Subject: Studies in the News 06-11 (March 20, 2006)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

1856 - ""The expenses of conveying prisoners to the penitentiary, and supporting them whilst there, is an enormous tax upon the people. Whilst the convicts in many of the states are supporting themselves, we are taxed $120,000 per annum to provide for them, and that, too, under a system which allows a large number to escape every year. If you add to this the amount paid for transportation of convicts ($35,000) you will have a sum equal to the whole expenses of some of our sister states, with four times the population." Inaugural Address of Governor John Weller in 1856 http://www.californiagovernors.ca.gov/h/documents/inaugural_5.html"    

March 26, 1856 - "The Legislature passed an Act authorizing a lease for five years of the prisoners... Experience has proven the impropriety, if not the inhumanity, of leasing the management and care of those condemned to toil and privation, and public opinion is unanimous in demanding a reform in this important matter. A majority of our sister States compelled prisoners to contribute by their labor to their own support. But a comparison of their number with ours, will show that California was, at an early period, the land of refuge for the most hardened of all countries, and their number was so disproportioned to the means of our government, that the State authorities might then well sanction a system the continuation of which experience has shown to be most ruinous.... The lessee system should be ended, and the prison conducted under the control of the State." Inaugural Address of Milton Latham in 1860 http://www.californiagovernors.ca.gov/h/documents/inaugural_6.html"    

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Penalty assessment programs in the courts
   Children of incarcerated parents
   Identity theft trends
   Sexual assault on college campuses
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Restrictions on explicit video games
   Money behind the marriage amendments
   Immigration controversy in California
   Maryland court strikes gay marriage ban
DEMOGRAPHY
   California tops 37 million
   Interstate migration of the middle class
ECONOMY
   Bankruptcy reform
   State junk-fax law unconstitutional
   Casino gambling and sales tax revenues
   Analysis of income trends
   Refund anticipation loans
   The high costs of border delays
   Best performing cities
EDUCATION
   Gap between standards and learning
   States' mathematics standards
   Immersion programs vs bilingual education
   Progress of English-learner student
   States' bilingual education funding
   Compensation principles at UC
   Perspectives of high school dropouts
   Improving services for migrant students
   Education reform of math and science
   New student aid grants adopted
   Federal family education loan program
EMPLOYMENT
   Day-labor industry workplace violations
   Court upholds race-bias suit against San Francisco
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Indoor mold prevention and remediation
   State action on climate change
   Californians and the environment
   Federal Interior Department appropriations
   Central Valley levee grade card
   Court approves suit against paint manufacturers
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Redistricting reform in California
   High desert air ambulance
   Emergency preparedness in California
   Proposition 77 ballot dispute
   Paying initiative signature bounties
   Engaging young people in legislatures
   Cities may refuse to subsidize boy scouts
   State budget perspectives and issues
HEALTH
   Electronic medical records privacy
   Retiree health care cost for governments
   Health insurance affects labor market
   Declining job-based health coverage
   Aged, disabled can sue if nursing is cut
   Racial and ethnic health disparities
HOUSING
   Asian homebuyers in the United States
HUMAN SERVICES
   Loss of child support funds
   Child support guidelines review process
   Federal child welfare funds
   Profile of frail older Americans
   Grandparent and relative caregivers
STUDIES TO COME
   Child abuse and shame
   Visual arts in the new era
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

DISABLED PRISONERS

Who Pays For Penalty Assessment Programs in California. By Marcus Nieto, California Research Bureau, California State Library. (CRB, Sacramento, California) February 2006. 44 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/06/03/06-003.pdf

["Penalty assessments are based on the concept of an 'abusers fee,' in which those who break certain laws help finance programs related to decreasing those violations, and they annually generate millions of dollars..... Our survey of county courts and county clerks found that traffic violations account for around 86 percent of all funds collected. There are a number of actions the State could take to improve debt collection."]

[Request #S61101]

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FAMILIES

"A Parent in Prison: States Slowly Beginning to Help Inmates' Children, and Advocates Say It's Overdue." By Margaret Graham Tebo. IN: ABA Journal, vol. 92 (February 2006) pp. 12-13.

["Getting lost in the legal system is an age-old complaint, but few groups have been less visible -- and more endangered -- than children of incarcerated parents.... But states are slowly beginning to recongnize that both children and prisoners benefit from maintaining contact."]

[Request #S61102]

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IDENTITY THEFT

Consumer Fraud and Identity Theft: Complaint Data: January -December 2005. By the Federal Trade Commission. (The Commission, Washington, DC) 2006. 77 p.

Full Text at: www.consumer.gov/sentinel/pubs/Top10Fraud2005.pdf

["Identity-theft complaints involving youngsters under 18 have nearly doubled since 2003 -- up from 6,512 to more than 11,600 last year.... The most victimized age group for identity theft was the 18-to-29 category. The FTC said that category registered 29 percent of the complaints -- more than 70,200." San Jose Mercury (February 1, 2006) 3C.]

[Request #S61103]

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SEXUAL ABUSE

Sexual Assault on Campus: What Colleges and Universities Are Doing About It. By Alberto Gonzales, Office of Justice Programs, U. S. Department of Justice. (The Office, Washington, DC) 2005. 21 p.

