Subject: Studies in the News 05-41 (November 15, 2005)

Studies in the News

California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

November 1855 - "David S. Terry became a Supreme Court Justice November 1855 and served as Chief Justice from October 1857 to September 1859.... Then on On September 13, 1859, Terry and U. S. Senator David C. Broderick met for a duel just outside the San Francisco city limits. Although he had been a close friend of Senator Broderick, Terry accused Broderick, of having engineered his loss for re-election in the 1859 state elections. Terry issued inflammatory comments at a state convention in Sacramento, which offended Broderick.... The pistols chosen for the duel had hair triggers, and Broderick's discharged early, leaving him open for Terry's shot. At first Terry thought that he had only wounded Broderick, but the Senator died three days later. Although Terry was acquitted of murder, he left the state and went to serve in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. He came back when the war was over, but was unable to re-enter politics. "  

1855 - "In 1855 the Kansas territorial legislature passed a number of acts making certain roads or portions of roads public highways. Six of these acts refer to portions of the California trail. The California trail was about 2,000 miles long, of which the first 125 miles were in Kansas.... Many hardships were endured by the early pioneers and freighters who went over this trail. During the Oregon and Utah emigration the travel was attended with a great mortality, and during the period of the California gold excitement it is said that the mortality was as great as 10 per cent."    

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CALIFORNIA READER
   Quality of life measures for San Fernando Valley
   Current concerns in San Joaquin Valley
   Three Strikes Law and crime rate
   Crime statistics
   Combating alien smuggling
   Illegal immigration
   Economic disparity of Blacks
   Pacific Islanders
   Community development financial institutions
   Best markets for entrepreneurial finance
   Exporting information technology
   Intellectual property and international business
   Magnitude of offshoring
   Reduction of economic volatility
   Survey of low-income students
   Schools may use student race as a factor
   Sex questions found not to violate parents' rights
   College financial aid dropping
   College tuition costs rise
   Report card on higher education
   Waste in use of school Internet funds
   School violence and safety
   "Highly qualified" teacher credentials revoked
   Treatment denials for injured workers
   Treatment for injured workers
   Wineries targeted for smog
   Rule to reduce idling diesel trucks
   Court ruling challenges CalFed
   Summer beach report card
   Navy sued over sonar damage to whales
   Wildfires and logging
   Cities' public campaign funding
   Electronic voting systems
   Discretionary funding in the federal budget
   State legislative influence over agencies' rulemaking
   Managing legislative time
   State corporate tax systems
   International migration of long-term care workers
   State health expenditure report
   Disparities in medical care for immigrants
   Fast food drowns fresh vegetables
   Federal avian flu plan
   Child support payments
   Emergency shelters in L.A.
   Reduction in out-of-wedlock births
   Driver's license costs
   Downsizing prisons
   Competition and redistricting
   Study links movies and teen smoking
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:



San Fernando Valley Economic Report. By California State University Northridge. (The University, Northridge, California) 2005. 93 p.

["This report documents economic conditions and trends in the Valley, including employment, payroll, unemployment, bankruptcy, real estate, construction, and details on its key industries. This report also provides information on factors that affect the quality of life in the San Fernando Valley, such as population, housing, ethnicity, poverty, school performance, crime, air pollution, and freeway traffic."]

[Request #S54109]

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Preliminary Data on Federal Direct Expenditures and Possible Policy Issues Relating to the San Joaquin Valley. By Congressional Research Service. (The Service, Washington, DC) 2005. Various pagings.

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["This memorandum provides some preliminary results from a forthcoming CRS study of California’s San Joaquin Valley and its counties: Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, and Tulare. The report will document the role of direct federal expenditures and obligations to the counties of the San Joaquin Valley and assesses the basis of current socioeconomic, environmental, agricultural, and transportation concerns in the Valley.]

[Request #S54136]

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Three Strikes: The Impact After More Than a Decade: A Primer. By Brian Brown and Greg Jolivette, Legislative Analyst’s Office. (LAO, Sacramento, California) October 2005. 36 p.

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["The landmark 'three-strikes' sentencing law passed by California voters in 1994 costs the state far less than originally predicted but there remains no consensus on whether it has made the streets safer.... Critics have made numerous attempts to modify the law since its passage, but it remains popular with politicians and the public.

