Subject: Studies in the News 06-21 (May 19, 2006)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News


California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

May 14, 1856 - "The San Francisco Bulletin published the most violent of all Editor James King’s onslaughts upon James P. Casey, editor of a weekly political paper and a member of the Board of Supervisors. King referred to the latter’s prison record and asserted that he deserved 'having his neck stretched' for the fraudulent manner in which he had procured his post as Supervisor. Ordinarily Casey would have replied in kind even to an attack of this sort, but friends convinced him that only King’s death would wipe out the affront to his honor. When King left his office to go home on the afternoon of the day upon which the editorial had appeared, Casey met him at the entrance to the Bulletin building, shoved a pistol against his chest, and fired the shot which precipitated the activities of the second Vigilance Committee. King fell to the sidewalk, mortally wounded, and Casey immediately surrendered to the police. http://www.sfgenealogy.com/sf/history/hbtbc4.htm "  Asbury, Herbert. The Barbary Coast. 1933: New York  

May 14, 1856 - "King was shot at five o’clock in the afternoon, when the streets were filled with people, and within an hour the news was all over the town. By seven o’clock mobs had begun to form in various parts of the city, and soon thereafter the county jail was surrounded by a restless crowd of at least ten thousand men. Lack of a leader alone prevented the immediate storming of the jail, which was guarded by the city’s entire police force and two troops of militia, hastily called into service when the attitude of the mob became threatening. About dawn word was received that King’s condition had improved, and the crowd gradually dispersed. http://www.sfgenealogy.com/sf/history/hbtbc4.htm "  Asbury, Herbert. The Barbary Coast. 1933: New York  

Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Marital rape
ECONOMY
   Failure of enterprise zones program
   Limits to economic mobility
   Broadband over power lines
EDUCATION
   Educational inequality and NCLB
   Computers in education
   Equity in higher education
EMPLOYMENT
   Reducing the illegal alien population
ENERGY
   Benefits of concentrating solar power
ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
   States challenge federal fuel standards
   Mexico and NAFTA's environmental provisions
    U.S.-Mexico border environment
GENERAL GOVERNMENT
   Survey of homeland security directors
   State ethics commissions
   Maintaining the state web portal
   Governor's budget revised
   LAO's views on May Revise
   State assisted tax filing
   Mismatches in records disenfranchise voters
HEALTH
   Status of physical education
   Future hospital demand.
   Access to care for mental illnesses
HOUSING
   Advantages of inclusionary zoning
HUMAN SERVICES
   Child welfare performance
   TANF facing changes
TRANSPORTATION
   Good credit for tollroads
STUDIES TO COME
   Model delinquency prevention programs
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

RAPE

Marital Rape: New Research and Directions. By Raquel Kennedy Bergen, Department of Sociology, Saint Joseph’s University. (National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania) 2006. 14 p.

Full Text at: www.vawnet.org/DomesticViolence/Research/VAWnetDocs/AR_MaritalRapeRevised.pdf

["The research to date indicates that women who are raped by their husbands are likely to experience multiple assaults and often suffer severe long-term physical and emotional consequences. Given the serious effects, there is clearly a need for those who come into contact with marital rape survivors to provide assistance and challenge the prevailing myth that rape by one's spouse is inconsequential."]

[Request #S62102]

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ECONOMY

ENTERPRISE ZONES

California's Enterprise Zones Miss the Mark. By David Carroll, California Budget Project. (The Project, Sacramento, California) April 2006. 182 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/2006/0604_ezreport.pdf

["Despite giving out more than $1.5 billion in tax breaks over two decades, California's enterprise zone program is failing to live up to its mission of lifting up the state's poorest regions.... The annual tax revenue lost by the state due to the zones grew from $15.6 million in 1993 to $299 million in 2003.... Only 2.7% of the credit vouchers were for workers who qualified as being participants in or eligible for income support programs." Fresno Bee (April 18, 2006) C1.]

[Request #S62103]

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INCOME INEQUITY

Understanding Mobility in America. By Tom Hertz. Center for American Progress. (The Center, Washington, D.C.) April 27, 2007. 44 p.