Full Text at: www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/205521.pdf

["Colleges and universities are not always the safe havens they are thought to be. College women are at higher risk for sexual assault than their non-college-bound peers. Yet, many rapes and attempted rapes are unreported, perhaps because for the majority of these crimes, victim and assailant are acquainted. Many schools need guidance on how to comply with Federal requirements to disclose security procedures, report crime data, and ensure victims' rights. Promising practices in prevention, policy, victim support services, and other areas are discussed."]

[Request #S61104]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT

Rated E for Everybody? By Heather Morton, National Conference of State Legislatures. NCSL Legisbrief, Vol. 13 No. 34. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) 2005. 2 p.

["Top-selling video games feature characters using and selling and taking drugs. Concerns are rising regarding kids access to violent and sexually explicit video games. Some parents want restrictions on video games at both the municipal and state level."]

[Request #S61105]

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GAYS & LESBIANS

The Money Behind the Marriage Amendments. By Sue O'Connell, The Institute on Money in State Politics. (The Institute, Helena, Montana) January 27, 2006. 56 p.

Full Text at: www.soros.org/resources/articles_publications/publications/money_20060206/money_20060127.pdf

["The spate of 2004 ballot measures that banned same-sex marriages in fully one-fourth of the United States generated more than $13 million in campaign contributions.... The study found that slightly more than half of the money came from just three groups of contributors: organizations and individuals supporting gay and lesbian rights; conservative Christian organizations, such as Focus on the Family and the Family Research Council; and organized religion. While gay and lesbian-rights contributors gave the largest chunk of cash -—slightly more than $3 million —- contributions to proamendment committees from churches and conservative Christian groups together totaled more—$4.1 million, or about 35 percent more than the amount given by gay- and lesbian-rights supporters. The report also examines where the money went and provides state-by-state summaries."]

[Request #S61106]

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IMMIGRATION

The Impact of Immigration on the California Economy: By the Center for Continuing Study of the California Economy. Prepared for California Labor and Workforce Development Agency. (The Agency, Sacramento, California) 2005. 64 p.

Full Text at: www.labor.ca.gov/panel/impactimmcaecon.pdf

["The report is an effort to gauge the economic and fiscal impacts of immigration. California and the United States have been in the throes of an immigration boom that began in the 1990s and has raised the percentage of foreign-born Americans to the highest levels since the 1930s."]

[Request #S61107]

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SAME-SEX MARRIAGES

Gitanjali Deane, et al. v. Frank Conaway, et al. Baltimore City Circuit Court. 24-C-04-005390. January 20, 2006. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.baltocts.state.md.us/civil/highlighted_trials/Memorandum.pdf

["A Maryland court sided with nine gay couples, ruling that the state's law defining marriage as being between a man and a woman violates the state's constitution.... The court stayed the order pending an appeal, which the state attorney general's office filed right away.... The decision stated. 'When tradition is the guise under which prejudice or animosity hides, it is not a legitimate state interest.'" Los Angeles Times (January 21, 2006) A15.]

[Request #S61108]

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DEMOGRAPHY

CALIFORNIA

California Population Tops 37 Million in 2005: Press Release. By the California Department of Finance. (The Department, Sacramento, California) March 2, 2006. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.dof.ca.gov/HTML/DEMOGRAP/Estimates/E-2/E-2_2000-05_PressRelease.pdf

["California's population has topped 37 million but is growing at a slower rate than in past years, state demographers said.... Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego and Orange counties had the largest numerical increases in population.... Nearly two-thirds of the increase was due to more births than deaths, officials said." Sacramento Bee (March 2, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61109]

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MIGRATION

Interstate Migration of Hispanics, Asians and Blacks: Cultural Constraints and Middle Class Flight. By William H. Frey and Koe-Lee Liaw, University of Michigan and the Brookings Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2005. 42 p.

Full Text at: www.frey-demographer.org/reports/rr05-575.pdf

["The rising prominence of immigrant minorities, Hispanics and Asians, as well as blacks in the US population, and their changing dispersal patterns, calls for explicit attention to their roles in inter-state migration.... We examine the impacts that low-skilled immigration and high housing costs exert on domestic out-migration from urbanized, high immigration states. Our earlier research indicated that the former factor affected a low skilled 'white flight.' However, more recently, high housing costs, along with more racially diverse populations in these areas, suggest that the latter may be promoting a more multiethnic 'middle class flight'."]

[Request #S61110]

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ECONOMY

BANKING

Bankruptcy Reform's Impact: Where Are All the Deadbeats? By National Association of Consumer Bankruptcy Attorneys. (The Association, Washington, DC) February 22, 2006. 7 p.

Full Text at: nacba.com/news/022206NACBAbankruptcyreformstudy.pdf

["All the problems that were predicted when Congress passed a new bankruptcy law are coming to pass.... As could easily be foreseen, the process now is more cumbersome and expensive than before and it is netting the wrong people." Sacramento Bee (February 27, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61111]

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CONSUMER PROTECTION

Chamber of Commerce of the U.S., et al. v. Bill Lockyer, et al. U.S. District Court, Eastern District of California. 2:05-CV-2257-MCE-KJM. Memorandum and Order. February 27, 2006. 20 p.

