Subject: Studies in the News 06-13 (April 5, 2006)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

March 1856 - "In March 1856, 75 physicians congregated at the original Pioneer Hall in Old Town Sacramento to form the Medical Society of the State of California – now named the California Medical Association. They gathered for “mutual improvement, a study of the state’s growing health problems, and what to do about that everlasting parasite of medicine, quackery."  www.health-access.org/allmonths06.htm  

1856 - "There were in Sacramento some practicing physicians who had no medical degree but had gained their professional credentials solely through apprenticeship. This was in accordance with the time-honored but then obsolete practice by which young persons desiring to be a doctor attached themselves to a reputable physician and studied medicine under his tutelage in his offices and at the bedside. These preceptors determined after a few years when students were adequately trained and provided them with a certificate that they were competent to begin practice.... This situation common throughout American medicine of the day caused increasing friction."  elane.stanford.edu/wilson/Text/9c.html  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   New execution protocol
   Dangerous prisoners
   Criminal jurisdiction in tribal areas
   High crime rates among Southeast Asians
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   The number of unauthorized immigrants
   Scorecard for Latino wellbeing
   Emerging surveillance society
DEMOGRAPHY
   Diversity found in smaller cities
   Characteristics of growing elderly population
ECONOMY
   Growing impact of Latino-owned firms
   Boom in women's business ownership
   UCLA economic forecast
   Real-estate finance jobs and the economy
   Green technology jobs
EDUCATION
   Student achievement patterns
   Reframing education in public schools
   Higher education's value
   Barriers to college transfers
   Status of the teaching profession
EMPLOYMENT
   Trade adjustment assistance needed
   Minimum wage facts
   Bridge worker safety
ENERGY
   Bioenergy action plan
   Draft EIR on LNG port
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   Court blocks changes to air pollution review
   Green chemistry plan proposed
   Sierra Nevada watersheds
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Auditor's recommendations warrant legislative consideration
   Controlling unconstitutional class actions
   Electronic election reform
   Police personnel challenges after September 11
   Abusive tax shelters
HEALTH
   Methamphetamine use and HIV risk
   Factors affecting healthcare costs
   Economic contributions of hospitals
   Medicare drug benefit options
HUMAN SERVICES
   Reconnecting disadvantaged young men
   African Americans and Social Security
   Learning from youth opportunity grants
TRANSPORTATION
   Changes in work commutes
STUDIES TO COME
   Immigrants worker centers
   Support for California emissions standards
   Transportation and land use
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT

Michael Angelo Morales v. Jeannie Woodford, Acting Secretary, Department of Corrections and Rehabiliation, et al. U.S. District Court, Northern District of California. 06-219, 06-926. Notice of Lodging of Redacted Version of Sealed Document. March 16, 2006. 35 p.

Full Text at: www.sacbee.com/static/richmedia/pdf/031606execution.pdf

["California made public a version of its latest lethal injection protocol.... But the state left major questions unanswered, including what appears to be the key legal issue: What will be done to monitor whether the prisoner is unconscious and not subjected to extreme pain?... Because of security concerns, the unredacted document is never to be disclosed to the public, the press or lawyers representing Michael Angelo Morales, the next inmate scheduled for execution." Sacramento Bee (March 17, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61301]

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CORRECTIONAL POPULATIONS

Forecasting Dangerous Inmate Misconduct. By Richard A. Berk and others, California Policy Research Center, University of California. (The University, Oakland, California) February 2006. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.ucop.edu/cprc/prisonermisconduct.pdf

["Even if the Department of Corrections could forecast more accurately which prisoners are likely to commit serious offenses, the capacity of the state's highest-security prisons 'would be substantially exceeded.' An effective three-level security system would house perhaps 90% of the inmates in the lowest security level. The remaining 10% of inmates who posed a serious threat to staff and to each other would then be housed in one of two very-high-security settings, depending on whether they were among the 'worst of the worst.' "]

[Request #S61302]

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NATIVE AMERICANS

Criminal Jurisdiction and Law Enforcement: Areas for State-Tribal Cooperation. By Andrea Wilkins, National Conference of State Legislatures. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) February 2006. 14 p.