[Request #S54101]

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Crime in the United States: 2004 Uniform Crime Reports. By Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice. (The Department, Washington, DC) 2005. 538 p.

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["The number of homicides nationwide dropped for the first time in four years in 2004, while other types of violent crime continued the decline that has led to crime rates not seen in decades.... Crime rates, which are calculated on the basis of population, were also down for both violent and property-related crimes." Washington Post (October 18, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S54102]

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Combating Alien Smuggling: Opportunities Exist to Improve the Federal Response. By U.S. Government Accountability Office. GAO-05-305. (The Office, Washington, DC) May 2005. 94 p.

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["Globally, alien smuggling generates billions of dollars in illicit revenues annually and poses a threat to the nation's security. Creation of the Department of Homeland Security has provided an opportunity to use financial investigative techniques to combat alien smugglers by targeting and seizing their monetary assets."]

[Request #S54103]

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Backfire at the Border: Why Enforcement without Legalization Cannot Stop Illegal Immigration. By Douglas S. Massey. CATO Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) June 13, 2005. 16 p.

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["Despite increased enforcement at the U.S.-Mexican border ... the number of foreign-born workers entering the United States illegally each year has not diminished. Today an estimated 10 million or more people reside in the United States without legal documentation."]

[Request #S54104]

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The State of Black America: Prescriptions for Change: Executive Summary. By the National Urban League. (The League, Washington, DC) 2005. 11 p.

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["This year’s Equality Index reveals despite societal gains, the overall status of blacks is just 73 percent of their white counterparts, marginally unchanged from the 2004 report. More significantly, the widest disparity for blacks remain in economics, revealing an economic status for African Americans of 57 percent compared to their white counterparts. Although slight improvements are noted, the equality gap is getting worse in unemployment, building wealth and savings reversing many of the employment and income gains made in the 1990’s. The median net worth for blacks is ten times less than it is for whites."]

[Request #S54105]

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The Diverse Face of Asian and Pacific Islanders in Los Angeles County. By AsianPacific American Legal Center. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) 2005. 28 p.

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["New studies offer a more accurate view of Pacific Islanders in California than ever before. The emerging image shows a community in distress. Only 6% of Bay Area Tongans have a college degree; just 9% of Fijians and 11% of Samoans there have graduated from college, compared with 34% of the general population. Nearly a majority of Pacific Islanders in San Francisco County live in poverty." Los Angeles Times (September 26, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S54106]

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Community Development Financial Institutions: Providing Capital, Building Communities, Creating Impact. By CDFI Data Project. (The Aspen Institute, Washington, DC) 2005. 58 pages.

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["Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) are having enormous impacts on low-income communities in the form of new high-quality jobs, affordable housing units, community facilities, and financial services.... CDFIs serve markets traditionally underserved by conventional financial institutions ... 53% female, 60% minority, and 70% low income."]

[Request #S54107]

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Best Markets for Entrepreneurial Finance: 2005 Capital Access Index Securitization in Financing Economic Activities. By James R. Barth and others. Milken Institute. (The Institute, Santa Monica, California) October 2005. 61 p.

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["To encourage entrepreneurship, however, an economy must have well-functioning financial institutions and capital markets, educated and skilled workers, and few impediments to the competitive trading of goods and services. The fundamental objective of the Capital Access Index (CIA) is to evalutate the ability of new and existing businesses to access capital in countries around the world. The index indicates which countries have yet to take adequate action to reduce barriers to capital access and promote the development of necessary financial infrastructures that support entrepreneurial activities."]

[Request #S54108]

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Recent Trends in Exports of California's Information Technology Products. By Jon D. Haveman and Howard J. Shatz, California Economic Policy. (California Economic Policy, San Francisco, California) 19 p.

["California's information technology is both the state's leading manufacturing sector and its leading export sector.... This [report] documents the changing pattern of California's manufactured information technology exports during the recent boom and bust period.

[Request #S54110]

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Intellectual Property and the International Marketplace. By Raymond J. Keating, Small Business and Entrepreneurship Council. (The Council, Washington, DC) 2005. 10 p.

