly Report, Surveillance Summaries, Vol. 54, No. SS-3. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia) August 26, 2005. 48 p.

Full Text at: www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/ss/ss5403.pdf

["The dental health of adolescents and adults improved over the past decade, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- but at the same time, there's been a sharp increase in dental decay, or caries, among the nation's poorest and youngest children." Connect for Kids (September 19, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S53419]

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Early Childhood Caries Trends Upward. CDHP Issue Brief. (Children's Dental Health Project, Washington, DC) September 2005. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.cdhp.org/downloads/mmwrfinal90805.pdf

["Despite a decrease in caries prevalence among permanent teeth of 6-19 year olds, a 15.2% increase in disease was noted among the nation's youngest children ages 2 through 5 years. Likewise, CDC reported a trend toward decrease in untreated tooth decay among permanent teeth of children ages 6-19 years old, but this decrease was not observed among pre-school children ages 2 through 5 years. CDC reports that more than one-in-four (28%) pre-school children have experienced tooth decay. This findings suggests that over 4 million children are affected nationwide - a jump of over 600,000 additional preschoolers over a decade."]

[Request #S53420]

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INFANT MORTALITY

"Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Infant Mortality-United States, 1995-2002." By T.J. Matthews and K.G. Keppel. IN: JAMA, vol. 294, no. 3 (July 20, 2005) pp. 298-299.

["A national health objective for the year 2000 was to reduce the infant mortality rate (IMR) in the United States to 7.0 deaths per 1,000 live births among infants aged <1 year....To examine racial and ethnic disparities in IMRs, data were analyzed from the National Vital Statistics System for the period 1995-2002."]

[Request #S53421]

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INFANTS

"Qualitatively and Quantitatively Similar Effects of Active and Passive Maternal Tobacco Smoke Exposure on in Utero Mutagenesis at the HPRT Locus." By Stephen G Grant, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. IN: BMC Pediatrics, vol. 5, no. 20 (June 29, 2005) 8 p.

["Secondhand cigarette smoke exposure might be as harmful to a fetus as a pregnant woman inhaling smoke directly from a cigarette, according to this study. The authors claim that secondhand cigarette smoke can cause genetic mutations in the fetus that can lead to leukemia and lymphoma. The mutations in fetuses of women exposed to secondhand smoke were indistinguishable from those found in the fetuses of pregnant smokers." Connect for Kids (September 19, 2005)1.]

[Request #S53422]

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MEDI-CAL

Keeping Eligible Families Enrolled in Medi-Cal: Results of a Survey by California Counties. By Dana Hughes, Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California, San Franciso, and Leticia Brewster, Brewster Consulting. Prepared for the California Healthcare Foundation. (The Foundation, Oakland, California) October 2004. 33 p.

Full Text at: www.chcf.org/documents/policy/Medi-CalRetentionSurveyReport.pdf

["California spent more than $120 million during a three-year period to re-enroll children who were dropped from Medi-Cal because of untimely or incomplete paperwork, according to a new study. Churning has significant implications for cost, in that administrative dollars to process applications diminish funds available for actual coverage."]

[Request #S53423]

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MENTAL HEALTH

Clinical Interventions to Enhance Infant Mental Health: A Selective Review. By Paula D. Zeanah and others. (National Center for Infant and Early Childhood Health Policy at UCLA, Los Angeles, California) July 2005. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.healthychild.ucla.edu/PUBLICATIONS/IMH%20Evidence%20Review%20FINAL.pdf

["This study describes many interventions designed to influence the development of healthy parent-infant relationships and infant social-emotional development, including universal and preventive approaches, focused/indicated interventions, and tertiary care-psychotherapeutic approaches." MCH Alert (August 19, 2005).]

[Request #S53424]

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Overcoming Language Barriers to Public Mental Health Services in California. By Joan R. Bloom and others. (California Program on Access to Care, Berkeley, California) April 2005. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.ucop.edu/cprc/cpacfindings4.pdf

["Until this study, there has been no formal evaluation of the empirical effect of county efforts to provide access to mental health services for Medi-Cal populations with limited English proficiency. CPAC set out to measure the effects of different approaches for increasing access to care to help policymakers understand which approaches are most effective and for which populations."]