["Criminal jurisdiction in Indian Country can be a confusing area of law. The rules have created a patchwork of state, tribal and federal jurisdictions that vary depending on the type of crime committed, the identity of the perpetrator, the identity of the victim and the location of the crime. As a result, there is great opportunity for state-tribal cooperation in this area."]

[Request #S61303]

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YOUTH

Hidden Challenges: Juvenile Justice and Education Issues Affecting Asian and Pacific Islander Youth in Richmond, California. By Poonam Juneja, National Council on Crime and Delinquency. (The Council, Washington, DC) March 2006. 72 p.

Full Text at: www.nccd-crc.org/nccd/pubs/2006_hidden_challenges_api.pdf

["A newly released study on youth crime in Richmond shows high crime rates among Southeast Asians.... The families struggle economically and their children are performing poorly in school. They are also more likely to get involved in crime." Contra Costa Times (March 14, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61304]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

IMMIGRANTS

The Size and Characteristics of the Unauthorized Migrant Population in the U.S.: Estimates Based on the March 2005 Current Population Survey. By Jeffrey S. Passel, Pew Hispanic Center. (The Center, Washington, DC) March 7, 2006. 18 p.

Full Text at: pewhispanic.org/files/reports/61.pdf

["Beefed-up efforts to tighten the borders have failed to slow the flow of undocumented immigrants and are even discouraging illegal residents from returning to their home country, a study found. Researchers estimate that 11.5 million to 12 million undocumented immigrants now live in the United States, up from 11.1 million last year and 8.5 million in 2000." Los Angeles Daily News (March 8, 2006) N1.]

[Request #S61305]

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LATINOS

Latino Scorecard 2006: Road to Action. By United Way of Greater Los Angeles. (United Way, Los Angeles, California) 2006. 126 p.

Full Text at: www.unitedwayla.org/pages/rpts_resource/lat_score_06/LSC06_Full_Rpt_012305.pdf

["This report evaluates the status of Latinos in Los Angeles on criteria of wellbeing: insurance coverage, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, medical school enrollment, college preparation, academic performance, preschool, housing affordability, public safety and more. The report also includes policy recommendations for each of the criteria."]

[Request #S61306]

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PRIVACY

No Place to Hide: Behind the Scenes of Our Emerging Surveillance Society. By Robert O'Harrow, Jr. (Free Press, New York, New York) 2005. 349 p.

["A Washington Post journalist examines the technology creating a 'surveillance society.' He explains how businesses and the government have gone 'on a data collection binge' and delineates the benefits and risks of compiling so much information. While some citizens are willing to sacrifice privacy for security, O'Harrow sees the partnership between data brokers and government agencies as deeply problematic." Newhouse News Service (February 10, 2006) 1. NOTE: No Place to Hide ... is available for loan.]

[Request #S61307]

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DEMOGRAPHY

ASIAN AMERICANS & LATINOS

Diversity Spreads Out: Metropolitan Shifts in Hispanic, Asian, and Black Populations Since 2000. By William H. Frey, Brookings Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2006. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/metro/pubs/20060307_Frey.pdf

["Minority populations shifted dramatically within the United States between 1990 and 2004 as Latinos and Asians moved away from large metropolitan areas and African Americans moved to the South.... Although older large cities still house the majority of Latinos and nonwhites in the United States, Latinos, Asians and African Americans increasingly are moving to smaller metropolitan areas that historically have been largely white." San Francisco Chronicle (March 7, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61308]

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ELDERLY

65+ in the United States. By Wan He, U.S. Census Bureau, and others. Current Population Reports. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) December 2005. 243 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs/p23-209.pdf

["Older Americans are healthier, wealthier and better educated than ever, but the expected doubling of the elderly population by 2030 will create social and economic challenges. The report contains hopeful and humbling news about growing old.... The authors said they didn't want to recommend particular actions, instead providing detailed information for policymakers in a single volume." Los Angeles Times (March 10, 2006) A21.]