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["The software industry has long battled the problems of piracy. However, that threat has expanded tremendously in recent times. Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, combined with high-speed Internet access, not only make it easy to steal songs and movies online, but also present big problems for software makers.... Protecting intellectual property is not just a concern for the [software, music, and movie] industries, but for countless other businesses. And it most assuredly is a global issue."]

[Request #S54111]

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International Trade: U.S. and India Data on Offshoring Show Significant Differences. By U.S. Government Accountability Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) October 2005. 35 p.

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["Trade in business, professional, and technical services associated with offshoring needs to be accurately tracked, but a gap exists between U.S. and Indian data. The extent of and the reasons for this gap are important to understand in order to address questions about the magnitude of offshoring and to analyze its future development."]

[Request #S54112]

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Why Has Output Become Less Volatile?" By Bharat Trehan, Research Advisor, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. FRBSF Economic Letter. Number 2005-24. (The Bank, San Francisco, California) 2005. 4 p.

["Does the reduction in volatility represent some kind of fundamental structural change in the economy? Or is it the result of good policy? Or is it the result of good luck? These are the questions that economists are debating in the research literature. Several different arguments have been put forward, but as yet there is no agreement on the cause of the reduced volatility. This Economic Letter reviews and discusses these arguments."]

[Request #S54113]

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Similar Students, Different Results: Why Do Some Schools Do Better? A Large-scale Survey of California Elementary Schools Serving Low-income Students. By Trish Williams and others. (EdSource, Mountain Valley, California) 2005.

["Involved parents and well-behaved youngsters do not appear to have a major effect on how well elementary students perform on standardized tests. But four other factors seemed to count a lot more, at least when combined in schools, according to this report. The study of lower-income schools found the strongest elements in high-performing schools are linking lessons closely to state academic standards, ensuring there are enough textbooks and putting a high priority on student achievement." ECS e-CLIPS (October 26, 2005).]

Initial Report. 24 p.:

Executive Summary. 2 p.:

Appendices. 10 p.:

Bibliography. 17 p.:

[Request #S54114]

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Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District, et al. U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. 01-35450. October 20, 2005. Various pagings.

["In a ruling that gives public high schools the power to maintain racially balanced student bodies, the court upheld the district's use of race as a factor in admissions. 'We conclude that the district has a compelling interest in securing the educational and social benefits of racial diversity and in ameliorating racial isolation or concentration in its high schools,' Judge Raymond Fisher wrote for the majority. The parents group that filed the suit said it planned to appeal the case to the U.S. Supreme Court." Los Angeles Times (October 21, 2005) 1.]

Court Opinion. 106 p.:
Parents Involved .. v. Seattle School District

[Request #S54115]

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James Fields, et al. v. Palmdale School District, et al. U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. 03-56499. November 2, 2005. Various pagings.

Full Text at:$file/0356499.pdf?openelement

["Parents' rights were not violated when a Southern California elementary school conducted a psychological survey of their children and asked them about sexual feelings and masturbation, a federal appeals court ruled.... The court said parents, while entitled to make basic decisions about a child's upbringing, have no constitutional right to control what they are taught at school or what questions they are asked." San Francisco Chronicle (November 3, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S54116]

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Trends in Student Aid. By The College Board. (The Board, New York, New York) 2005. 28 p.

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["Financial aid did not keep pace with tuition increases this year...the price paid after financial aid is awarded was $11,600 for private college students, up from an inflation-adjusted $9,500 a decade ago. Public college net tuition and fees averaged $2,200, increasing from a real price of $1,900 a decade ago." Los Angeles Times, (October 19, 2005) online.]

[Request #S54117]

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Trends in College Pricing. And Education Pays Update. By the College Board. (The Board, New York, New York) 2005.

["Reduction in revenue from sources other than tuition, particularly state and local appropriations in the public sector, are associated with rapidly rising tuition levels in recent years.... The update includes information on some of the benefits of higher education: 1) higher earnings and tax payments associated with higher levels of educational attainment; 2) differences in employee benefits by level of education; 3) differences in health related behavior patterns by level of education."]

Trends. 28 p.

Update. 12 p.

[Request #S54118]

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Measuring Up 2004: The National Report Card on Higher Education. By National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2005. 12 p.

