Subject: Studies in the News 06-07 (February 22, 2006)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News
Alternative Energy Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material ENERGY
   California's energy future
   Federal energy policy
   Economic benefits of clean energy policies
   Federal energy projections to 2030
   Increasing energy savings and diversity
   Efficiency and renewable energy resources
   Long-term strategy to address energy challenges
   Greenhouse policy rebuttals
   California's biomass ethanol future
   Ethanol fuel future
   Ethanol provides net energy increase
   Factors contributing to gasoline prices
   Geothermal potential in western states
   Hydrogen from coal
   Long Beach LNG terminal
   Renewable energy and national security
   Peak oil production scenario
   Options for oil production
   States role in reducing petroleum demand
   Oil scarcity simulation
   Renewable energy target 2020
   Taxing domestic oil producers
   Job creation with renewable energy
   Effects of renewable energy incentives
   Farm based renewable energy
   Contract failure rates for renewable energy
   Photovoltaic cost reduction incentives
   Nevada's solar energy economics
   BLM's solar power policy
   Revising photovoltaic module power labeling
   California Solar Initiative
   Solar power for utilities
   Valuing solar electric power
   California's coal-fired electricity
   Wind power task force report
   Wind energy to replace some natural gas
   Wind power on federal lands
   Future of wind energy
PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
   Developing solar electric technology
   Renewable energy opportunities
   Increasing use of renewable energy
   Hydrogen highways
   Hydrogen economy in the future
   Hydrogen fuel cell research and development
   Landfill gas as a viable energy source
   California hydrogen highway
   California losing clean power edge
   Clean energy options
   Investment plan for energy
   Conference on reducing energy intensity
   Governors' diversified energy initiative
   Values of distributed electrical generation
   Distributed generation cost-benefit
   Photovoltaic electricity benefits
   Benefits of solar electricity development
   Utilities to fund solar power
   Solar power is economical for homeowners
   Wind power and farm income
   Revenues from wind power development
   Shaping the energy future
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

ENERGY

ENERGY

2005 Integrated Energy Policy Report. By the California Energy Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) November 2005. 219 p.

Full Text at: www.energy.ca.gov/2005publications/CEC-100-2005-007/CEC-100-2005-007-CMF.PDF

["Despite improvements in power plant licensing, enormously successful energy efficiency programs, and continued technological advances, development of new energy supplies is not keeping pace with the state’s increasing demand.... In addition, the development of new renewable resources has been slower than anticipated, due in part to the state’s complex and cumbersome Renewable Portfolio Standard process.... California’s energy infrastructure may be unable to meet the state’s energy delivery needs in the near future."]

[Request #S60702]

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Inventory of Major Federal Energy Programs and Status of Policy Recommendations. By U.S. Government Accountability Office. GAO-05-379. (The Office, Washington, DC) June 2005. 149 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d05379.pdf

["Federal agencies oversee a myriad of energy-related programs and income tax preferences.... Income tax preferences associated with energy supply have represented almost all of the $1.7 billion growth in income tax preferences.... In fiscal year 2003, the federal government provided a minimum of $9.8 billion in estimated budget authority for the over 150 energy-related program activities we identified.... On the revenue side, in fiscal year 2003, the federal government collected about $10.1 billion through various energy-related programs and about $34.6 billion in energy-related excise taxes."]

[Request #S60703]

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Redirecting America's Energy: The Economic and Consumer Benefits of Clean Energy Policies. By Navin Nayak, U.S. PIRG Education Fund. (The Fund, Washington, DC) 2005. 28 p.

Full Text at: newenergyfuture.com/reports/redirectingamericasenergy.pdf

["This report looks at the consumer and economic benefits of investing in clean energy policies. Investing in clean energy solutions would create 154,000 new jobs annually in the U.S. between 2005 and 2020 and save American consumers $16.2 billion on their electricity bills in 2020."]

[Request #S60704]

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Energy Information Annual: 2006. By the Energy Information Administration. U.S. Department of Energy. (The Administration, Washington, DC) February 2006. 236 p.

Full Text at: www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/index.html

["The forecast and analysis of US energy supply, demand, and prices through 2030 are based on results from the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System." Includes: "Market Drivers," "Energy Demand Projections," "Electricity Forecast," "Oil and Natural Gas Projections," "Coal Forecast," "Projected Emissions," "Legislation and Regulations," "Forecast Comparisons," and others.]

[Request #S60734]

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY

State Strategies for Increasing Energy Savings and Diversity. By National Governors Association Center for Best Practices. (The Center, Washington, DC) 2005. 20 p.

Full Text at: preview.nga.org/Files/pdf/0509EnergySavings.pdf

["This issue brief reviews states' best practices and initiatives related to energy issues. To increase energy savings and ensure the diversity and adequacy of energy supply, states have generally adopted four broad types of strategies: 1) developing new electricity infrastructure; 2) encouraging the production and use of cleaner, renewable energy resources; 3) increasing energy efficiency and conservation through 'green' government initiatives; and 4) growing alternative fuels markets."]