[Request #S61309]

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ECONOMY

CALIFORNIA

Hispanic-Owned Firms: 2002. By U.S. Census Bureau. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) March 2006. 631 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/ec02/sb0200cshisp.pdf

["The number of Latino-owned businesses in the United States grew by 31 percent between 1997 and 2002, more than three times the rate for all businesses. The impact of Latinos on California and its economy is deepening.... In 2002, Latino-owned businesses in California had $57.2 billion in sales and other receipts." San Francisco Chronicle (March 22, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61310]

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Women-Owned Firms: 2002. By U.S. Census Bureau. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) February 2006. 873 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/ec02/sb0200cswmn.pdf

["The number of companies owned by women shot up by 20 percent nationally and 24 percent in California between 1997 and 2002 -- far above the 10 percent growth in the total number of U.S. businesses. Experts said the current boom in women's business ownership is part of a trend that began several decades ago." San Francisco Chronicle (January 26, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61311]

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UCLA Anderson Forecast for the Nation and California. By the UCLA Anderson Forecasting Project, Anderson Graduate School of Management. And Quarterly Business Forecast Seminar: Packet. By Ed Leamer, Anderson Graduate School of Management, and others. (The School, Los Angeles, California) March 2006. Various pagings.

["Forecasters at UCLA said they believe construction employment will shrink substantially, leading to a major difference in how well the job market performs. The cutbacks in construction will limit overall job growth to about 1 percent this year, he said. Last year statewide jobs grew at a 2 percent rate." Sacramento Bee (March 29, 2005) D1.]

[Request #S61312]

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"Real-Estate Finance and the California Economy." By Ryan Ratcliff. IN: Forecast Direct, vol. 3 no. 2 (February 2006) pp. 1-4.

["California's real estate boom has led to several years of strong growth in both construction and mortgage-related finance jobs.... While previous history suggests that recent interest rate increases and slowing demand for housing may lead to the loss of several thousands jobs in California's mortgage industry, we conclude that the scale of these potential losses is not large enough to tip our 2006 forecast for California from slow job growth to recession."]

[Request #S61313]

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LOS ANGELES

Jobs in L.A.'s Green Technology Sector. By Patrick Burns and Daniel Flaming, Economic Roundtable. Prepared for the Department of Water and Power and the Workforce Investment Board, City of Los Angeles. (The Roundtable, Los Angeles, California) 2006. 52 p.

Full Text at: www.economicrt.org/download/form.html

["Los Angeles has unrealized opportunities to become a growing provider of 'green' goods and services, and through this growth to create decent jobs that benefit all residents of the city.... This report explores the climate of labor, business, and the economy, focusing on integrating underutilized labor into the city economy and local small business development."]

[Request #S61314]

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EDUCATION

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

Primary Progress, Secondary Challenge: A State-by-State Look at Student Achievement Patterns. By Daria Hall and Shana Kennedy, Education Trust. (The Trust, Washington, DC) March 2006. 24 p.

Full Text at: www2.edtrust.org/NR/rdonlyres/15B22876-20C8-47B8-9AF4-FAB148A225AC/0/PPSCreport.pdf

["The report ... found that elementary school students nationwide are doing much better on standardized tests, with a slightly more mixed picture in middle and high schools. Nationally, the achievement gap that separates Latinos and African Americans from white students is closing, at least in the lower grades. California was among a few states that saw the gaps widen." Los Angeles Times (March 3, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61315]

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EDUCATIONAL REFORM

Reframing Education: The Partnership Strategy and Public Schools. By Janice M. Hirota. Carnegie Corporation. (The Corporation, New York, New York) 2005. 114 p.

Full Text at: www.newvisions.org/schools/downloads/hirotalores.pdf

["Since 2002, the New Century High Schools Initiative has created 78 small, autonomous schools out of large, underperforming New York City public high schools. The initiative partners New Century schools with community-based organizations such as museums, universities and youth development organizations. This report documents and analyzes several of those partnerships and highlights best practices, challenges and achievements." Youth Today (February 2006) 20.]