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["Measuring Up 2004 tracks changes and identifies educational strengths and weaknesses. It also takes stock of changes in the performance of higher education over the past decade. A set of 50 individual state report cards, it offers a detailed picture of higher education in each state. These state report cards include key findings and grades, and assess strengths, weaknesses, and key policy issues based on each state's performance."]

[Request #S54119]

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Waste, Fraud and Abuse Concerns with the E-rate Program. By the Staff of the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, House Committee on Energy and Commerce. (The Committee, Washington, DC) October 18, 2005. 52 p.

["A federal program that has doled out more than $10 billion to help schools and libraries link to the Internet has wasted millions of dollars over its nine-year history. On the upside, congressional investigators said the program is ambitious and well-intentioned and has benefited the nation's children. But it suffers from inadequate oversight by the FCC, vulnerability to mismanagement at the local level, and insufficient federal safeguards against waste, fraud and abuse." Washington Post (October 28, 2005) A21.]

House Energy Committee Report. 54 p.:
Waste, Fraud and Abuse Concerns with the E-rate Program

[Request #S54121]

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My Strength Campaign. By California Coalition Against Sexual Assault. (The Coalition, Sacramento, California) 2005. Various pagings.

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["The campaign, called "My Strength Is Not for Hurting," includes multimedia outreach targeting 14- to 18-year-old males to encourage them to build their masculinity without intimidation or violence.... The campaign ... aims to prevent boys' aggressive behavior and attitudes that can lead to rape." Los Angeles Times (September 30, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S54122]

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Californians for Justice Education Fund v. California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. San Francisco County Superior Court. CPF-05-505517. November 2, 2005.

["California sidestepped its own law when it classified thousands of teachers-in-training as 'highly qualified' instructors to satisfy a new federal mandate, a judge ruled. The judge ordered the state Commission on Teacher Credentialing to revoke the credentials it has issued to about 4,000 teaching interns since March 2003. He allowed the teachers to remain in their classrooms but without the 'highly qualified' label that is needed for compliance with the federal No Child Left Behind Act." San Francisco Chronicle (November 3, 2005) 1.]

Stipulated Judgment. 6 p.

Premptory Writ of Mandate. 5 p.

Plaintiff Press Release. 2 p.

[Request #S54123]

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Hostile to Physicians, Harmful to Patients: The Workers’ Compensation … Reform? A Survey of Physicians. By the California Medical Association. (The Association, Sacramento, California) 2005. 20 p.

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["Fed up with costly red tape and delayed reimbursements by insurers, doctors surveyed vow to cut back or stop treating injured workers in the wake of sweeping changes to the state workers' compensation system. Forty percent said half of their requests for treatment were denied because of new medical guidelines." Sacramento Bee (November 1, 2005) D1.]

[Request #S54120]

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Evaluating Medical Treatment Guideline Sets for Injured Workers in California. By Teryl K. Nuckols and others. RAND. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2005. 132 p.

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[“This report presents an examination of the medical guidelines that might be used to evaluate the appropriateness of care provided California’s injured workers.... The Administrative Director (AD) of DWC was to adopt by December 1, 2004, a utilization schedule that will set presumptive standards for the duration and scope of medically appropriate care.”]

[Request #S54124]

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California Wineries Targeted for Smog: San Joaquin Valley May Face Restrictions. By Traci Watson. IN: USA Today. (October 13, 2005) 3A.

["Air-quality managers in the San Joaquin Valley, where nearly two-thirds of domestic wine is produced, are cracking down. 'We have regulated virtually all other significant (non-vehicle) sources, some a lot smaller than wineries,' says San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District planning director Scott Nester. Winemaking pollution 'is significant, and it is completely uncontrolled.' The fermentation of grapes to make wine creates pure alcohol, also known as ethanol, that is vented to the air. Ethanol vapors belong to a family of so-called organic chemicals that mix with others to form smog."]

[Request #S54125]

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Rulemaking to Consider Requirements to Reduce Idling Emissions from New and In-use Trucks, Beginning 2008. By the California Air Resources Board. (The Board, Sacramento, California) October 20, 2005.