[Request #S60705]

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Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. By the National Conference of State Legislatures. (The Council, Denver, Colorado) September 2005. Online.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/programs/energy/eneffandren.htm

[Includes: "Energy Efficiency Web Site Links;" "System Benefit Charges;" "NCSL Publications on Energy Efficiency;" "State Portfolio Standards';" "Net Metering;" "State Fact Sheets;" "Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy;" and others.]

[Request #S60730]

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ENERGY POLICY

Ending the Energy Stalemate: A Bipartisan Strategy to Meet America’s Energy Challenges. By the National Commission on Energy Policy. (The Commission, Washington, DC) December 2004.

["A bipartisan group of top energy experts from industry, government, labor, academia, and environmental and consumer groups released a consensus strategy, more than two years in the making, to address major long-term U.S. energy challenges. The report contains detailed policy recommendations for addressing oil security, climate change, natural gas supply, the future of nuclear energy, and other long-term challenges, and is backed by more than 30 original research studies."]

Report. 28 p.:
http://www.energycommission.org/ewebeditpro/items/O82F4682.pdf

Press Release. Various pagings.:
http://www.energycommission.org/news/

[Request #S4655]

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Critiques of the NCEP Climate Proposal -- and the Facts in Response. By the National Commission on Energy Policy. (The Commission, Washington, DC) 2005. Various pagings.

Full Text at: report.energycommission.org/newfiles/Senate%20Hearings%20-%20NCEP%20Climate/Critiques%20of%20the%20NCEP%20Climate%20Proposal%20-%20and%20the%20Facts%20in%20Response.pdf

[Chapter 2 of Ending the Oil Stalemate(S#4655) and a measure introduced by Senator Bingaman produced a range of views including: "Bingaman attacks New Mexico Industry and Consumers;" "Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act: THe Only Amendment that Creates Real Markets for Farmers;" "National Mining Associatioin Opposes the Bingaman Amendment;" and "Kyoto-by-inches is Just as Foolish."]

[Request #S60731]

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ETHANOL

Brief on Biomass and Cellulosic Ethanol. By Rosa Maria Moller, California Research Bureau, California State Library. (CRB, Sacramento, California) December 2005. 33 p.

Full Text at: democrats.sen.ca.gov/articlefiles/4712-final%20paper%20on%20biomass.doc

["Provides information on: 1) the availability of biomass, 2) potential for cellulosic ethanol production in California, and 3) federal and state policies that support the use of biomass, particularly for ethanol production. This brief also includes information gathered through conversations with representatives of the ethanol industry and representatives from government agencies."]

[Request #S60254]

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A Brief on Ethanol: The Debate on Ethanol: Prospects and Challenges to California Producers. By Rosa Maria Moller, California Research Bureau, California State Library. (CRB, Sacramento, California) November 2005. 72 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/05/09/05-009.pdf

["Currently, almost all of the ethanol consumed in California is imported. Of the 950 million gallons consumed in 2004, only seven million gallons were produced in the state.... This compares with 3,400 million gallons produced elsewhere in the country – mostly in the Midwest where corn is readily available as feedstock. With high land prices and crop values, the prospects for a flourishing California ethanol industry heavily depend on using cellulosic materials for feedstock. There are plenty of cellulosic materials in the state."]

[Request #S60524]

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Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals. By Alexander E. Farrell, and others, University of California, Berkeley. IN: Science, vol. 311, no. 5760, (January 27, 2006) pp. 506 - 508.

["A new study challenges claims that substituting ethanol for gasoline consumes more energy than it creates -— an argument that has dogged ethanol programs and their supporters for more than a decade.... The key is properly accounting for the byproducts of ethanol production, which include corn oil and animal feed. You gain about 20% more energy in the ethanol than you required in fossil energy to produce it.... However, the report also concludes that while ethanol made from corn provides little reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared with regular gasoline." Los Angeles Times (January 27, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S60726]

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GASOLINE AND DIESEL

Factors Contributing to Higher Gasoline Prices: Testimony. By Jim Wells. Government Accountability Office. Presented to the Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate. GAO-06-412T (The Office, Washington, DC) February 1, 2006. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d06412t.pdf

["Mergers raise concerns about potential anticompetitive effects because mergers could result in greater market power for the merged companies, potentially allowing them to increase prices above competitive levels.... GAO’s econometric modeling of these mergers showed that the majority resulted in small wholesale gasoline price increases."]

[Request #S60727]

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GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

Geothermal Task Force Report: Draft. By the Western Governors' Association and Clean and Diverse Energy Initiative. (The Association, Denver, Colorado) September 2005. 63 p.

Full Text at: www.westgov.org/wga/initiatives/cdeac/Geothermaldraft9-6.pdf

["The western states share a capacity of almost 13,000 megawatts (MW) of geothermal energy that can be developed on specific sites within a reasonable timeframe. Of these, 5,600 megawatts are considered by the geothermal industry to be viable for commercial development within the next 10 years.... In 2003, The Geysers Geothermal Field in California, with almost 1,000 MW of geothermal power generation capacity in place, paid $11 million in property taxes to two counties, while royalty revenues added several million dollars more to state and county revenues."]

