Subject: Studies in the News 06-19 (May 8, 2006)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

May 7, 1856 - "Stephen C. Foster began his fourth separate term as Mayor of Los Angeles. Foster, who was the first mayor of Los Angeles under American rule, had been mayor three seperate times between 1848-1855…. Foster left office on September 22, 1856.... Next John Greg Nichols served as Mayor From October 12, 1856 until 1859. Nichols was a businessman and a builder who lived in the first brick house to be built in Los Angeles. His son was the first American to be born in the city, and he was the first mayor to expand the city."  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_Requena  

1856 - "Manuel Requena served the City of Los Angeles in both the Mexican and American periods…. Requena previously served as First Alcade from 1844 to 1845, during the last years of Los Angeles under Mexican rule. Requena became a charter member, when the Los Angeles Common Council was formed in 1850 after Los Angeles was incorporated as an American town. Later while council president, he served as acting mayor for twelve days in 1856 from September 22 to October 12, 1856."  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_Requena  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Slight increase in violent crimes
   Fewer juvenile offenders in custody
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
   Illegal immigration profile
   Hispanics and the future of America
DEMOGRAPHY
   Domestic migration
ECONOMY
   Motion picture tax incentives
   Offshoring human services programs
   Retirement systems funding
EDUCATION
   Economy needs more educated workforce
   Outside UC compensation audit
   State UC compensation audit
EMPLOYMENT
   Day laborers
ENERGY
   Utility energy efficiency standards
   Measures to achieve energy independence
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   State of the air
   Reduction in pesticide emissions ordered
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Estimated losses in the next earthquake
   Eliminating state corporate income tax
   State resists reduced tobacco payments
   The incumbency advantage in the legislature
HEALTH
   Obese children and car seats
   Effects of mercury fillings in children
   Cost of Massachusetts-style coverage
   Strategies for mitigating a pandemic influenza
   Pandemic influenza implementation plan
   Certified Nurse Assistants training
HOUSING
   State laws don't reduce subprime access
HUMAN SERVICES
   Subsidizing long-term relative guardianships
   Low-income children in the United States
STUDIES TO COME
   Review of high-tech industry
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CRIME RATES

Crime in 2005: January-December: Preliminary Report. By the Criminal Justice Statistics Center, California Department of Justice. (The Center, Sacramento, California) April 2006. 10 p.

Full Text at: ag.ca.gov/cjsc/publications/preliminarys/jd05/jd05net.pdf

["In 2005, California experienced a 3.2 percent increase in violent crime from the previous year. The preliminary report showed increases of 4.4 percent in homicides, 5.2 percent in robberies, and 2.6 percent in aggravated assaults. Rapes decreased by 2.5 percent." San Francisco Chronicle (April 27, 2005) B1.]

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JUVENILE JUSTICE

Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report. By H. Snyder and M. Sickmund, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice. (The Office, Washington, DC) 2006. 260 p.

Full Text at: ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/ojstatbb/nr2006/downloads/NR2006.pdf

["After peaking in 1999, the number of youth in custody began to fall -— for the first time in a generation.... Racial disparity in the juvenile justice system is declining. For example, the black juvenile violent crime arrest rate in the late 1980s was six times the white rate. By 2003, it had fallen to four times the white rate. During the same period, the black juvenile arrest rate for drug abuse violations fell from five times to less than double the white rate."]

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CULTURE AND SOCIETY

IMMIGRANTS

Illegal Immigration. By Hans P. Johnson, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) April 2006. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/atissue/AI_406HJAI.pdf

["Recent public opinion polls suggest immigration is less of a hot-button issue in this state than some other parts of the nation. Only 10 percent of Californians in a recent poll rated immigration as the most important issue facing the state. 'The vast majority may want illegal immigration to cease,' Johnson said. 'A majority also see that pragmatically, and from a humanitarian perspective, one cannot deport 11 million people, a lot of whom have kids.'" Contra Costa Times (April 11, 2006) F4.]

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LATINOS

Hispanics and the Future of America. Edited by Marta Tienda and Faith Mitchell, Committee on Transforming our Common Destiny, National Research Council. (National Academies Press, Washington, DC) 2006. 502 p.

Full Text at: darwin.nap.edu/books/0309100518/html/

["Although the U.S. Hispanic population predates the founding of the United States, the recent emergence of Hispanics as the largest minority group is one of the most important demographic changes of the 20th century....This volume provides detailed analyses using multiple sources to characterize this dynamic, eclectic population from multiple perspectives; to evaluate whether and in what ways Hispanics are distinctive from other immigrant and minority groups; and to assess the social integration prospects of recent arrivals and their descendants."] Note: Hispanics and the Future of America is available for loan.