[Request #S61316]

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HIGHER EDUCATION

The Investment Payoff: A 50-State Analysis of the Public and Private Benefits of Higher Education. By the Institute for Higher Education Policy. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2005. 44 p.

Full Text at: www.ihep.org/Pubs/PDF/InvestmentPayoff2005.pdf

["Studies have consistently shown that going to college has broad and quantifiable national impacts, from higher salaries to improved health to increased volunteerism to a reduced reliance on welfare and other social support programs.... This report builds on the work of these ongoing efforts by articulating the benefits of higher education on a 50-state basis."

[Request #S61317]

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Promoting Access to Higher Education: A Review of the State's Transfer Process. By Anthony Simbol and others, Legislative Analyst's Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) 2006. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2006/CCC_transfer/CCC_transfer_011706.pdf

["This report reviews current transfer admission policies and identifies institutional barriers that can make the transfer process difficult for qualified students. [LAO concluded] that the current process lacks the systemwide standardization envisioned in the Master Plan, and recommended steps to make the transfer process more efficient and effective for students."]

[Request #S61318]

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TEACHERS

The Status of the Teaching Profession 2005. By The Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning. (The Center, Santa Cruz, California) 2006. 175 p.

Full Text at: www.cftl.org/documents/2005/stp05fullreport.pdf

["California will face a shortage of 100,000 teachers within 10 years.... If the state doesn't increase the supply and quality of educators, students in poor districts will suffer disproportionately. 'There's virtually no community in the state of California where this is not a concern'."]

[Request #S61319]

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EMPLOYMENT

DISPLACED WORKERS

Trade Adjustment Assistance: Most Workers in Five Layoffs Received Services, But Better Outreach Needed on New Benefits. By the Government Accountability Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) January 2006. 95 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d0643.pdf

["GAO examined: 1) the extent to which workers accessed federally funded reemployment services and the mix of services received; 2) the employment outcomes these workers achieved; and 3) the extent to which workers used the new health insurance and wage insurance benefits under the Trade Adjustment Assistance program."]

[Request #S61321]

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MINIMUM WAGE

California's Minimum Wage: Policy Points. By Alissa Anderson Garcia, California Budget Project. (The Project, Sacramento, California) March 2006. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/2006/06_pp_minwage.pdf

["Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger recently proposed raising California’s minimum wage from the current hourly wage of $6.75 to $7.75. Approximately one out of every 10 California workers earned within a dollar of the state’s minimum wage in 2004.... Many workers who have minimum wage jobs do not move on to higher paying jobs."]

[Request #S61322]

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WORKPLACE SAFETY

San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge Worker Safety: Better State Oversight Is Needed to Ensure That Injuries Are Reported Properly and That Safety Issues Are Addressed. By the California Bureau of State Audits. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) February 2006. 58 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/pdfs/reports/2005-119.pdf

["This report concludes that the Division of Occupational Safety and Health of the Department of Industrial Relations did not discover the potential underreporting of injuries on the Skyway project of the Bay Bridge East Span replacement because it lacks procedures to ensure the reasonable accuracy of employers' annual injury reports."]

[Request #S61320]

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ENERGY

ENERGY

Recommendations for a Bioenergy Action Plan for California: Draft Consultant Report. By Navigant Consulting. (California Energy Commission, Bioenergy Interagency Working Group. Sacramento, California) March 2006. 50 p.

Full Text at: www.energy.ca.gov/2006publications/CEC-600-2006-004/CEC-600-2006-004-D.PDF

["Biomass –- biologically-derived renewable materials that can be used to produce heat, power, transportation fuels, and other value-added products and chemicals –- is found in abundance in California and represents a significant renewable energy resource.... Despite the many benefits of using bioenergy, California’s existing bioenergy industry faces a range of technical, market, and regulatory challenges."]

[Request #S61323]

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LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS

Cabrillo Port Liquified Natural Gas Deepwater Port: Revised Draft EIR. By the California State lands Commission. (The Commission, Sacramento, California) March 2006

["A liquefied natural gas terminal off Ventura County's shore would not pose a danger to Oxnard or other communities, but an accident or attack could reach into fishing areas and shipping lanes.... Cabrillo Port...is unique because of the floating terminal, where LNG carried by tankers would be converted into conventional gas and sent to shore through a pair of pipelines." Ventura County Star (March 14, 2006) 1.]