["A court has struck down as unconstitutional a new state law that was intended to ban unsolicited fax advertising, or junk faxes. The law was scheduled to take effect January 1. But it was put on hold after the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and a broadcast fax company challenged it in court, saying the measure undermines application of a new federal law and interferes with interstate commerce." San Francisco Chronicle (March 1, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61112]

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GAMBLING

"The Effect of Casino Gambling on Sales Tax Revenues in States Legalizing Casinos in the 1990's." By Jim Landers. IN: State Tax Notes, vol. 38 no. 14 (December 26, 2005) pp. 1073-1081.

["The study directly measures the effect of consumers' gambling expenditures on sales tax revenue. The study improves on prior single-state case studies by providing a global comparative analysis of sales tax displacement in all states that adopted casino gambling. The sample spans 19 years, from 1985 to 2003, and includes 12 states where large scale casino gambling commenced during the 1990s."]

[Request #S61113]

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INCOME DISTRIBUTION

Pulling Apart: A State-by-state Analysis of Income Trends. By Jared Bernstein and others, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities and Economic Policy Institute. (The Center, Washington, DC) January 2006. 66 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/1-26-06sfp.pdf

["A study ... sounded a familiar refrain: The rich are getting richer, and the poor, if they're not exactly getting poorer, are not getting rich fast enough. The report ranked California's income distribution as the sixth worst in the nation, with the top 20 percent of families earning about $127,500 a year after taxes, while the poorest fifth take home just $16,800. In 2002 ... top earners took in, on average, 7.6 times more than the poorest families that year." Sacramento Bee (January 31, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61114]

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LOANS AND CREDIT

People of California v. H&R Block, et al. San Francisco County Superior Court. Complaint for Injunction, Civil Penalties and Other Relief. February 15, 2006

["The complaint joins a long list of lawsuits that have targeted H&R Block's 'refund anticipation loans' -- cash advances that the company arranges for customers so they won't have to wait an extra one to four weeks for a check from the federal government.... Lockyer alleges the company consistently misleads its customers about the costs of the short-term loans, which sometimes impose fees that translate into interest rates of more than 500 percent...." San Diego Union-Tribune (February 16, 2006) 1.]

Complaint. 20 p.
http://ag.ca.gov/newsalerts/cms06/06-013_0a.pdf

Press Release. 1 p.
http://ag.ca.gov/newsalerts/release.php?id=1261

[Request #S61115]

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SAN DIEGO / TIJUANA REGION

Economic Impacts of Border-Wait Times at the San Diego-Baja California Border Region. By HDR/HLB Decision Economics Inc., and others. Prepared for the San Diego Association of Governments and the California Department of Transportation. (The Association, San Diego, California) January 19, 2006.

["A new report says the time trucks spent waiting at the Otay Mesa and Tecate border crossings last year cost the local binational economy $6 billion in lost business and more than 51,000 jobs. Typical delays of two hours or longer are having a significant negative impact on the region and throughout California, the United States and Mexico.... Local and civic leaders ... are appealing to federal officials for funds to expand the San Ysidro border crossing, complete construction of state Route 905 and build a new port of entry and connecting roads east of the existing Otay Mesa crossing." San Diego Union Tribune (February 15, 2006) 1.]

Report. 108 p.
http://www.sandag.org/programs/borders/binational/projects/2006_border_wait_impacts_report.pdf

Executive Summary. 14 p.
http://www.sandag.org/programs/borders/binational/projects/2006_border_wait_impacts_execsum.pdf

[Request #S61116]

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URBAN AREAS

Best Performing Cities 2005: Where America's Jobs Are Created and Substained. By Ross DeVol and others, Milken Institute. (The Institute, Santa Monica, California) February 2006. 42 p.

Full Text at: www.milkeninstitute.org/pdf/best_perf_cities2005.pdf

["In 2005, the U.S. economy was battered by hurricanes, high oil and natural gas prices, rising interest rates and a deteriorating foreign trade balance. All on the heels of relatively subdued job recovery in 2003 and early 2004. Yet between November 2004 and November 2005, nearly 2 million jobs were created, and job growth is continuing at a rate that will sustain current economic expansion."]

[Request #S61117]

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EDUCATION

ACADEMIC STANDARDS

The State of English Standards 2005. By Sandra Stotsky. (Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, Washington, D.C.) 2005. 131 p.

Full Text at: www.edexcellence.net/doc/FullReport[01-03-05].pdf

["Consider the glum example of California (ranked second behind Massachusetts). Its “Golden State” standards for English/Language Arts/Reading are top notch, yet the state’s National Assessment scores in reading and writing are lamentably low. California is a cautionary tale of the chasm that can exist between standards and learning. Just 19 states (including California) earned 'honors' grades on this year’s evaluation, while eight received marks of D or F."]

[Request #S61118]

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State of Math Standards 2005. By David Klein. (Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, Washinton, DC) 2005. 130 p.