[Request #S60713]

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HYDROGEN

Hydrogen from Coal Research. By the U.S. Department of Energy. (The Department, Washington, DC) 2006. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/fuels/hydrogen/Hydrogen_from_Coal_R&D.html

[Includes: "Hydrogen from Coal Research and Development Plan;" "Coal Gasification Research and Development;" and "Carbon Sequestration Research and Development"]

[Request #S60701]

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LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS

Long Beach LNG Import Project: Draft Environmental Impact Statement/ Environmental Impact Report. By the Staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the Port of Long Beach. (The Commission, Washington, DC) October 2005. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.ferc.gov/industries/lng/enviro/eis/10-07-05-eis.asp

["A proposed liquefied natural gas terminal at the Port of Long Beach would not pose a safety threat to the port and nearby neighborhoods, according to a draft environmental impact report.... The report is a key document that must be reviewed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, as well as the port and city of Long Beach as part of their consideration of the proposal.... The project still must be approved by the California Energy Commission, the Harbor Commission, the California Coastal Commission and the U.S. Coast Guard." Los Angeles Business Journal (November 3, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S60706]

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PETROLEUM

Oil and Security. By George P. Schultz, Former Secretary of State, and James Woolsey, Former CIA Director. (Committee on the Present Danger, Washington, DC) 2005. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.fightingterror.org/pdfs/O&S8-5-05.pdf

["The government should encourage and support at least six technologies: two types of alternative fuels -- cellulosic ethanol and biodiesel; two types of fuel efficient vehicles -- hybrid gasoline-electric and modern clean diesels; and one vehicle construction technique -- carbon-carbon composites ... reducing vehicle weight and fuel requirements while improving safety. The sixth technology, battery improvement, to permit 'plug-in' hybrid vehicles ... giving improved mileage because it can permit hybrids to use battery power alone for the first 10-30 miles ... improving the mileage of a hybrid vehicle from say, 50 mpg to over 100 mpg."]

[Request #S60707]

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Testimony. By Tom Udall, Congressmember (D-NM. Presesnted to the Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality, U.S. House of Representatives. (U.S. Congress, Washington, DC) December 7, 2005.

Full Text at: www.tomudall.house.gov/pdf/Peak_Oil_hearing_testimony.pdf

["In 1956, Shell Oil geologist M. King Hubbert predicted that oil production in the contiguous United States would peak in about 1970 and be followed by a sharp decline. At the time, many dismissed his predictions as false, but history shows they were remarkably accurate. A growing number of geologists, economists and politicians now agree that the peak in the world’s oil production is imminent.... Some disagree with this prediction, calling it a doomsday scenario and say that technological advances will buy us more time before we reach peak production."]

[Request #S60725]

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Beyond Oil: Intelligent Response to Peak Oil Impacts: Proceedings of the Denver World Oil Conference. (Association for the Study of Peak Oil & Gas, Denver, Colorado) December 2005. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.aspo-usa.com/proceedings/powerpoint/

[Includes: "Biodiesel;" "Coal to Liquid;" "Oil Sands and "View from Canada, Oil Shale"; "Impacts Mitigation and Risk Management;" "The Built Environment,;" and others.]

[Request #S60728]

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Making Sense of America's Oil Needs: A Sustainable, State-Based Response to Dwindling Oil Supplies. By Tony Dutzik and others. (Boston, Massachusetts, National Association of State Public Interest Research Groups) 2005. 29 p.

Full Text at: newenergyfuture.com/reports/makingsenseofoilneeds.pdf

["Transportation is the biggest consumer of oil in the U.S.-- about two-thirds of our petroleum demand.... States can encourage alternatives to driving -- carpools, vanpools, and transit.... States should provide incentives for the purchase of more fuel efficient vehicles; set global warming emission standards for cars; slow the growth of sprawling development; promote non-petroleum fuels (such as ethanol); and increase support for transit."]

[Request #S60729]

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Oil Shockwave: Oil Crisis Executive Simulation. By Robert M. Gates, Former Director, Central Intelligence Agency. (National Commission on Energy Policy, Washington, DC) 2005. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.energycommission.org/ewebeditpro/items/O82F6801.pdf

["On June 23, 2005, a group of nine former White House cabinet and senior national security officials convened to participate in a simulated working group of a White House cabinet. Their task was to advise an American president as the nation grapples with an oil crisis over a seven-month period. As they enter the room, they are unaware of the circumstances or nature of the oil crisis.... Findings: A change in supply or demand anywhere will affect prices everywhere.... A 4 percent global shortfall in supply results in a 177% increase in the price of oil.... Military options offer little recourse in the event of a supply crisis.... The U.S. is vulnerable to attacks on key energy infrastructure both at home and abroad [since the infrastructure] is too vast to protect."]

[Request #S60735]

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RENEWABLE ENERGY

Achieving a 33% Renewable Energy Target. By Jan Hamrin and others, Center for Resource Solutions Team. (California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California) November 1, 2005. 175 p.

Full Text at: www.cpuc.ca.gov/word_pdf/misc/051102_FinalDraftReport_RenewableEnergy.pdf

["The purpose of the report is to assess how to accelerate and expand the current CPUC Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) and related programs to achieve the Governor’s goal of meeting 33 percent of statewide electric power supply with renewable energy by 2020. This report identifies what the CPUC can do within the scope of its current jurisdiction and what changes in law are needed to expand renewables to meet the Governor’s goal."]