Environmental Impact Report. Various pagings.
EIR

Executive Summary. 91 p.
Summary

[Request #S61324]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR POLLUTION

State of New York, et al. v. Environmental Protection Agency. U.S. Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit. 03-1380. March 17, 2006. 20 p.

Full Text at: pacer.cadc.uscourts.gov/docs/common/opinions/200603/03-1380a.pdf

["A court threw out a controversial regulation in the federal government's clean-air program that would have allowed older factories, refineries and power plants to install new equipment without using the most modern anti-pollution devices.... If the regulation were allowed to take effect, the court said, 'a law intended to limit increases in air pollution would allow sources... to increase significantly the pollution they release.' California and 13 other states had challenged the EPA ruling." Los Angeles Times (March 18, 2006) A22.]

[Request #S61325]

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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Green Chemistry in California: A Framework for Leadership in Chemicals Policy and Innovation. By Michael P. Wilson, and others, Northern California Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, UC Berkeley. (The Center, Berkeley, California) March 2006.

["A team assembled by the Legislature has recommended that the state adopt a comprehensive policy to identify and restrict the most dangerous chemicals used by American industries and replace them with safer substitutes.... The report is the first in the nation to lay out a framework for government to implement an approach called 'green chemistry,' an international movement toward designing and using chemicals that are less hazardous to people and ecosystems." Los Angeles Times (March 14, 2006) 1.]

Report. 115 p.
http://coeh.berkeley.edu/GreenChemistryReport.pdf

Brief. 1 p.
http://coeh.berkeley.edu/GreenChemBrief.pdf

[Request #S61326]

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WATER RESOURCES

State of Sierra Waters: A Sierra Nevada Watersheds Index. By Kerri Timmer, Sierra Connections, and others. (Sierra Nevada Alliance, South Lake Tahoe, California) March 2006. 170 p.

Full Text at: www.sierranevadaalliance.org/publications/db/pics/1143036971_22153.f_pdf.pdf

["At some point during the past five years, pollution has impaired sections of the Tuolumne, San Joaquin and Stanislaus rivers, a new study contends.... The study claims that three-quarters of the 24 Sierra Nevada watersheds sampled had 'stretches that were not swimable, fishable, drinkable or open to recreation.'" Sacramento Bee (March 27, 2006) B1.]

[Request #S61327]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

AUDITS AND INVESTIGATIONS

Implementation of State Auditor’s Recommendations: Audits Released in January 2004 Through December 2005. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) January 2006. 345 p.

Full Text at: bsa.ca.gov/pdfs/reports/2006-406R.pdf

["The report summarizes audits and investigations issued during the previous two years. This report includes the major findings and recommendations, along with the corrective actions auditees reportedly have taken to implement recommendations. This report also includes appendices that compile recommendations warranting legislative consideration and summarize monetary benefits auditees could release if they implement recommendations."]

[Request #S61328]

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COURT REFORM

Controlling Unconstitutional Class Actions: A Blueprint for Future Lawsuit Reform. By Mark Mollar, CATO Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2005. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa546.pdf

["At a minimum, controlling unconstitutional class actions requires Congress to change federal class action rules. Necessary changes include: 1) requirements that absent class members 'opt in' before they are counted as part of the class and that courts assess the merits of legal claims before authorizing their litigation in the form of a class action; and 2) a ban on class treatment of lawsuits in which key elements can be proven only on a case-by-case basis."]

[Request #S61329]

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ELECTION REFORM

Nine States' Experiences Implementing Federal Requirements for Computerized Statewide Voter Registration Lists. By the Government Accountability Office. (The Office, Washington, DC) February 2006. 65 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-06-247

["This report discusses the experiences of the nine states that were subject to the original Help America Vote Act (HAVA) deadline. The report describes actions election officials in these states reported taking to meet specific HAVA requirements.... GAO is also reporting what states said about the challenges they faced and lessons learned implementing the requirements."]