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DEMOGRAPHY

MIGRATION

Domestic Net Migration in the United States: 2000 to 2004. By Marc J. Perry. U.S. Census Bureau. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) April 2006. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs/p25-1135.pdf

["The Inland Empire, fed by migrants from coastal California, is the fastest-growing urban area in the United States.... Since 2000, there has also been a significant outflow of people from places long associated with the ideal of California living -- Los Angeles and the Bay Area -- to more affordable regions.... Factors for luring people included more affordable housing, better school systems and a rapidly expanding economy." Los Angeles Times (April 19, 2006) 1.]

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ECONOMY

FILM INDUSTRY

"Motion Picture Tax Incentives: There's No Business Like Show Business." By John Grand. IN: State Tax Notes, vol. 39 no. 10 (March 13, 2006) pp. 791-803.

["Louisiana now has one of the most pro-movie taxing structures in the nation. But is Louisiana getting a fair deal?... This report compares the actual benefits the state receives with the cost of offering such lavish tax incentives, and examines motion picture incentives offered by other states. The report concludes with recommendations that Louisiana should adopt to ensure the effectiveness of its incentive program."]

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OUTSOURCING

Offshoring in Six Human Services Programs: Offshoring Occurs in Most States, Primarily in Customer Service and Software Development. By the U.S. Government Accountability Office. GAO-06-342 (The Office, Washington, DC) March 2006. 45 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d06342.pdf

["Offshoring occurred in one or more programs in 43 of 50 states and the District of Columbia, most frequently in the Food Stamp and TANF programs. The services most frequently performed offshore were functions related to customer service, such as call centers, and software development. India was the most prevalent offshore location, followed by Mexico. We did not find any occurrences of offshoring in the Pell Grant and FFEL programs."]

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SAVINGS & PENSIONS

2006 Wilshire Report on State Retirement Systems: Funding Levels and Asset Allocations. By Julia K. Bonafeta and others, Wilshire Consulting (Wilshire Consulting, Santa Monica, California) March 14, 2006. 18 p.

Full Text at: www.wilshire.com/Company/2006_State_Funding_Report.pdf

["State pension funds nationwide continued to recover last year from the financial shock of a stock market downturn that left a majority with big gaps between assets and future liabilities. The report ... found nine of 58 major U.S. public retirement plans in 2005 had enough assets to meet all future pension obligations, up from about 10 percent the previous year. That's a far cry from 57 percent in 2000." Sacramento Bee (April 4, 2006) 1.]

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EDUCATION

HIGHER EDUCATION

Keeping California's Edge: The Growing Demand for Highly Educated Workers. By Robert Fountain and Marcia Cosgrove, Applied Research Center, California State University, Sacramento. Prepared for the California Business Roundtable and the Campaign for College Opportunity. (The Campaign, Oakland, California) April 2006.

["The study looked at the future needs of the state's economy and found that the demand for workers with a college degree will grow by 48 percent over the next 16 years. By contrast, the demand for those without a degree will grow by only 33 percent. If businesses can't find workers to fill these specialized, knowledge-based jobs, they'll move away, the study warns." San Jose Mercury News (April 27, 2006) 1.]

Report. 109 p.
http://www.collegecampaign.org/pdf/studies/Keeping-CA-Edge-Full-Report.pdf

Executive Summary. 8 p.
http://www.collegecampaign.org/pdf/studies/KCE-ExSum-Report-Final.pdf

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Report of Independent Accountants. And Findings and Observations. By PriceWaterhouseCoopers. (PriceWaterhouseCoopers, San Francisco, California) April 2006.

["In violation of its own policies, the University of California gave most of its top executives bonuses, housing allowances or other perks that weren't publicly reported or approved by the governing Board of Regents. A $1.5 million audit by PriceWaterhouseCoopers, the university system's outside auditor, focused on 32 top administrative jobs and the 63 men and women who have filled them over the past 10 years.... The report, however, did not name anyone as being responsible for the failures." San Francisco Chronicle (April 25, 2006) A1.]

Report of Independent Accountants. 21 p.
http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/news/compensation/pwcreport.pdf

Findings and Observations. 25 p.
http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/news/compensation/pwcfindings.pdf

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University of California: Stricter Oversight and Greater Transparency Are Needed to Improve Its Compensation Practices. By the California Bureau of State Audits. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) May 2006.