Full Text at: www.edexcellence.net/doc/mathstandards05FINAL.pdf

["The overwhelming majority of states today have sorely inadequate math standards. Their average grade is a 'high D'—and just six earn 'honors' grades of A or B, three of each. Fifteen states receive Cs, 18 receive Ds and 11 receive Fs... California, Indiana, and Massachusetts— have first-rate math standards, worthy of emulation."]

[Request #S61119]

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BILINGUAL EDUCATION

Effects of the Implementation of Proposition 227 on the Education of English Learners, K-12: Findings from a 5 Year Evaluation. By Thomas B. Parrish and others. (American Institutes for Research and WestEd, Washington DC and San Francisco) January 2006. 228 p.

Full Text at: www.air.org/news/documents/227Report.pdf

["Proposition 227, an initiative approved by California voters in 1998 that curtailed bilingual education in favor of immersion programs, has had virtually no impact on the achievement gap between English-language learners and native English-speakers, according to a new study." ECS e-Connection (March 8, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61120]

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The Progress of English Learner Students. By Paul Warren. Legislative Analyst's Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) 2006. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2006/eng_lrnr_updt/eng_lrnr_updt_012606.pdf

["We conclude that gains made by students in 2003 and 2004 are similar to those in 2002. Indeed, our review shows that CDE’s analysis of California English Language Development test scores fails to accurately characterize the results.... We suggest the Legislature direct the State Board of Education and CDE to revise one of the state’s current performance measures for EL students under the federal Title II program so it focuses on gains in English fluency and is not affected by local reclassification standards."]

[Request #S61121]

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Survey of State ELL/ESL Funding Systems. By Michael Griffith and John Hancock. (Education Commission of the States, Denver, Colorado) March 2006. 4p.

Full Text at: www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/67/70/6770.pdf

["This survey covers] ... how selected states fund English Language Learner/English as a Second Language (ELL/ESL) programs. The states chosen for this survey include: California, Colorado, Florida, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, New York and Texas."]

[Request #S61122]

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CALIFORNIA

Compensation Principles Recommended to the University of California. By The Academic Senate of the University of California. (The University, Oakland, California) February 8, 2006. 4 p.

["Compensation Principles Recommended to the University of California, was endorsed by the Assembly of the Academic Senate on February 8, 2006. The Senate believes that these principles, if adopted, will sharpen the ethical outline of UC's compensation policies and provide appropriate practical guidelines for employee compensation actions of all kinds."]

[Request #S61123]

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DROPOUT RATES

The Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School Dropouts. By John M. Bridgeland, John J. Dilulio, Jr. and Karen Burke Morison. Peter D. Hart Research Associates. (Civic Enterprises, Washington, DC) March, 2006. 44 p.

Full Text at: www.civicenterprises.net/pdfs/thesilentepidemic3-06.pdf

["States should consider 'early-warning systems' to identify kids at risk of dropping out and to look into raising the age at which students can legally leave school to 17 or 18 from 16 in most states. 38% of students say they had 'too much freedom' and not enough rules in school, which made it easy to skip class. 68% of students say their parents became more involved in their education only when they were on the verge of dropping out. 70% of students are confident they could have graduated if they had tried. 81% of students now believe that graduating from high school is important to succeed." USA Today (March 1, 2006) online.]

[Request #S61124]

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IMMIGRANTS

Improving Services for Migrant Students. By Legislative Analyst's Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) February 2006. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2006/migrant_ed/migrant_education_021506.pdf

["The Migrant Education Progam is a federally funded program that provides supplemental education services to migrant children. [LAO] recommends a number of modifications related to the program's 1) funding and sevice model, 2) data system, and 3) carryover funding process. [LOA] also identifies funding available to help in implementing these changes."]

[Request #S61125]

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MATHEMATICS & SCIENCE TEACHING

Reality Check 2006. By Jean Johnson and others. Public Agenda and Education Insights. (Public Agenda, New York, New York) 2006. 19 p.

Full Text at: www.publicagenda.org/research/pdfs/rc0601.pdf

["[The report] summarize attitudes about high school reform and math and science education.... The research suggests that leaders working for major high school reform need to do their homework ..[they] may be well advised to reach out to parents and students directly."]

[Request #S61126]

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STUDENT AID

New Student Aid Grants Adopted as Part of Deficit Reduction Act. By Federal Funds Infomation for States, FFIS Issue Brief 06-10. (FFIS, Washington, DC) March 7, 2006. 1 p.

["The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 authorized two grants to increase federal aid for students who meet specific criteria. Undergraduate students who are studying math, science or technology or have completed a program of 'rigorous' coursework are eligible to receive these grants in addition to a Pell Grant."]

[Request #S61127]

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STUDENT LOANS

California's Options for Administrating the Federal Family Education Loan Program. By Jennifer Kuhn. Legislative Analyst's Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) January 2006. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2006/ed_fund/edfund_012406.pdf

["Amid growing concerns with the organizational relationship between the Student Aid Commission and EdFund, the Legislature directed LAO to identify the range of organizational options available for administering federal student loan programs. This report describes various options and then assesses them in terms of their ability to reduce tension among organizational leadership, clarify certain roles and responsibilies, and promote incentives that reward high-quality service to students."]