[Request #S61330]

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EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

Police Personnel Challenges After September 11: Anticipating Expanded Duties and a Changing Labor Pool. By Barbara Raymond and others, RAND. (RAND, Santa Monica) 2005. 35 p.

Full Text at: www.rand.org/pubs/occasional_papers/2005/RAND_OP154.pdf

["This paper should be of interest to law enforcement agency administrators and policymakers at all levels of government. It focuses primarily on personnel planning of local law enforcement agencies, but its lessons and recommendations can apply to state and federal law enforcement, as well as intelligence and immigration enforcement agencies."]

[Request #S61331]

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TAXES

Abusive Tax Shelters: Impact of Recent California Legislation. By Mark Ibele, Legislative Analyst's Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) January 2006. 17 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2006/abusive_tax_shelters/abusive_tax_shelters_012706.pdf

["The amnesty program that California offered to users of abusive tax shelters two years ago helped state officials pinpoint a big problem. More than $300 million of the $1.4 billion in revenue generated by the 2004 abusive tax shelter amnesty program came from affluent out-of-state residents. The taxpayers earned money here but sheltered it from California tax using deals with no economic substance, the report says." Sacramento Bee (February 2, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61332]

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HEALTH

DRUG USE

"Methamphetamine Use and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Heterosexual Men: Preliminary Results from Five Northern California Counties, December 2001 to November 2003." By C. S. Krawczyk and others. IN: MMWR Weekly, vol. 55 no. 10 (March 17, 2006) pp. 273-277.

Full Text at: www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5510a2.htm

["Risky sexual behavior under the influence of methamphetamine -- an HIV hazard often spotted in surveys of gay men -- is also occurring among meth-using heterosexuals in Northern California. Researchers in five counties found that straight men who reported recent methamphetamine use were much more likely to have casual or anonymous sex, anal sex and sex for money or drugs with female partners than those who did not use the addictive stimulant." San Francisco Chronicle (March 17, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61333]

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HEALTH CARE

The Factors Fueling Rising Healthcare Costs: 2006. By PricewaterhouseCoopers. Prepared for America’s Health Insurance Plans. (AHIP, Washington, DC) 2006. 18 p.

Full Text at: www.ahip.org/redirect/PwCCostOfHC2006.pdf

["Approximately 86 cents out of every premium dollar go directly towards paying for medical services. Of the remaining costs, five cents go to other consumer services, provider support, and marketing (including prevention, disease management, care coordination, investments in health information technology and health support). Costs associated with government payments, regulation and administration comprise an estimated six cents. Health plan profits represent three cents of the premium dollar"]

[Request #S61334]

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HOSPITAL COSTS

Hidden in Plain Sight: The Economic Contributions of Southern California Hospitals and Related Services. By Gregory Freeman and others, Los Angeles County Economic Development Corporations. (The Corporation, Los Angeles, California) February 2006. 72 p.

Full Text at: www.laedc.org/reports/HASC-2006.pdf

["Half of the hospitals in a six-county region including Los Angeles lost money on patient care in 2004.... Of 212 hospitals in the region that year, 107 spent more treating patients than they were able to collect for that care.... State-mandated nurse-staffing ratios, high property taxes and high numbers of uninsured patients make it 'very hard to do business in Southern California.'" Los Angeles Times (February 28, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61335]

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MEDICARE

The Medicare Drug Benefit: How Good Are the Options? By Avalere Health LLC. (California Healthcare Foundation, Oakland, California) March 2006. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.chcf.org/documents/policy/TheMedicareDrugBenefitHowGoodAreTheOptions.pdf

["Many low-income California seniors now have access to a narrower range of drugs than when the state covered their medications. The new federal program contains pitfalls for middle-class beneficiaries as well.... The report, among the first assessments based on government data rather than anecdotal evidence, comes as California is experiencing significant problems with the transition of low-income seniors and disabled people from the state Medi-Cal program to the Medicare drug plan." Los Angeles Times (March 21, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61336]

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HUMAN SERVICES

SOCIAL POLICY

Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men. By Peter Edelman, and others, Georgetown University. (The Urban Institute, Washington, DC) 2006. 156 p.