["This audit reported that UC compensation practices are rife with problems, ranging from bookkeeping errors to policy violations involving millions of dollars in extra compensation. The audit found that UC administrators sometimes circumvented the university's compensation policies. In addition, auditors confirmed that UC has failed to consistently disclose executives' full compensation to its governing Board of Regents as required by university policy." San Francisco Chronicle (May 3, 2006) 1.]

Report. 137 p.
http://www.bsa.ca.gov/pdfs/reports/2006-103.pdf

Results in Brief. 1 p.
http://www.bsa.ca.gov/reports/summary.php?id=501

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EMPLOYMENT

UNSKILLED WORKERS

Day Laborers. By Andrew Barwig, National Conference of State Legislatures. NCSL Legisbrief. Vol. 14 No. 22 (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) April/May 2006. 2 p.

["More than 100,000 U.S. workers daily are looking for jobs or working as day laborers, and have become part of the debate over illegal immigration.... Day laborers are protected by federal and state employment laws; laws in nine states expand protections for these workers."]

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ENERGY

ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Energy Efficiency and Resource Standards: Experience and Recommendations. By Steven Nadel, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. (The Council, Washington, DC) March 2006. 63 p.

Full Text at: aceee.org/pubs/e063.pdf?CFID=7691&CFTOKEN=80260108

["An Energy Efficiency Resource Standard (EERS) is a simple, market-based mechanism to encourage more efficient generation, transmission, and use of electricity and natural gas.... We recommend that both states and the federal government enact EERSs covering both electric and gas utilities. So far, states have led EERS efforts and more states should consider policies of this type. Eventually, the federal government should follow these leading states and enact a national EERS so as to expand the savings and benefits throughout the country."]

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ENERGY POLICY

Towards Energy Independence in 2025. By Jenn Baka, and others, University of California, Berkeley. (Americans for Energy Independence, Studio City, California) March 2006. 24 p.

["The study details immediate and long-term measures that, applied to the nation's transportation sector and fleet of power plants, could reduce oil imports by more than 30 percent within twenty years.... Recommendations include increased fuel economy standards; the use of biofuels; a major push to make plug-in hybrid vehicles running on gasoline, or preferably cellulosic ethanol, as back-up; and a general expansion of the use of hybrid vehicles." PRNewswire (April 6, 2006) 1.]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

AIR POLLUTION

American Lung Association State of the Air: 2006. By the American Lung Association. (The Association, New York, New York) April 2006.

["This annual air-quality report card flunked San Joaquin Valley counties for the seventh consecutive year. Bakersfield took the spot for the most ozone-polluted city in the country, edging out Los Angeles and Riverside. And Kern County topped the list of most-polluted counties for ozone, the main ingredient of smog." Fresno Bee (April 27, 2006) 1.]

Executive Summary. Various pagings.
http://lungaction.org/reports/sota06exec_summ.html

California Table. Various pagings.
http://lungaction.org/reports/SOTA06_stateozone.html?geo_area_id=06

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PESTICIDES

El Comite para El Bienstar de Earlimart, et al. v. Paul Helliker, Director, Department of Pesticide Regulation, et al. U.S. District Court, Eastern District of California. S-04-882. April 26, 2006. 3 p.

["In 1994, state regulators promised that by 2005, smog-forming emissions from pesticides would be 20 percent lower than 1990 levels. A judge found that the promise was not kept, and ordered the Department of Pesticide Regulation to come up with regulations to achieve the original goal and submit them to the federal Environmental Protection Agency for approval no later than Jan. 1, 2008." Sacramento Bee (April 28, 2006) A3.]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

When the Big One Strikes Again: Estimated Losses Due to a Repeat of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake. By Charles Kircher, Kircher and Associates, and others. Presented to the 100th Anniversary Earthquake Conference Commemorating the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake. (The Conference, San Francisco, California) April 2006.

["New research on earthquakes presented to mark the 100th anniversary of this city's great quake paints a disquieting picture of California's preparedness for a major temblor. The overarching message of scientists gathered here was twofold. First, future quakes could easily do more damage than past ones because the population of California continues to increase and there are more buildings in areas near fault lines on soft ground susceptible to liquefaction. Second, the state must do more to retrofit vulnerable buildings." Los Angeles Times (April 21, 2006) 1.]