["California air quality regulators have issued an order that will prohibit big-rig trucks with sleeping berths from idling their diesel engines while parked. The order is believed to be the first in the nation to require big sleeper trucks to shut off their engines during layovers, according to the agency.... In 2004 California ordered operators of commercial trucks and buses to shut off their engines after idling for five minutes, but the rule did not cover trucks with sleeping berths unless they were within 100 feet of a home or school. Trucks will have to be equipped with a system to automatically shut off the engine after five minutes." Reuters (October 24, 2005) 1.]

Staff Report: Initial Statement of Reasons. 67 p.

Staff Presentation. 31 p.

[Request #S54126]

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In re Bay-Delta Programmatic Environmental Impact Report Coordinated Proceedings. California Court of Appeals, Third Appellate District. JCCP 4152. October 7, 2005. Various pagings.

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["In what amounts to a huge victory for Delta water interests, a court told a leading state water authority that it must study the effects of sending less water to Southern California.... The court effectively ordered the environmental study underlying the CalFed charter to be revised. As a result, plaintiffs said, the CalFed charter itself might have to change. The ruling is likely to be appealed." Sacramento Bee (October 8, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S54127]

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Heal the Bay's 2005 Summer Beach Report Card. By Heal the Bay. (Heal the Bay, Santa Monica, California) October 2005. 6 p.

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["Los Angeles County coastal waters this summer contained the highest levels of harmful bacteria measured during the last five years, accumulating more failing grades for human health standards than any other swimming beaches in California.... The unhealthful conditions are blamed on multiple sources, including sewer spills, pet waste, fertilizer, oil and other pollution washing off lawns and pavement and ultimately into the sea.... Government officials and environmental activists have found this summer's high bacterial levels perplexing." Los Angeles Times (October 27, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S54128]

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Natural Resources Defense Council, et al. v. Gordon England, et al. U.S. District Court, Central District of California. Complaint for Injunctive and Declaratory Relief. October 19, 2005.

["Loud blasts of sound from the sonar systems of Navy ships are killing and disorienting whales and other marine mammals.... The group sued the Navy over its use of low-frequency sonar in 2002 and negotiated a settlement limiting its use. The new suit calls on the Navy to make changes to its far more extensive use of mid-frequency sonar, as well." Washington Post (October 20, 2005) 1.]

Complaint. 33 p.

Press Release. 1 p.

[Request #S54129]

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After the Fires: Do No Harm in America's Forests, A Report on the Impacts of Logging on Forest Recovery. By American Lands Alliance. (The Alliance, Washington, D.C.) September 2005. 24 p.

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["A recent report attacks the rationale for postfire logging-in essence arguing, based on historical data, that forests regenerate better when left alone rather than being logged and replanted." Christian Science Monitor (November 1, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S54130]

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Public Financing Laws in Local Jurisdictions. By Center for Governmental Studies. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) 2005. 16 p.

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["Analyzes 12 cities and urban counties which provide public finance for political campaigns. Among them, in California: Long Beach, Los Angeles, Oakland Sacramento, San Francisco. Includes: Population, Date Enacted, Public Funds Allocation, Maximum Amount; Qualifying Threshold, Residency Restrictions, Spending Limits; Spending Limits per Resident, Contribution Limits, Candidate Personal Contributions."]

[Request #S54131]

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Federal Efforts to Improve Security and Reliability of Electronic Voting Systems Are Under Way, But Key Activities Need to Be Completed. By U.S. Government Accountability Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) September 2005. 107 p.

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["Electronic voting systems hold promise for improving the efficiency and accuracy of the election process by automating a manual process, providing flexibility for accommodating voters with special needs, and implementing controls to avoid errors by voters and election workers. The American public needs to feel confident using these systems—namely, that the systems are secure enough and reliable enough to trust with their votes. However, this is not always the case. Numerous recent studies and reports have highlighted problems with the security and reliability of electronic voting systems."]

[Request #S54132]

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Continuing Irresolution. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Budget Brief 05-13. (FFIS, Washington, DC) October 28, 2005. 8 p.

["The federal budget process continues in fits and starts almost a full month into the fiscal year.... Three appropriations bills have been enacted; all of the remaining bills have passed both houses but remain pending. The extent to which all bills, including those already enacted, will be exempt from expected across-the-board cuts for discretionary programs is unclear."]