["Black men in the United States face a far more dire situation than is portrayed by common employment and education statistics, a flurry of new scholarly studies warn, and it has worsened in recent years even as an economic boom and a welfare overhaul have brought gains to black women and other groups. Official unemployment rates can be misleading because they do not include those not seeking work or incarcerated." New York Times (March 20, 2006) A1. NOTE: Reconnecting Disadvantaged Young Men ... is available for loan]

[Request #S61338]

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SOCIAL SECURITY

African Americans and Social Security: The Implications of Reform Proposals. By William Spriggs and Jason Furman, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. (The Center, Washington, DC) January 2006. 14 p.

Full Text at: www.cbpp.org/1-18-06socsec.pdf

["African Americans receive modestly more in Social Security benefits for each dollar they pay in payroll taxes than whites do. The report is based on a wide range of studies conducted by government agencies and leading academic researchers."]

[Request #S61337]

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YOUTH

Learning from the Youth Opportunity Experience: Building Delivery Capacity in Distressed Communities. By Linda Harris, Center for Law and Social Policy. (CLASP, Washington, DC) January 2006. 58 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/publications/youthopportunity_report.pdf

["In 2000, the U.S. Department of Labor awarded significant Youth Opportunity Grants to 36 high-poverty urban, rural, and Native American communities. The grants were designed to serve all young people, regardless of income or connection to school or work. Despite evidence of considerable community accomplishments, the grants were ended in 2005. This report examines the approach's strengths, challenges, and lessons learned, and offers recommendations for policy and practice."]

[Request #S61339]

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TRANSPORTATION

COMMUTERS & COMMUTING

Time to Work: Commuting Times and Modes of Transportation of California Workers. By Elisa Barbour, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) February 2006. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/CC_206EBCC.pdf

["As more jobs move to suburbia from traditional downtowns, some suburbanites in metropolitan areas are arranging shorter commutes by driving from their own suburb to jobs in another suburb nearby. Yet, congestion is increasing, and more commuters are suffering 'extreme' one-way commutes of more than 45 minutes. 'Commuting trends are growing more complicated; our data shows that suburbanization has mixed results' on commute times, said Elisa Barbour." Sacramento Bee (February 28, 2006) B1.]

[Request #S61340]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

CULTURE AND SOCIETY

IMMIGRANTS

Worker Centers Organizing Communities at the Edge of the Dream. By Janice Fine, Economic Policy Institute. (The Institute, Washington, DC.) 2006.

["Day labor centers have emerged in the last decade as institutions that organize immigrant workers to 'create economic justice' and give them political voice.... These new associations of workers are addressing new ranges of issues: employment, incorporation of immigrants, health care, etc." Monterey Herald (February 20, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61341]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR POLLUTION

State and Federal Standards for Mobile Source Emissions. By the Committee on State Practices in Setting Mobile Source Emissions Standards, National Research Council. (National Academy Press, Washington, DC) 2006. 295 p.

Full Text at: www.nap.edu/catalog/11586.html

["A panel overwhelmingly endorsed California's tough air pollution regulations, saying the state had served as 'a proving ground for new emissions-control technologies that benefit California and the rest of the nation.'... The panel not only found that California's unique legal right under the Clean Air Act to set stricter standards than the federal government was 'scientifically valid,' and 'still needed because of persistent pollution,' but also recommended that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency speed up its review of such regulations. " Los Angeles Times (March 17, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S61342]

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LAND USE

Zoned Out: Regulation, Markets and Choices in Transportation and Metropolitan Land-Use. By Jonathan Levine. (Resources for the Future, Washington D.C.) 221 p.

[Includes: "Market Failures and Planning Failures;" "The Harms of Regulatory Exclusion;" "The Limited Power of Smart-Growth Regulation;" and "The Demand for Transportation and Land-Use Innovation." NOTE: Zoned Out ... will be available for loan.]

[Request #S61343]

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