[Request #S53425]

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"Exploring Mental Health Outcomes for Low-income Mothers of Children with Special Needs: Implications for Policy and Practice." By Chrishana M. Lloyd and Elisa Rosman. IN: Infants and Young Children, vol. 18, no. 3 (2005) pp. 186-199.

["This article draws upon ecological theory and a case study to examine the ways that having a child with special needs impacts women's emotional well-being and their ability to function in roles they deem appropriate for their children. The case study highlights current policies and the ways in which they may exacerbate caretakers' mental health issues. It also provides a framework to identify and demonstrate the ways in which an ecological approach is useful in looking outside the individual and the family to understand the processes through which other systems may interact with the family to affect maternal mental health. Finally, specific links are drawn to both policies and practice."] <

[Request #S53426]

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STATE HEALTH POLICY

Strategies for Integrating Developmental Services and Promoting Medical Homes. By Moira Inkelas and others. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series. No. 10. (National Center for Infant and Early Childhood Health Policy at UCLA, Los Angeles, California) July 2005. 34 p.

Full Text at: www.healthychild.ucla.edu/PUBLICATIONS/SECCS%20Initiative%20Medical%20Home%20report%20FINAL.pdf

["Recent reports suggest that pediatric practices could be better equipped to follow children's development and connect parents with community resources. Changes to child health policy and practice are needed to support service system changes and quality improvement on a broader scale. The medical home is an approach to providing efficient and comprehensive primary care in partnership with parents. In this report, we address how the medical home concept contributes to the child health policy and practice improvement agenda of the federal Maternal and Child Health Bureau's (MCHB) State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems (SECCS) Initiative." MCH Alert (August 19, 2005).]

[Request #S53427]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

Assessing the Quality of Child Care Using Longitudinal, Administrative Data: What Can It Tell Us and How Can It Be Used? By Ann Dryden Witte and Magaly Queralt. (Wellesley Child Care Research Partnership, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts) June 2005.

["In this paper, we use a wide array of administrative data that covers the welfare reform period (1996-2001) to assess how the quality of child care changed as a result of welfare reform and concurrent social, political and economic changes. We compare the group care of children receiving child care subsidies, children living in poverty neighborhoods and children that neither received subsidies nor lived in poverty neighborhoods. Our study area is Miami-Dade County, Florida. We find many differences between providers that participate in the CCDF child care subsidy program (CCDF providers) and those that do not participate. CCDF providers more frequently violate minimum-standards regulations than other providers. Further, their minimum-standards violations tend to be more serious (including numerous instances of child-staff ratios in excess of minimum-standards requirements) than the violations of other providers."]

Part I. The Report. 52 p.:
http://www.wellesley.edu/Economics/partner/Quality_Witte_Queralt_body.pdf

Part II. Figures and Appendix. 35 p.:
http://www.wellesley.edu/Economics/partner/Quality_Witte_Queralt_Figures.pdf

[Request #S53428]

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Declining Use of Subsidized Child Care: The Role of Criminal Background Checks. By Washington State Insitute of Public Policy. (The Institute, Olympia, Washington) June 2005. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.wsipp.wa.gov/rptfiles/05-06-3901.pdf

["There is credible, statistical evidence that, after controlling for other factors, certain policies and procedures regarding criminal background checks have: discouraged the use of in-home/relative care; contributed strongly to the decline in caseload; and disproportionately affected families receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families."]

[Request #S53429]

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CHILDREN

Marriage and Child Well-Being [Issue Theme.] IN: The Future of Children, vol. 15, no. 2 (Fall 2005) pp. 1-177.

Full Text at: www.futureofchildren.org/usr_doc/Marriage_vol15_no2__fall05.pdf

["This issue features eight articles on marriage and its effects on children, presenting evidence that stable marriages can improve children's emotional, intellectual, and economic well-being, and that some well-designed marriage-promotion initiatives may benefit children and families."]