[Request #S54133]

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State Legislative Influence Over Agencies Rulemaking: The Utility of Ex Ante Review. By Brian J. Gerber and others. IN: State Policies and Policy Quarterly, vol. 5 no. 1 (Summer 2005) pp. 24-46.

["Scholars have argued that legislatures can use administrative procedures to contain bureaucratic discretion and maintain policy control when delegating authority.... [The study finds] that legislatures with stronger formal authority to review rules ex ante are viewed by agency heads as more influential in their rulemaking decisions, but this power is mitigated when such review is checked by the governor. Understanding this element of legislation control over state bureaucracies helps explain variations in state-level policymaking."]

[Request #S54134]

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Managing Legislative Time. By Brenda Erickson, National Conference of State Legislatures. NCSL Legisbrief. Vol. 13 No. 31 (NSCL, Denver, Colorado) August/September 2005. 2 p.

["Time -- it is one of the most precious commodities for legislatures, especially part-time legislatures. So lawmakers have adopted processes to maximize the use of legislative time -- both in planning the overall session and managing work on the floor."]

[Request #S54135]

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A Twentieth Century Tax in the Twenty-First Century: Understanding State Corporate Tax Systems. By Chris Arkins. Tax Foundation. (The Foundation, Washington, DC) September 2005. 16 p.

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["The study concludes that in an age of increasingly mobile labor and capital, companies are more sensitive to state corporate tax burdens than ever. Rather than chasing away employers with increasingly aggressive enforcement of corporate tax laws, states should instead move toward more stable and less economically harmful revenue sources."]

[Request #S54137]

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"We Shall Travel On": Quality of Care, Economic Development, and the International Migration of Long-Term Care Workers. By Donald L. Redfoot and Ari N. Houser, AAPR Public Policy Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) October 2005. 94 p.

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["Immigrants are moving into another aspect of caregiving in increasing numbers: tending to the needs of nursing-home residents.... In big cities they now account for more than one-fourth of the nurses and aides in nursing homes. The ability to recruit nurses and other trained health workers overseas will be a crucial factor in determining whether millions of baby boomers receive high-quality care in their old age.... The U.S. trend is part of a worldwide phenomenon in which rich countries with aging populations are turning to immigrant caregivers from the developing world, the report found." Los Angeles Times (October 20, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S54138]

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State Health Expenditure Report: 2002-2003. By Milbank Memorial Fund. (The Fund, New York, New York) 2005. 78 p.

[“This report provides a perspective of the significance of state health spending within the context of the nation’s provision of personal health care services. As both employers and providers of services, states have felt the demands from rising health care costs.”]

[Request #S54139]

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Mexico-United States Migration: Health Issues. By Elena Zuniga, National Population Council of the Government of Mexico, and others. (UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, Los Angeles, California) October 2004. Various pagings

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["Mexican immigrants face a 'profound vulnerability' when it comes to health care access and are far less likely than U.S. natives to visit a doctor, have health insurance or use emergency rooms. Authors of the report said disparities in health care, most prevalent among recent immigrants, pose social and economic challenges for both countries as migrants are crossing the border in record numbers." Sacramento Bee (October 14, 2005) A3.]

[Request #S54140]

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Out of Balance: Marketing Soda, Candy, Snacks and Fast Foods Drowns Out Healthful Messages. By the California Pan-Ethnic Health Network and Consumers Union. (The Network, Oakland, California) September 2005. 31 p.

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["As of 2002, 31.1 percent of adults age 20-74 in the United States were obese and another 34.1 percent were overweight. This represents a startlingly rapid increase in obesity rates, doubling over the past thirty years.... The $11.26 billion spent on advertising by the food, beverage, and restaurant industries in 2004 dwarfed the mere $9.55 million spent on communications for the federal and California '5 A Day' programs to encourage eating 5 or more servings of fruit and vegetables each day."]

[Request #S54141]

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HHS Pandemic Influenza Plan. By the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (The Department, Washington, D.C.) November 2005.