[Request #S60708]

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Clean Alternative Energy Act (Version 2): Ballot Measure Submitted for Summary. By James Harrison and Thomas Willis. (California Attorney General, Sacramento, California). December 14, 2005. 32 p.

Full Text at: caag.state.ca.us/initiatives/pdf/sa2005rf0138_2-s.pdf

["Voters may get the opportunity to slap a new tax on oil pumped from California wells and use the money to pay for a variety of alternative energy programs.... The initiative, which would amend the state constitution, could face little difficulty getting a place on the November ballot.... A coalition of oil companies and anti-tax activists is already organizing a counter-campaign, arguing that the alternative energy initiative is nothing more than a hidden tax which could cost consumers and businesses hundreds of millions of dollars every year in higher gasoline, diesel and jet fuel prices.... Proponents of the alternative energy measure contend that California, the third-biggest crude oil producer in the nation, should begin collecting a so-called extraction tax, as do Texas, Louisiana, Alaska and other petroleum-rich states." Los Angeles Times (February 2, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S60710]

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Renewables Work: Job Growth from Renewable Energy Development in California. By Brad Heavner and Susanna Churchill. (CALPIRG Charitable Trust, Sacramento, California) June 2002. 35 p.

Full Text at: www.calpirg.org/reports/renewableswork.pdf

["Generating electricity from renewable energy sources provides more jobs than traditional energy sources, according to both economic models and real-life experience.... Building 5,000 megawatts of renewable energy capacity would lead to the equivalent of 28,000 year-long construction jobs and 3,000 permanent operations and maintenance jobs."]

[Request #S60711]

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Case Studies of State Support for Renewable Energy. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California) 2002-2005. Various pagings.

Full Text at: eetd.lbl.gov/EA/EMP/cases/EMP_case.html

["The 15 states that have established clean energy funds to support renewable electricity are expected to collect $3.5 billion between 1998 and 2012 for renewable energy investments." Includes: "A Comparative Summary of State and Utility PV Buy Down Programs;" "The Impact of State Clean Energy Fund Support for Utility-scale Renewable Energy Projects;" "Survey of State Support for Community Wind Development;" "Two Different Approaches to Funding Farm-based Biogas Projects in Wisconsin and California;" "Using Customer Credits to Stimulate Green Power Sales in California, Rhode Island, and New York;" and others.]

[Request #S60712]

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Agriculture-Based Renewable Energy Production. By Randy Schnepf, Resources, Science, and Industry Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. (National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC) 2005. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.ncseonline.org/NLE/CRSreports/05Jan/RL32712.pdf

["This report provides background information on farm-based energy production and how this fits into the national energy-use picture. It briefly reviews the primary agriculture-based renewable energy types and issues of concern associated with their production, particularly their economic and energy efficiencies and long-run supply. Finally, this report examines the major legislation related to farm-based energy production and use."]

[Request #S60714]

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Building a "Margin of Safety" into Renewable Energy Procurements: A Review of Experience with Contract Failure. By KEMA, Inc. Prepared for the California Energy Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) January 2006. 53 p.

Full Text at: www.energy.ca.gov/2006publications/CEC-300-2006-004/CEC-300-2006-004.PDF

["Utility purchasers and electricity regulators must confront the reality that signed renewable energy contracts will not always yield operational projects on the timeline given in the contracts themselves.... Contract failure rates vary considerably among utilities, across situations, and by technology. The data suggest that a minimum overall contract failure rate of 20 to 30 percent should generally be expected."]

[Request #S60732]

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SOLAR POWER

Letting the Sun Shine on Solar Costs: An Empirical Investigation of Photovoltaic Cost Trends in California. By Ryan Wiser and others.(Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, California) January 2006. 67 p.

Full Text at: eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/59282.pdf

["We find some troubling evidence that policy design has adversely impacted the cost of PV systems in California ... at best, impeding cost reductions, and at worst, contributing to artificial cost inflation.... Though California’s cost reductions are significant, experience from Japan suggests that deeper cost reductions are possible."]

[Request #S60709]

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The Potential Economic Impact of Constructing and Operating Solar Power Generation Facilities in Nevada. By R.K. Schwer and M. Riddel. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (United States Department of Energy, Golden, Colorado) February 2004. 28 pp.

Full Text at: www.nrel.gov/csp/pdfs/35037.pdf

["Solar resources for concentrating collectors range between 7,000 and 7,500 watt hours per square meter (whm2), making southern Nevada one of the best sources for this type of generation in the world.... The level of investment will depend on federal and state energy policy, energy prices, technology, and a host of other variables."]

[Request #S60715]

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Solar Energy. By Lands and Realty Group, Bureau of Land Management. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) 2006. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.blm.gov/nhp/what/lands/realty/solar_energy.htm

["The dry, sun-drenched desert areas of the southwestern United States hold enormous potential for large-scale deployment of solar energy facilities and systems.... Solar radiation levels in the Southwest are some of the best in the world.... In anticipation of industry’s renewed interest in solar energy development, the BLM has issued new guidance on processing right-of-way (ROW) applications for solar energy projects on public lands. The new policy describes options for generating electricity using solar power and the geophysical attributes that make a site suitable for locating solar facilities and projects."]