[Request #S53430]

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State Child Welfare Legislation 2004. By the National Conference of State Legislatures. (The NCSL, Washington, DC) May 2005. 34 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/print/cyf/cwlegislation04.pdf

["In this report, the National Conference of State Legislatures examines significant State child welfare legislation enacted in 2004 - including laws to support 1) education for kids in the child welfare system, 2) foster parents and kinship caregivers, 3) youth aging out of care, and 4) collaboration among agencies that serve children and families. An issue that received significant legislative attention in 2004 addressed the need to ensure that parents' rights are protected when child welfare agencies investigate. Descriptions of significant State legislation are listed alphabetically by issue area." Connect for Kids (September 6, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S53431]

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Young Caregivers in the U.S.: Findings from a National Survey. By Gail Hunt, National Alliance for Caregiving, and others. (The Alliance, Bethesda, Maryland) September 2005. 66 p.

Full Text at: www.uhfnyc.org/usr_doc/youngcaregivers.pdf

["As many as 1.4 million children in the United States between the ages of 8 and 18 provide care for an older adult, including approximately 400,000 youngsters who are between the ages of 8 and 11." Early Education in the News (September 21, 2005.]

[Request #S53432]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

HEALTH

ASTHMA

"Childhood Asthma and Exposure to Traffic and Nitrogen Dioxide." By W.J. Gauderman and others. IN: Epidemiology, vol. 16, no. 6 (November 2005).

["Living near a freeway may mean more than the annoying rumble of cars and trucks. For children, it brings an increased risk of asthma, according to researchers at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California. Scientists studying air pollution levels in 10 Southern California cities found that the closer children live to a freeway, the greater their chance of having been diagnosed with asthma.... Researchers looked at the pollution-asthma link in 208 children who were part of the USC-led Children's Health Study, the longest investigation ever into air pollution and kids' health. The study has tracked the respiratory health of children in a group of Southern California cities since 1993." Science Daily (September 21, 2005)Online.]

[Request #S53433]

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CHILDREN

"Use of Cigarettes and Alcohol by Preschoolers While Role-Playing as Adults: 'Honey, Have Some Smokes.'" By Madeline A. Dalton, Dartmouth Medical School, and others. IN: Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 159, no. 9 (September 2005) pp. 854-859.

["Children 2 to 6 years of age pretending to shop for a party with their dolls are significantly more apt to choose cigarettes if their parents smoke and wine or beer if their parents drink, results of a study show. Children of this age who are allowed to watch PG-13 or R-rated movies are also more apt to choose wine or beer when shopping for a social occasion. During a role-playing scenario with study investigators, one 6-year-old boy offered a Barbie doll the newspaper and cigarettes with the words: 'Have some smokes. Do you like smokes? I like smokes.' When buying Camel cigarettes in the pretend store, a 4-year-old girl said, 'I need this for my man. A man needs cigarettes.'" Reuters Health (September 19, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S53434]

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OBESITY

"A National Study of Neighborhood Safety, Outdoor Play, Television Viewing, and Obesity in Preschool Children." By Hillary L. Burdette and Robert C. Whitaker. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 116, no. 3 (September 2005) pp. 657-662.

["This study of three-year-olds in 20 U.S. cities found that if mothers perceive their neighborhood as unsafe, their children tend to watch more television, but they are no more likely to be obese and do not spend any less time playing outdoors than children in safer neighborhoods. Researchers used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of nearly 5,000 children born in 20 large U.S. cities from 1998 to 2000." News from Mathematica (September 12, 2005).]

[Request #S53435]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILDREN

Beyond Common Sense: Child Welfare, Child Well-Being, and the Evidence for Policy Reform. By Fred Wulczyn and others. (Chapin Hall Center for Children, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois) 227 p.

["Helping vulnerable children develop their full potential is an attractive idea with broad common-sense appeal. However, child well-being is a broad concept, and the legislative mandate for addressing well-being in the context of the current child welfare system is not particularly clear."]

[Request #S53436]

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Engagement and Retention in Voluntary New Parent Support Programs: Final Report. By Deborah Daro and others. (Chapin Hall Center for Children, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois) 2005. 31 p.

["Despite endemic problems in the family support field, the subjects of engagement and retention in voluntary services have not received the sustained focus of theorists. Few have specified and systematically tested the causal mechanisms that explain why parents fail to participate voluntarily in therapeutic or support services."]

[Request #S53437]

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