Report. 34 p.
http://www.1906eqconf.org/mediadocs/BigonestrikesReport.pdf

Statistical Table 1. 14 p.
http://www.1906eqconf.org/mediadocs/Final_Tables_R6.pdf

Statistical Table 2. 5 p.
http://www.1906eqconf.org/mediadocs/Final_Figures_R2.pdf

Managing Risk in Earthquake Country. 16 p.
http://www.1906eqconf.org/mediadocs/managingrisk.pdf

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INCOME TAXES

"The Potential Effect of Eliminating the State Corporate Income Tax on Economic Activity." By Laura A. Wheeler. IN: State Tax Notes, vol. 39 no. 9 (March 6, 2006) pp. 705-717.

["Economists have struggled with this issue for over 30 years. More than 100 studies have been conducted, each trying to determine what effect, if any, fiscal variables have on firm location and thus on state employment and investment levels. The results have been less than definitive.... This report summarizes some of the better studies, then uses the results of those studies to estimate the effect of eliminating the state's corporate income tax on economic activity within the state."]

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STATE FINANCES

People of the State of California, v. Phillip Morris USA, Inc., et al. San Diego County Superior Court. JCCP 4041. Complaint for Relief Under the Tobacco Master Agreement. April 17, 2006. 10 p.

Full Text at: ag.ca.gov/newsalerts/cms06/06-036_0a.pdf

["Attorney General Bill Lockyer went to court to block efforts by three giant tobacco companies and two dozen smaller ones to recover $153.4 million they paid the state in 2004 under a landmark legal settlement.... Lockyer said the companies became 'eligible' for reduced payments after market share losses in 2003, but that didn't mean they were entitled to them." Sacramento Bee (April 19, 2006) D2.]

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TERM LIMITS

"Testing the Basis of Incumbency Advantage: Strategic Candidates and Term Limits in the California Legislature." By Erik J. Engstrom and others. IN: State Politics and Policy Quarterly, vol. 1 no. 6 (Spring 2006) pp. 1-20.

['Conventional wisdom suggests that incumbent politicians use the resources of office to create an electoral advantage.... We test this claim by taking advantage of the natural experiment provided by state legislative term limits in California.... The vote loss suffered by the incumbent party is smaller in term-limited seats than in voluntary open seats, indicating that incumbents do sometimes leave when their electoral prospects look dim."

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

"Tipping the Scales: Obese Children and Child Safety Seats." By Lara B. Trifiletti, Columbus Children’s Research Institute, Ohio, and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 117, no. 4 (April 2006) pp. 1197-1202.

["More than 282,000 overweight children under the age of seven do not fit into most child safety or booster seats available on the market and therefore are improperly restrained inside vehicles.... 'As the number of obese children in the United States increases, it is essential to develop child safety seats that can protect children of all sizes and shapes,' wrote study author Lara Trifiletti." USA Today (April 3, 2006) 3A.]

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"Neurobehavioral Effects of Dental Amalgam in Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial." By Timothy A. DeRouen and others. IN: JAMA, vol. 295, no. 15. (April 19, 2006) pp. 1784-1792.

Full Text at: jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/295/15/1784

["In this study, children who received dental restorative treatment with amalgam did not, on average, have statistically significant differences in neurobehavioral assessments or in nerve conduction velocity when compared with children who received resin composite materials without amalgam. These findings, combined with a later trend of higher treatment needs among those receiving composite, suggest that amalgam should remain a viable dental restorative option for children."]

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HEALTH INSURANCE

Massachusetts-Style Coverage Expansion: What Would it Cost in California? By Ed Neuschler and Rick Curtis, Institute for Health Policy Solutions. (The Institute, San Mateo, California) April 2006.

["Providing health insurance for all Californians under a plan similar to what Massachusetts recently adopted would cost about $9.4 billion more in this state. Earlier this month, Massachusetts became the first state to require individuals to carry health insurance or face financial penalties. The state doesn't expect much new public funding will be needed because it plans to redirect money spent on uncompensated care toward helping low-income people buy insurance.... Socioeconomic and demographic differences between the states account for the disparity, the study found." San Francisco Chronicle (April 27, 2006) 1.]

Report. 16 p.
http://www.ihps.org/pubs/2006_Apr_CHCF_MA_Style_Brief_Final.pdf

Executive Summary. 3 p.
http://www.ihps.org/pubs/2006_Apr_CHCF_Exec_Sum.pdf

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INFECTIOUS DISEASE

"Strategies for Mitigating an Influenza Pandemic." By Neil M. Ferguson and others. IN: Nature, advance publication online (April 26, 2006) pp. 1-5.