[Request #S61128]

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EMPLOYMENT

LABOR MARKET CONDITIONS

On the Corner: Day Labor in the United States. By Abel Valenzuela Jr. UCLA Center for the Study of Urban Poverty. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) 2006. 39 p.

Full Text at: www.sscnet.ucla.edu/issr/csup/uploaded_files/Natl_DayLabor-On_the_Corner1.pdf

["Wage violations, workplace injuries and abusive employers are common in the day labor industry, according to the first nationwide study of laborers who search for work at busy intersections and outside home improvement stores. Nearly half of 2,660 day laborers participating in the survey by three universities had been underpaid or not paid at all in the two months before being interviewed. Forty-four percent said they were denied food, water and breaks, and 18% said they were subjected to violence by their employer. In addition, one-fifth of the workers interviewed said they had been injured on the job in the previous year, with the majority not receiving medical care." Los Angeles Times (January 23, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61129]

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PUBLIC EMPLOYEES

Allen Harman v. City and County of San Francisco, et al. California Court of Appeals, First Appelate District. A108246. February 22, 2006. 41 p.

Full Text at: www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/A108246.PDF

["A court has upheld $30,300 in damages to a white man who won a race-discrimination suit over a delay in his promotion to a supervisor's job at San Francisco International Airport. The suit was one of several that accused San Francisco of discriminating in favor of minorities, in violation of U.S. constitutional standards and Proposition 209, the ban on race and sex preferences that California voters approved in 1996." San Francisco Chronicle (February 24, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61130]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR POLLUTION

Indoor Mold: A General Guide to Health Effects, Prevention, and Remediation. By Kenneth W. Umbach, and Pamela J. Davis, California Research Bureau, California State Library. (CRB, Sacramento, California) January 2006. 85 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/06/01/06-001.pdf

["Indoor water damage and dampness are damaging and costly and can pose health risks. Molds (and other microbial contaminants) present risks to persons working in contaminated environments.... Renters can face the results of water damage in the form of mold and other microbial contamination even after the cause, such as a plumbing leak, has been repaired. Although current California law and regulation provide certain rights to renters when repair or maintenance is required, the Legislature might wish to initiate an inquiry as to whether the specified rights encompass cleanup and repair of such results of water damage as well as repair of the cause itself."]

[Request #S61131]

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CLIMATE CHANGE

Learning from State Action on Climate Change: February 2006 Update. By the Pew Center on Global Climate Change. (The Center, Arlington, Virginia) February 2006. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.pewclimate.org/docUploads/PewStatesBriefFeb2006%2Epdf

["States often function as 'policy laboratories, developing initiatives that serve as models for federal action. In addition, state actions can have a significant impact on emissions, because many individual states emit high levels of greenhouse gases. Texas, for example, emits more than France, while California’s emissions exceed those of Brazil. State actions are also important because states have primary jurisdiction over many areas — such as electric generation, agriculture, and land use — that are critical to addressing climate change."]

[Request #S61132]

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COASTAL RESOURCES

Californians and the Environment. By Mark Baldassare. Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) February 2006. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/survey/S_206MBS.pdf

["The survey on Californians and the environment focuses on the state's marine and coastal issues. The intent of the survey is to inform policymakers, encourage duscussion, and raise public awareness about a variety of environmental and growth related matters facing the state."]

[Request #S61133]

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FEDERAL ACTS

Special Report: FY 2006 Interior/Environment Appropriations Conference Report and California Implications: Special Report. By the California Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) January 2006. 7p.

Full Text at: www.calinst.org/pubs/int06c.pdf

["The Conference Report provides $860,791,000 for the management of lands and resources ... about $7 million less than what the Senate proposed ... California desert conservation plans will face a cut of $250,000 ... Appropriations for land acquisitions amount to $8,750,000 ... $500,000 earmarked for the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains ... Construction appropriations are set at $45,891,000 ... $1,000,000 has been earmarked for the Klamath Basin NWR Complex for Water Supply and Management ... Land acquisition and state assistance totaling $28,408,000 ... includes $450,000 for the San Joaquin River NWR ... Approximately $1.744 billion was appropriated for the operation of the national park system ... ($300,000 is for Death Valley National Parks)."]

[Request #S61134]

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FLOODS

2006 Report Card for Northern California Infrastructure: Levees / Flood Protection Grading. By the Sacramento Section, American Society of Civil Engineers. (The Society, Sacramento, California) February, 2006. 2p.

["An engineering trade group released a report card on the valley's levees to draw attention in simple terms to their dire condition. Most of the Valley's levees were built more than 100 years ago, often by the most simple means: scraping muck and sand out of river bottoms and piling it along each side. Some have been shored up over the last 50 years using modern techniques. But even these, in many cases, have not been adequately maintained. The system as a whole, consisting of more than 2,500 miles of levees, got a D grade. Some areas did worse." Sacramento Bee (Sacramento Bee (February 22, 2006) B1.]