[Request #S60716]

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Performance Report of the First Twelve Months of Exposure and Operation. Prepared for the Comprehensive Large PV System Comparison. By BEW Engineering for the California Energy Commission. (Behnke, Erdman, and Whitaker Engineering, Inc., San Ramon, California) November 2005.

Full Text at: pierminigrid.showdata.org/docs/Lg12MonthRprt-LgPIER-final.pdf

{"We suggest that the Energy Commission adopt a requirement for PV modules specifying that the manufacturer's nameplate rating shall represent the minimum allowable output for that module. This would significantly reduce the common disparity between actual performance and expected, and remove the disadvantage U.S. customers face lacking any such requirement."]

[Request #S60717]

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Interim Order Adopting Policies and Funding for the California Solar Initiative. By The California Public Utilities Commission. (The Commission, San Francisco, California) December 13, 2005

["The California Public Utilities Commission released details of its $3.2-billion plan to generate enough solar power over the next 11 years to eliminate the need to build six natural-gas-fired power plants... The cost would be borne by customers of the state's three investor-owned utilities -- Southern California Edison Co., Pacific Gas & Electric Co. and San Diego Gas & Electric Co. The PUC's plan, which would increase the state's total solar output from 101 megawatts now to 3,000 megawatts by 2017, is expected to provide less than 5% of the state's electricity needs when fully in place." Los Angeles Times, December 14, 2005]

California Solar Initiative Interim Order. Various pagings.:
http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/PUBLISHED/COMMENT_DECISION/51992.htm

Self-Generation Incentive Program. Various pagings.:
http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/static/energy/electric/051005_sgip.htm

[Request #S60718]

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Solar Thermal Parabolic Trough Electric Power Plants for Electricity Utilities in California. By Solargenix Energy for the California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research Program. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) November, 2005. 149 p.

Full Text at: www.energy.ca.gov/2005publications/CEC-500-2005-175/CEC-500-2005-175.PDF

["Solar thermal power systems offer an opportunity for the State of California to utilize its abundant solar energy resources –- the best in the United States –- to generate electricity at moderate rates.... Economic impact studies performed in New Mexico have shown, for example, that building 500 MW (using solar technology to provide thermal energy to a conventional steam cycle power plant) in that state adds $2.25 billion to the state’s economy, increases the states tax revenues by $1.23 billion and adds 1,696 construction and 397 permanent jobs."]

[Request #S60719]

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Valuing the Time-varying Electricity Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells. By Severin Borenstein, University of California Energy Institute, (The Institute, Berkeley, California) 2005. 27 p.

Full Text at: www.ucei.berkeley.edu/PDF/csemwp142.pdf

["Correctly accounting for the time-varying electricity production of solar panels could increase its value substantially compared to a flat-rate tariff. Using prices from a simulation model, which assures that peaking gas capacity covers its fixed costs through high energy prices, the increased value from real-time valuation of solar power could be nearly 50%.... A flat-rate tariff will cause end-use customers to significantly undervalue the power produced by solar panels."]

[Request #S60720]

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UTILITIES

Clearing California's Coal Shadow from the American West. By Jana Milford and others. (Environmental Defense, New York, New York) 2005. 68 p.

Full Text at: www.environmentaldefense.org/documents/4890_CAcoalShadow.pdf

["In 2004, coal plants located in the interior West supplied an estimated 20% of all electricity in California, which is twice the share that comes from renewables.... The harmful sulfur dioxide emitted from California's share of out-of-state coal plants exceed the quantity of sulfur dioxide released from all pollution sources within the state of California."]

[Request #S60721]

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WIND POWER

Wind Task Force Report: Draft. By the Western Governors' Association. (The Association, Denver, Colorado) September 6, 2005. 93 p.

Full Text at: www.westgov.org/wga/initiatives/cdeac/Winddraft9-6.pdf

["Includes: Technical Feasibility of Wind Energy, Financial Incentives, Efficient Use of the Existing Transmission System, Transmission Expansion, and others."]

[Request #S60722]

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U.S. Wind Industry to Break Installation Records, Expand by More than 35% in 2005: Press Release. By the American Wind Energy Association. (The Association, Washington, DC) November 3, 2005. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.awea.org/news/US_wind_industry_to_break_installation_records_110305.html

["Growth in US wind power could reduce the amount of natural gas used to produce electricity by up to 5 percent at the end of the year, which could provide some relief to consumers from near record prices for the fossil fuel.... When additional wind power capacity comes on line it generally replaces the highest priced fuel, natural gas, rather than other sources of power like coal, oil and nuclear, said AWEA." Reuters (November 4, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S60723]

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Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on Wind Energy Development on BLM-administered Lands in the Western United States. By the Bureau of Land Management. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) June 2005.