Full Text at: www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/pdf/nature04795.pdf

["If the U.S. government does nothing, a deadly global flu outbreak is likely to strike one in three people, according to the results of a computer simulation. If government acts fast enough and has enough antiviral medicine to use as a preventative--and the United States doesn't right now--the number could drop to about 28 percent of the population. Seattle Post Intelligencer ( April 26, 2006 ) 1.]

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National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza: Implementation Plan. By the Homeland Security Council. (Office of the President, Washington, DC) May 2006. 227 p.

Full Text at: www.whitehouse.gov/homeland/nspi_implementation.pdf

["The White House unveiled a foreboding report on the nation's lack of preparedness for a bird flu pandemic, warning that such an outbreak could kill as many as 2 million people and deal a war-like blow to the country's economic and social fabric.... State, local and tribal governments should 'anticipate that all sources of external aid may be compromised during a pandemic,' it said, meaning that 'local communities will have to address the medical and non-medical effects of the pandemic with available resources.'" Los Angeles Times (May 4, 2006) A6.]

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NURSING HOMES

Training Programs for Certified Nursing Assistants. By Esther Hernández-Medina, Brown University, and others. (American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC) March, 2006. 47 p.

Full Text at: assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/il/2006_08_cna.pdf

["Good quality care for residents and a stable Certified Nursing Assistants (CNA) workforce depend on providing CNAs with the training they need to be well prepared for their jobs.... Although the needs of nursing home residents have become more complex since 1987, federal standards for CNA training have not changed. This raises concerns that CNAs may be unprepared to provide good quality care to today’s nursing home residents. In addition, inadequate training contributes to staff dissatisfaction and high turnover, which also adversely affect quality of care."]

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HOUSING

HOMEBUYING

The Best Value in the Subprime Market: State Predatory Lending Reform. By Wei Li and Keith S. Ernst, Center for Responsible Lending. (The Center, Oakland, California) February 23, 2006. 30 p.

Full Text at: www.responsiblelending.org/pdfs/rr010-State_Effects-0206.pdf

["According to a national study, states with laws against predatory lending aren't cutting off access to home loans for subprime borrowers (consumers with blemished credit records).... The study looked at more than 6 million subprime loans from 1998 through 2004. In its key finding, the study said that the total subprime lending volume in states with reforms is similar to that found in states without significant protections." The [Durham] Herald-Sun (February 24, 2006) 1.]

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HUMAN SERVICES

FOSTER CARE

All Children Deserve a Permanent Home: Subsidized Guardianships as a Common Sense Solution for Children in Long-Term Relative Foster Care. By Generations United. (Generations United, Washington, DC) 2006. 15 p.

Full Text at: ipath.gu.org/documents/A0/All_Children_Deserve_A_Permanent_Home.pdf

["Many children are unable to exit the foster care system to live permanently with relatives, because once they leave the foster care system, they are unable to access much-needed supports and services like adequate medical care or special educational assistance. This report contains state-by-state data on the number of children living in foster care with relative caregivers, describing why subsidized guardianship can help children exit foster care for safe, permanent families."]

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LOW INCOME

Low-Income Children in the United States: National and State Data, 1994-2004. By National Center for Children in Poverty. (The Center, New York, New York) January 2006. 56 p.

Full Text at: nccp.org/media/nst06_text.pdf

["After nearly a decade of decline, the number of children living in low-income families steadily increased, a pattern that began in 2000. This data book provides national and 50-state trend data on the characteristics of low-income children over the past decade: parental education, parental employment, marital status, family structure, race and ethnicity, age distribution, parental nativity, home ownership, residential mobility, type of residential area, and region of residence."]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

ECONOMY

HIGH TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY

Cyberstates 2006: A Complete State-by-State Overview of the High-Technology Industry. By the American Electronics Association. (The Association, Washington, DC) April 2006. 165 p.

["In California, widely considered the epicenter of the U.S. tech industry, job loss slowed. In 2004, high tech lost only 10,600 jobs, compared to a loss of 67,800 jobs in 2003. The report also confirmed that California continued to lead the nation by most high-tech industry metrics. California tech companies reported the largest payrolls of technology employers nationwide, and California tech workers had the highest average wage in the United States." AEA Press Release (April 19, 2006) 1.] Note: Cyberstates ... is available for loan.

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