[Request #S61135]

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LEAD

County of Santa Clara, et al. v. Atlantic Richfield, et al. California Court of Appeals, Sixth Appellate District. H026651. March 7, 2006. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/H026651.PDF

["A court reinstated a class-action lawsuit alleging that several paint manufacturers knowingly sold harmful lead-based paint products for decades.... The lawsuit was filed by a coalition of cities, counties and school districts that claim they face millions of dollars in costs to remove lead-tainted paint and treat people harmed by exposure." Sacramento Bee (March 7, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61136]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

APPORTIONMENT & REDISTRICTING

Competition and Redistricting in California: Lessons for Reform; Redistricting Reform Can Create Competitiveness in Some Districts, Report Shows. By the Institute of Governmental Studies, University of California, Berkeley. Prepared for the James Irvine Foundation. (The Institute, Berkeley, California) February 7, 2006. 2 p.

Full Text at: igs.berkeley.edu/redistricting_research/

["Voters may have rejected Governor Schwarzenegger's scheme to redraw the state's 173 legislative and congressional districts in mid-decade, but the bipartisan gerrymander of those districts in 2001 remains a stain on democracy -- and one that worsens the Legislature's chronic inability to function."]

[Request #S61138]

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EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

Is Your Life at Risk? Interim Report of the 2005-2006 County Grand Jury of San Bernardino County. (The Grand Jury, San Bernardino, California) November 10, 2005. And County of San Bernardino Response to the Interim Report. By the San Bernardino Board of Supervisors. (The Board, San Bernardino, California) January 31, 2006.

["San Bernardino County supervisors issued a formal response to a scathing grand jury report faulting them for not approving a second air ambulance provider. The grand jury criticized the county for not granting a permit to California City Air Ambulance -- while county supervisors accepted thousands of dollars in campaign contributions from Mercy Air, the county's sole permitted provider.... In its interim report, the grand jury cited delays in reaching remote areas in the county and said approving the Kern County-based air ambulance provider would save lives. California City can respond more quickly throughout the Highway 395 and Highway 58 corridors in the High Desert." Riverside Press Enterprise (January 31, 2006) B1.]

[Request #S61139]

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EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

Testimony on Emergency Preparedness. By Richard Andrews, former director of the Office of Homeland Security, Richard Cooper, liaison, U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security; Emily Bentley, Emergency Management Accreditation Program; Wiliam O. Jenkins, Jr., U.S. Government Accountability Office, and others. Presented to the Little Hoover Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) February 23, 2006. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.lhc.ca.gov/lhcdir/Feb06.html

["The Governor, having declared a state of emergency, may suspend any statute or regulation that is deemed to be an impediment to coping with the emergency and may exercise police powers in any jurisdiction in the state. The Governor may, if it is determined that local authorities are 'inadequate' to cope with the emergency, declare a state of emergency without having received a request from local authorities and the state may assume 'control' of the emergency response.... A favorite question often asked about how a response to a multi-jurisdictional emergency is structured is 'Who’s in charge?' The answer to this question is clear -– the Governor is in charge."]

[Request #S61140]

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INITIATIVES & PROPOSITIONS

Edward J. Costa v. Superior Court of Sacramento County. California Supreme Court. S136294. February 16, 2006. Various pagings.

Full Text at: www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/S136294.PDF

["Three months after California voters soundly rejected the Proposition 77 redistricting initiative, the state Supreme Court ruled that it was properly on the ballot. The ruling was designed to set guidelines for future cases in which the legality of a ballot initiative is challenged prior to voting.... The high court said previous cases 'implicitly recognize that inadvertent, good-faith human error cannot always be avoided.' The interests of massive numbers of voters who sign initiatives should not be thwarted by technical defects that mislead nobody, the court ruled." Sacramento Bee (February 17, 2006) A3.]

[Request #S61141]

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Barbara Prete, et al v. Bill Bradbury, Secretary of State of Oregon, et al. U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. No. 04-35285. February 22, 2006. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.ca9.uscourts.gov/ca9/newopinions.nsf/11BCC17FDB29A7298825711C0077B073/$file/0435285.pdf?openelement

["We are called upon to decide whether Oregon Ballot Measure 26’s prohibition of payment to electoral petition signature gatherers on a piece-work or per signature basis unconstitutionally burdens core political speech.... We cannot hold that the Measure imposes a severe burden under the First Amendment. Therefore, because the defendant has established an important regulatory interest in support of the Measure, the plaintiffs have failed to prove that the prohibition violates the First Amendment. In November 2002, Oregon voters approved Ballot Measure 26, a voter initiative, by a margin of 75 percent to 25 percent."]

[Request #S61142]

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LEGISLATURE

Engaging Young People in Legislatures. By Jan Goehring. National Conference of State Legislatures. NCSL Legisbrief. Vol. 14 No. 6. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) January 2006. 2 p.

["Many young Americans ... don't understand the ideals of citizenship; are disengaged from the political process; lack the knowledge necessary for effective self-government; and have limited appreciation of American democracy.... State legislators are reaching out to youth to engage them in the democratic process."]

[Request #S61143]

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LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Eugene Evans, et al. v. City of Berkeley, et al. California Supreme Court. S112621. March 9, 2006. 25 p.