Full Text at: windeis.anl.gov/documents/fpeis/maintext/Vol1/Vol1ExecSum.pdf

["By streamlining permits and clearing hurdles, administration officials hope to encourage the turbines already plentiful along the Altamont and Tehachapi passes. An additional 72,300 acres of federal land in California appear particularly ripe for use.... The study also identifies various protections for birds; for instance, transmission lines should be placed underground, and turbines should be kept away from places favored by raptors." Sacramento Bee (June 22, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S60724]

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Wind Power 2005: Burgeoning Wind Energy Market Generates New Investment, Jobs. By the American Wind Energy Association. (The Association, Washington, D.C.) 2005. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.awea.org/pubs/documents/Outlook%202005.pdf

["By 2020 wind energy technology could provide 6% of the nation's electricity -- a share similar to hydropower today.... The largest single constraint remains the cycle of short-term extensions and then expirations of federal incentives for wind energy, the production tax credit.... Billions of dollars of capital investment, particularly related to manufacturing, are on the sidelines waiting for a longer term policy commitment."]

[Request #S60736]

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PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
[This section links to items in Studies in the News since the last Alternative Energy Supplement.]

Developing Solar Electric Technology: State Policy Options. By Troy Gagliano, National Conference of State Legislatures. State Legislative Report. Vol. 27, No. 2. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) January 2002. 11 p.

["Legislators and policymakers are attempting to combine new power technologies with traditional power systems in order to protect their states from unexpected energy shocks. Generating electricity using solar power can be one element of the solution. Although a range of policy options exists for states that wish to begin or expand the use of this technology, this report focuses strictly on the policies of net metering, renewable portfolio standards and system benefit funds."]

[Request #S4768]

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Renewable Energy: Strategic Opportunities for the Great Central Valley. By Collaborative Economics. Prepared for New Valley Connexions, Great Valley Center. (The Center, Modesto, California) March 2003. 42 p.

Full Text at: www.greatvalley.org/nvc/projects/coecon/energy_report.pdf

["A study released by the Great Valley Center underscores the potential for the Central Valley to become a leader in renewable energy - and the barriers to its success.... If the Valley used farm byproducts that otherwise would pollute the environment, it could chip away at its worsening air pollution and help meet the power needs of a population that will more than double to 12 million people in the next 20 years, the report notes.... Among the barriers: large capital investment demands for new technologies, the high cost of renewable energy compared to fossil fuels and the lack of workers skilled in renewable energy development." Sacramento Bee (April 10, 2003) D1.]

[Request #S7914]

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Generating Solutions: How Clean, Renewable Energy Is Boosting Local Economies And Saving Consumers Money. By Alison Cassady, Environment California. (Environment California, Los Angeles, California) April 2003. 41 p.

Full Text at: www.environmentcalifornia.org/reports/generatingsolutions03.pdf

["California generates 10 percent of its electricity using solar power, wind and other renewable resources, making it the leader among the states. But more needs to be done to reduce the state's dependence on coal, oil and nuclear power, said a report released by an environmental advocacy group.... The report says California has the capability of producing 81 percent of its electricity using renewable resources. The state already is committed to producing 20 percent of its energy using renewable resources by 2017." San Diego Union Tribune (April 17, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S7915]

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ALTERNATIVE FUELS

The Hype about Hydrogen: Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate. By Joseph J. Romm. (Island Press, Covelo, California) April 2004. 240 p.

["Joseph Romm, who oversaw energy efficiency programs in the U.S. Department of Energy during the Clinton administration, said he counts himself a proponent of new technologies. But Romm ... said the fuel (hydrogen) will not be used to run passenger cars in significant numbers before 2030. He said the most viable step away from gasoline-powered cars -- hybrid vehicles ... is already here." Los Angeles Times (January 20, 2004) online. NOTE: The Hype About Hydrogen ... will be available for 3-day loan.]

[Request #S1256]

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The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and Research and Development Needs. By the Committee on Alternatives and Strategies for Future Hydrogen Production and Use, National Research Council. (National Academies Press, Washington, DC) 2004. 394 p.

Full Text at: www.nap.edu/catalog/10922.html

["The report is perhaps the most comprehensive nonpartisan attempt yet to analyze hydrogen's potential, along with its drawbacks.... Even if the most optimistic predictions prove true, and the first hydrogen fuel cell vehicles reach commercial showrooms by 2015, it would take at least another quarter-century before they have a major impact on the market, the panel concluded.... Given the risks of the hydrogen bubble bursting, the academy panel urged the Bush administration to adopt a 'balanced portfolio' of energy research projects as a fallback." San Francisco Chronicle (February 9, 2003) 1.]

[Request #S1439]

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Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicle R&D: FreedomCAR and the President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. By Brent Yacobucci, Resources, Science, and Industry Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Issue Brief. (National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC) 2004. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.ncseonline.org/NLE/CRSreports/04Aug/RS21442.pdf

["A report examines the organization, funding, and goals of the FreedomCAR and Fuel partnerships, and explores legislation relevant to the partnerships. FreedomCAR and the President’s Hydrogen Fuel Initiative are two complementary government-industry research and development initiatives that promote the development of hydrogen fuel and fuel cell vehicles. Coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy, these initiatives aim to make mass-market fuel cell and hydrogen combustion vehicles available at an affordable cost within 10 to 15 years."]

[Request #S4654]

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Economic and Financial Aspects of Landfill Gas to Energy Project Development in California. By the California Energy Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) April 2002. 91 p.