["An influenza pandemic could kill up to 2 million Americans and force health officials to take draconian steps such as shutting down transportation systems and quarantining entire towns.... The HHS secretary has authority to use military units to enforce a quarantine that would allow no one to enter or leave an infected building, town or neighborhood. Although no one knows when -- or even if -- the avian flu virus known as H5N1 might mutate into a human disease, the plan states that sooner or later the country will have to deal with a pandemic of a new and unique strain of flu for which there is little human resistance." Salt Lake Tribune (November 3, 2005) online.]

National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza. 17 p.

Pandemic Influenza Plan. 396 p.

[Request #S54143]

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State Strategies for Preventing the Accumulation of Child Support Arrears and Managing Existing Arrears. By Paula Robers and Elaine Sorensen, Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) October 6, 2005. 49 p.

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["The publicly funded child support program contains over $100 billion in arrears, or outstanding child support that is owed by obligated parents. To address this problem, a number of states are revising their policies and developing strategies to both prevent the growth of arrears and resolve existing debt. This presentation describes these efforts, and includes a comprehensive bibliography of sources for further information."]

[Request #S54144]

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An Assessment of Los Angeles County's Emergency Shelter System. Prepared by The Shelter Partnership, Inc. (The Partnership, Los Angeles, California) August 2005. 189 p.

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["Highlighting the need for more emergency shelters, a report has found that 61 of the 88 cities in Los Angeles County make no provision for emergency shelters or transitional housing in their zoning ordinances. The study found that there are 116 emergency shelters countywide, with about 5,240 beds for the roughly 84,000 people who are homeless each night." Los Angeles Daily News (October 28, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S54145]

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HHS Awards Bonuses for Reducing Out-of-Wedlock Births. By Federal Funds Information for States. (FFIS, Washington, DC) October 21, 2005. 2 p.

["The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recently awarded $75 million in bonuses to New York, Utah and the District of Columbia for achieving reductions in out-of-wedlock births. Each state and District of Columbia will receive $25 million."]

[Request #S54146]

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Real ID: Big Brother Could Cost Big Money. By Angela French. (Citizens Against Government Waste, Washington, D.C.) 22 p.

Full Text at:

["The Real ID Act, which requires states issuing driver’s licenses to conform to federal antiterrorism rules, could increase the cost of issuing a driver’s license to $90, up from between $10 and $25 currently. The Homeland Security Department is expected to release guidelines soon on which machine-readable technologies—including magnetic strips, barcodes or radio frequency identification (RFID) chips—must be used to meet Real ID Act standards. RFID chips in particular bring major new expenses—costing $17.4 billion to implement over 10 years—and a potential threat to privacy, according to the report." Government Computer News (October 19, 2005) 1.

[Request #S54147]

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[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]



Downsizing Prisons: How to Reduce Crime and End Mass Incarceration. By Michael Jacobson (New York University Press, New York, New York) 2005. 292 p.

["Downsizing Prisons examines specific ways that states have begun to transform their prison systems. Jacobson offers practical policy solutions and strategies, including: changing how parole and probation agencies operate, significantly reducing punitive sentencing and 'technical' parole violations, and supporting drug-treatment programs for low-level drug offenders. Given the dire budget shortfalls facing most states, there really is no choice: we no longer have the revenue to continue prison expansion while simultaneously supporting education, health care, and lower taxes." Publisher's Announcement (2005) 1.]

[Request #S54148]

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Party Lines: Competition, Partisanship, and Congressional Redistricting. Edited by Tom Mann and Bruce Cain. (Brookings Institution, Washington DC) 2005. TC

["The legitimacy of the American electoral system depends on sustaining reasonable levels of fairness, accountability, responsiveness, and common sense. Recent Congressional elections fly in the face of those requirements, however, with a startling lack of competition, growing ideological polarization, and a fierce struggle between the parties to manipulate the electoral rules of the game." Publisher's Announcement (2005) 1.]

[Request #S54149]

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Exposure to Movie Smoking: Its Relation to Smoking Initiation Among U.S. Adolescents. By James D. Sargent, Dartmouth Medical School, and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 116, no. 5 (November 2005) pp. 1183-1191.

["Teens are more likely to try smoking if they see their favorite movie stars light up on screen. Even after researchers took into account factors such as friends and family members who smoke, adolescents who watched the most tobacco use on screen were 2.6 times more likely to experiment with smoking than those who watched the least." HealthDay News (November 7, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S54150]

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