Full Text at: www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/S112621.PDF

["California's cities may refuse to provide subsidies to the Boy Scouts of America and other nonprofit groups that fail to comply with government antidiscrimination policies.... 'A government entity may constitutionally require a recipient of funding or subsidy to provide written, unambiguous assurances of compliance' with an antidiscrimination policy, the court wrote. The requirement does not violate free speech rights because 'to condition a public benefit on assurances of nondiscrimination is not to compel advocacy of a viewpoint,' the court said." Los Angeles Times (March 10, 2006) B1.]

[Request #S61144]

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STATE BUDGETS

The 2006-07 Budget: Perspectives and Issues. And Analysis of the 2006-07 Budget Bill. By the Legislative Analyst's Office. Prepared for the Joint Legislative Budget Committee. (LAO, Sacramento, California) 2006. 258 p.

["California has benefited greatly from over $11 billion in unanticipated increases in state revenues. Yet, due to its allocation of these funds, the 2006-07 Governor’s Budget would still leave the state with large structural budget shortfalls and an enormous amount of outstanding financial obligations. In this regard, the budget proposal misses an important opportunity to take advantage of highly favorable revenues to get the state’s fiscal house in order. We thus recommend that the Legislature reduce the amount of ongoing spending increases proposed in this budget, and use the savings to either increase reserves or pre-pay additional budgetary debt."

Perspectives and Issues. 238 p.
http://www.lao.ca.gov/analysis_2006/2006_pandi/pandi_06.pdf

Analysis. Various pagings.
http://www.lao.ca.gov/main.aspx?type=2&PubTypeID=4

[Request #S61145]

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HEALTH

HEALTH CARE

"The new threat to your medical privacy" IN: Consumer Reports, (March 2006) [online].

Full Text at: www.consumerreports.org/cro/health-fitness/health-care/electronic-medical-records-306/overview.htm

["Under the provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), health-care providers have the right to share your data to process your insurance claim; and to respond to requests from public-health authorities, law enforcement, and your employer if you were hurt at work... HIPAA allows health-care providers to share information with health-care business associates. And don’t forget about fund-raisers. For example, the agreement ... says, 'We may use or disclose your demographic information and the dates that you received treatment from us in order to contact you for fund-raising activities supported by our office.... The notice is not a contract; it is merely a mandated disclosure form to prove that you were informed in writing about how your data may be shared."]

[Request #S61137]

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HEALTH CARE FINANCE

Retiree Health Care: A Growing Cost for Government. By Legislative Analyst's Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) February 17, 2006. 22 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2006/ret_hlthcare/retiree_healthcare_021706.pdf

["It will cost $5 billion more than the state is currently spending each year to cover the price of health care for future and current retired state workers over the next three decades, the Legislative Analyst said in a report. Local governments and school districts could also face billons of dollars in future costs, which could end up being shifted onto the state, the report said.... Though California and other states have long known they aren't setting aside enough to keep pace with the costs of retiree health care, new federal accounting rules require them to calculate and disclose exactly how much those costs will be." Sacramento Bee (February 17, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61146]

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HEALTH INSURANCE

The Effect of Increases in Health Insurance Premiums on Labor Market Outcomes. By Katherine Baicker and Amitabh Chandra. Employment Policies Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2006. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.epionline.org/studies/baicker_01-2006.pdf

["The cost of insurance has increased by more than 59 percent since 2000, with no accompanying increase in the scale or scope of benefits. These increases in health insurance premiums may have significant effects on both health insurance markets and labor markets, including changes in the nunber of jobs, hours worked per employee, wages, and compensation packages. The increase in premiums could increase unemployment and uninsurance, as employers face a choice between discontinuing health insurance benefits, or employing fewer workers, as benefit costs rise. Understanding how labor markets adjust to increased health insurance cost is of growing policy importance."]

[Request #S61147]

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Declining Job-based Health Coverage in the United States and California: A Crisis for Working Families. By Arindrajit Dube and others. Center for Labor, Research and Education, University of California, Berkeley. (The Center, Berkeley, California) January 2006. 67 p.

Full Text at: laborcenter.berkeley.edu/healthcare/declining_coverage.pdf

["This report evaluates the extent of employer-based health coverage in the US and California. Information is given on: coverage demographics (by race/ethnicity, age, education, gender, income levels), type (public, private, employer- based), coverage trends (from 2000 to projected trends of 2010), implications for continued decline in coverage, and more."]

[Request #S61148]

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MEDI-CAL

William W. Watson, et al. v. Gary Weeks, et al. U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. 04-35704. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.ca9.uscourts.gov/ca9/newopinions.nsf/5D6C066EBF6660308825710E007B92EC/$file/0435704.pdf?openelement

["Elderly and disabled people whose nursing care is halted because of state budget cuts can sue their states under a federal law requiring care for the needy, a court ruled.... The court reinstated a suit by seven Oregonians whose government-funded nursing services in group homes and their own residences were cut off in 2003 when the state narrowed eligibility standards to help balance its budget.... California has not made similar reductions in publicly funded nursing care. But the recently passed federal Deficit Reduction Act will require cuts in Medicaid -- called Medi-Cal in California -- and could lead to lawsuits under the ruling." San Francisco Chronicle (February 9, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61149]

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MINORITIES

Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities: A Review of Selected State Programs. By Barbara Steel Lowney, California Research Bureau, California State Library. (CRB, Sacramento, California) February 2006. 95 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/06/02/06-002.pdf

["This report begins to fill the gap in knowledge about state programming and health disparities. The information can be used for both resource sharing among programs and coordination of future efforts and data collection.... Health disparities can result from differences in risk factors, lack of access to health care, inadequately targeted prevention messages and cultural differences between the health care system and the population it serves.... This report describes how programs in four state departments address these disparities through program design, data collection and program evaluation."]