Full Text at: www.energy.ca.gov/reports/2002-04-08_500-02-020F.PDF

["This report ... examines the possibilities for using landfill gas (LFG), produced by the decomposition of buried organic waste, as a viable energy source. Although LFGs can serve as substitutes for natural gas and electric power generation, large amounts of their energy resource go unused and are simply incinerated in a flare. This report provides an overview of the utilization of LFG and discusses project development issues and financial incentives that are available for landfill-gas-to-energy projects." California Policy Forum NewsWire (April 30, 2002) 1.]

[Request #S5347]

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California Hydrogen Blueprint Plan. By the California Environmental Protection Agency. (The Agency, Sacramento, California)2005. Various pagings.

["The supply of fossil fuels is increasingly insecure. The world is running out of easily accessible petroleum and almost 60 percent of the petroleum imported into the U.S. is from geopolitically unstable areas of the world. The burning of fossil fuels produces pollution that damages human health and generates greenhouse gases that contribute to the unsustainable climate change of the planet. Hydrogen has the potential to revolutionize the ways we harness the world’s energy resources. Hydrogen is both a fuel and an energy carrier."

Volume I:
www.hydrogenhighway.ca.gov/plan/reports/volume1_050505.pdf

Volume II:
www.hydrogenhighway.ca.gov/plan/reports/volume2_050505.pdf

[Request #S60525]

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ELECTRICITY INDUSTRY

Gone With The Wind: How California is Losing its Clean Power Edge to... Texas??! By Peter Asmus, Pathfinder Communications. Prepared for The Energy Foundation and the Hewlett Foundation (The Energy Foundation, San Francisco, California) 2002. 26 p.

Full Text at: www.ef.org/documents/gonewind.pdf

["California, once a world leader on renewable energy, has seen its lead slowly disappear through years of neglect, bureaucratic infighting, political posturing, as well as misguided policies.... A Renewable Portfolio Standard may offer part of the solution to the price volatility, environmental impacts and economic drain of the state's current substantial commitment to traditional fossil fuel technologies."]

[Request #S7087]

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ENERGY

A New Energy Future Options For A Smarter, Cleaner Energy Future. By Brad Heavner, U.S. Public Interest Research Group. (The Group, Washington, DC) May 2001. 40 p.

Full Text at: www.pirg.org/energy/Energypaper.pdf

["A new report indicates that a quarter of the state's electricity could be provided by renewable energy by 2010.... 'The report basically looked at how much renewable energy potential there is in the future, and how fast can we put (it) on-line,' said CalPIRG's Brad Heavner..... Heavner said the report focuses on three areas of alternative energy -- solar, wind and geothermal -- which the state could produce more cheaply than paying for natural gas plants." City News Service (July 3, 2001) 1.]

[Request #S2264]

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Investing in Renewable Electricity Generation in California: Report to the Governor and the Legislature. By Tony Goncalves and others, California Energy Commission. P500-00-022. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) June 2001. 75 p.

["The Reliable Electric Service Investments Act requires the Energy Commission to create an investment plan for the Legislature's consideration that recommends an allocation of the funds collected over the first five years of the collection period.... This document was prepared in response to that requirement."]

[Request #S4154]

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ENERGY CONSERVATION

E-vision: Shaping Our Energy Future by Reducing Energy Intensity in the U.S. Economy. By David Ortiz and Jerry Sollinger, Rand Science and Technology Policy Institute. Volume I: Proceedings of the Conference. 63 p. Volume II: Supplementary Conference Materials. CD-ROM. CF-184-DOE.(RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2003.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/publications/CF/CF184/CF184.pdf

["This volume summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place at the conference. For each of four main energy-consuming sectors of the American economy -- as well as for the economy as a whole -- participants examined historical trends and possible futures in energy intensity; reviewed private- and public-sector experiences at energy intensity reduction; identified current options; and defined goals and the actions necessary to achieve them."]

[Request #S3730]

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ENERGY MANAGEMENT

Western Governors Launch Initiative to Spur Clean, Diversified Energy in the West; Governors Richardson, Schwarzenegger To Lead Effort: Press Release. And Clean and Diversified Energy Initiative for the West: WGA Policy Resolution 04-13. By the Western Governor's Association. (The Association, Denver, Colorado) June 22, 2004.

["History took a dramatic turn when the Western Governors Association unanimously approved a program of development and use of clean, renewable energy sources throughout the West. The goal by 2015 is 30,000 megawatts from clean sources such as solar, geothermal, wind, biomass and clean coal." Los Angeles Times (June 24, 2004) B14.]

Press release. 1 p.:
http://www.westgov.org/wga/press/energy.htm

Policy resolution. 5 p.:
http://www.westgov.org/wga/policy/04/clean-energy.pdf

[Request #S3488]

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SOLAR POWER

CPUC Self-Generation Incentive Program Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation Report [Revised Itron Report]. By Itron Inc. Prepared for the Public Utilities Commission. And Prior Testimony Submitted to the California Public Utilities Commission. (The Commission, San Francisco, California) September 14, 2005.

["This report summarizes the findings of the first cost-effectiveness evaluation of the California Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP). The SGIP is a statewide program developed by the California Public Utilities Commission to provide incentives for the installation of certain renewable and clean distributed generation (DG) technologies serving all or a portion of a facility’s electric needs. DG technologies include photovoltaic systems, reciprocating internal combustion engines, microturbines, fuel cells, and wind turbines.... Cost-effectiveness is evaluated from three perspectives: participants (project owners), nonparticipants (ratepayers), and society as a whole.]