[Request #S61157]

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HOUSING

HOMEBUYING

Homeward Bound: An In-Depth Look at Asian Homebuyers in the United States. By Freddie Mac Foundation. (The Foundation, McLean, Virginia) 2005. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.freddiemac.com/news/pdf/Asian_Homebuyers_in_the_US.pdf

["Asians represent the second fastest growing minority population in the United States. Although many of these immigrant households will become homeowners in the coming decades, very little is known about this growing market. To gain a better understanding of the cultural norms and expectations of Asian first-time homebuyers, Freddie Mac conducted focus groups involving Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Filipino, and American-born Asian consumers and real estate professionals. Although the study revealed many differences among ethnicities, this report highlights recurring themes across groups that may lead to a greater understanding of the needs and expectations of Asian consumers."]

[Request #S61150]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD SUPPORT

Families Will Lose At Least $8.4 Billion in Uncollected Child Support if Congress Cuts Funds—and Could Lose Billions More. By Vicki Turetsky. Center for Law and Social Policy. (CLASP, Washington, DC) January 2006. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/publications/incentivepayments_jan18.pdf

["The current version of the FY 2006 budget agreement would cut federal child support funds by more than 20 percent. Despite the claim that families would not be hurt, the Congressional Budget Office estimates that at least $8.4 billion in child support would go uncollected over the next 10 years if the incentive match is eliminated. This report shows how much funding each state stands to lose."]

[Request #S61151]

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The Child Support Guidelines Review Process. By Katie Thurstin, National Conference of State Legislatures. NCSL Legisbrief, Vol. 14 no. 11 (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) February 2006. 2 p.

["State must review their child support guidelines every four years. Inappropriate support awards may result from outdated shedules. Some states delegate review authority to the courts or the agency. State contacts recommend that the review process be started early."]

[Request #S61152]

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CHILDREN

Federal Budget Bill May Reduce Federal Child Welfare Funds to California by Hundreds of Millions of Dollars. By Casey Trupin. Center for Law and Social Policy. (CLASP, Washington, DC) January 2006. 10 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/publications/ca_cw_federal_budget.pdf

["The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 contains numerous cuts to human services, including child welfare. California will bear the largest share of the funding losses in the nation. This paper examines how the budget agreement will affect children and families in California’s child welfare system -— particularly, the bill’s financial disincentives to placing children with relatives and time restrictions on federal administrative funds for children in relative care."]

[Request #S61153]

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ELDERLY

A Profile of Frail Older Americans and Their Caregivers. By Richard W. Johnson and Joshua M. Wiener, Urban Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) March 2006. 76 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311284_older_americans.pdf

["Six times as many older people with disabilities live at home as in nursing homes, yet two-thirds of long-term care expenditures for older people go to institutional care.... This report profiles older Americans and their caregivers. Focusing on people age 65 and older who are not in nursing homes.... The study findings highlight several policy issues, including the limited government support for long-term care services to older Americans living at home."]

[Request #S61154]

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GRANDPARENTS

Grandparent and Relative Caregivers: Medical Consent and Educational Enrollment Laws. By Nina Williams Mbengue, National Conference of Legislatures. NCSL Legisbrief. Vol. 14 No. 10. (February 2006) 2 p.

["Child welfare agencies rely on relatives to care for children who cannot remain with their parents. Grandparents in several states can obtain medical services for children in their care. In 21 states, relative caregivers can enroll children in schools."]

[Request #S61155]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CHILD ABUSE

Child Abuse and Shame [Issue Theme.] IN: Child Maltreatment, vol. 10, no. 4 (2005) pp. 301-397.

[Includes: "Emotional Development, Shame, and Adaptation to Child Maltreatment;" "Young Children's Adjustment as a Function of Maltreatment, Shame, and Anger;" "Understanding and Treating Feelings of Shame in Children Who Have Experienced Maltreatment;" "Mapping Shame and Its Functions in Relationships; and "Shame in Child Maltreatment: Contributions and Caveats."]

[Request #S61156]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT

A Portrait of the Visual Arts: Meeting the Challenges of a New Era. By Kevin F. McCarthy and Elizabeth H. Ondaatje. RAND. (RAND, Santa, Monica, California) 2005. 128 p.

["This book ... examines the state of the arts in America. It uses a systemwide approach to examine the visual arts in the context of the broader arts environment and to identify the major challenges they face.... This book should be of interest to both the visual arts community and to the individuals interested in arts policy and the future of the arts in America."]

[Request #S61158]

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