Report. 106 p.
report

Prior Testimonies. Various pagings.
http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/proceedings/R0403017.htm

[Request #S53321]

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Interim Opinion Adopting Cost-Benefit Methodology for Distributed Generation [on Rulemaking file 04-03-017] Proposed Decision of ALJ Malcolm. By the California Public Utilities Commission. (The Commission, San Francisco) September 9, 2005. 46 p.

Full Text at: www.cpuc.ca.gov/word_pdf/COMMENT_DECISION/49277.pdf

["Among the potential costs of Distributed Generation (DG) projects are: Utility revenue loss due to displaced usage of transmission and distribution facilities; ... revenue loss due to avoided commodity purchase; DG project costs --investment, maintenance, fuel, metering, etc.... Among the potential benefits identified by the parties are: Reduced transmission and distribution line losses; Avoided purchases of other energy and capacity; Enhanced reliability; Improved stability and power quality; Reduced air and water pollutants; and Promotion of environmental equity compared to large central station power plants."]

[Request #S53322]

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Build-up of PV Value in California. By Lori Smith Schell, PhD, Shirley Neff, Steve McClary. (Testimony), Americans for Solar Power before the California Energy Commission, San Francisco, California April 13, 2005. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.forsolar.org/?q=node/98

["Americans for Solar Power's team of energy economists released the most comprehensive analysis to date of the value of distributed solar electricity. This path-breaking economic study demonstrates that distributed generation of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity, especially when reducing high-cost peak loads, is more valuable than the average alternative power generation and distribution options."]

[Request #S53521]

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Draft Report of the Solar Task Force: [Staff report]. By the Diversified Energy Advisory Committee, Western Governors' Association. (The Association, Denver, Colorado) September, 2005. 63 p.

Full Text at: www.westgov.org/wga/initiatives/cdeac/Solardraft9-15.pdf

["The development of 8 gigiwatts of solar electricity --enough to power 4 million homes -- would generate 32,500 new well-paying jobs in manufacturing, construction and installation. Deployment on this scale would also bring down solar costs to a point competitive with power produced from fossil fuels. The task force envisioned half of deployment coming from central concentrating solar power plants and half coming from distributed photovoltaic generation." Renewable Energy Access (September 20, 2005) 1.]

[Request #S53522]

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Interim Opinion Adopting Policies and Funding for the California Solar Initiative. By Administrative Law Judge Malcolm. Rulemaking 04-03-017. (California Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, California) November 15, 2005. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.cpuc.ca.gov/word_pdf/COMMENT_DECISION/51180.pdf

["In recognition of the benefits of solar technologies as a viable energy resource alternative to traditional energy technologies, this order increases funding by $300 million for solar photovoltaic technologies that are currently part of the Self-Generation Incentive Program."]

[Request #S54425]

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The Economics of Solar Homes in California: How Residential Solar Photovoltaic Incentives Can Pay Off for Homeowners and the Public. By Bernadette Del Chiaro and others, Environment California Research and Policy Center. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) December 2004. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.environmentcalifornia.org/reports/economicssolarhomes.pdf

["The right incentives could clean California's dirty air and ease the energy dependence that dimmed lights across the state in 2000 and 2001, says an advocacy group's report. Helping individual homeowners afford solar power would have widespread benefits for the state as a whole." Associated Press (December 12, 2004) 1.]

[Request #S59944]

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WIND POWER

Wind Power's Contribution to Electric Power Generation and Impact on Farms and Rural Communities. By the U.S. Government Accountability Office. GAO-04-756. (The Office, Washington, DC) September 2004. 107 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d04756.pdf

["Wind power's growth will depend largely on the continuing availability of state and federal financial incentives, including tax credits, and expected increases in prices for fossil fuels. Although wind power does not contribute significantly to total farm income in the 10 states with the highest installed wind power capacity, it has considerably benefited some farmers and rural communities.... USDA has not fully utilized all of the farm bill's renewable energy provisions to promote wind power."]

[Request #S4290]

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Tax and Landowner Revenues from Wind Power Development. By Matthew Brown and Johanna Woelfel, National Conference of State Legislatures. NCSL State Legislative Report. Vol. 25, No. 5 (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) April 2000. 10 p.

["States have developed a number of policies to encourage wind energy development.... This report explores the economic effects of utility-scale wind energy development, highlights some of the problems that remain for wind energy, and describes policies that are available to states that want to address these problems."]

[Request #S10501]

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Reaping the Wind: How Mechanical Wizards, Visionaries, & Profiteers Helped Shape Our Energy Future. By Peter Asmus. (Island Press, Covelo, California) October 2000. 267 p.

["Isn't It Time We Break Our Fossil Fuel Addiction? The silver lining in all of this is that high fossil-fuel prices make renewable energy sources very attractive. Since technologies such as solar and wind power generate electricity when we need it most -- and can be installed in a matter of months instead of years -- the solutions to this crisis are quite clear." Sacramento Bee (August 20, 2000) I1. NOTE: Reaping the Wind ... is available for 3-day loan. The item is copyrighted and the Bureau may not photocopy.]

[Request #S10777]

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