Full Text at: tinyurl.com/jo87w

["The likelihood that a child born into a poor family will make it into the top 5 percent in income is just 1 percent. By contrast, a child born rich had a 22 percent chance of being rich as an adult. The study also found that the U.S. had one of the lowest levels of intergenerational mobility in the wealthy world, way behind most of Europe." Los Angeles Times (April 27, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S62104]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Order Instituting Rulemaking Concerning Broadband Over Power Line Deployment by Electric Utilities in California. By the California Public Utilities Commission. (The Commission, San Francisco, California) April 27, 2006. 70 p.

Full Text at: www.cpuc.ca.gov/word_pdf/AGENDA_DECISION/55770.pdf

["In a 4-1 vote, the Public Utilities Commission granted utilities the authority to establish subsidiary companies for delivering broadband over power lines.... Commissioner Geoffrey F. Brown said that because the lines were built with ratepayer money, electricity customers should share in the benefits." Los Angeles Times (April 28, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S62105]

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EDUCATION

ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

Ending the Blame Game on Educational Inequality: A Study of "High-Flying" Schools and NCLB. By Douglas N. Harris, Florida State University. (Educational Policy Studies Laboratory, Tempe, Arizona) 2006. 35 p.

Full Text at: www.asu.edu/educ/epsl/EPRU/documents/EPSL-0603-120-EPRU.pdf

["Recent studies.... have tried to identify 'high-flying' schools—schools that help students reach very high levels of achievement, despite significant disadvantages. This policy brief demonstrates three major problems with the findings of these reports.... It is recommended that ... all educational stakeholders acknowledge that educational inequity is caused by problems in both schools and communities—and avoid trying to blame the problem on schools alone."]

[Request #S62106]

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EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

"Technology Counts '06: The Information Edge, Using Data to Accelerate Achievement." IN: Education Week, vol. 25, issue 35 (May 4, 2006).

["California ranks 42nd in the nation on its use of technology in teaching.... [Education Week] graded states on three factors: student access to computers in the classroom, use of technology in education, and technology-related requirements of teachers and administrators. The state received an F in student access; a D+ in use of technology; and a B for its requirements of educators." Sacramento Bee (May 5, 2006) B2.]

Executive Summary. Various pagings.
http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2006/05/04/35intro.h25.html

State Technology Grades. Various pagings.
http://www.edweek.org/ew/tc/2006/35stc.h25.html

California. 7 p.
http://www.edweek.org/media/ew/tc/2006/35tr.ca.h25.pdf

[Request #S62107]

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HIGHER EDUCATION

Equity and Excellence in American Higher Education. By William G. Bowen and others. (University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, Virginia) 2005. 453 p.

["The book asserts that excellence at America's elite colleges is threatened by the failure to enroll more students from disadvantaged backgrounds. It proposes placing another 'thumb on the scale' for students from low-income families as a complement to race-sensitive admissions." PR Newswire (April 10, 2006) 1. NOTE: Equity and Excellence ... is available for loan.]

[Request #S62108]

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EMPLOYMENT

IMMIGRATION

Attrition Through Enforcement: A Cost-Effective Strategy to Shrink the Illegal Population. By Jessica M. Vaughan, Center for Immigration Studies. (The Center, Washington, DC) April 2006. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.cis.org/articles/2006/back406.pdf

["The purpose of this analysis is to ... re-orient the nation's immigration law enforcement strategy from one that relies primarily on border control and removing criminal aliens to one that also aims to increase the probability that illegal aliens will return home of their own accord.... A strategy of attrition through enforcement could reduce the illegal population by as many as 1.5 million illegal aliens each year."]

[Request #S62101]

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ENERGY

SOLAR POWER

Economic, Energy, and Environmental Benefits of Concentrating Solar Power in California. By L. Stoddard and others, Black and Veatch. Prepared for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (The Laboratory, Golden, Colorado) April 2006. 69 p.

Full Text at: www.nrel.gov/docs/fy06osti/39291.pdf

["This study provides a summary assessment of concentrating solar power (CSP) and its potential economic return, energy supply impact, and environmental benefits for the State of California.... The economic and employment benefits, together with delivered energy price stability and environmental advantages, suggest that the CSP solar alternative would be a beneficial addition to California’s energy supply. While early CSP plants are more costly than their traditional gas counterparts, subsequent plants are estimated to become nearly cost competitive on a levelized cost of energy basis."]

[Request #S62109]

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ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES

ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS

People of the State of California, et al. v. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. May 2, 2006.

["The lawsuit alleges that the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has failed to address the effect of the standards on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions.... 'The Bush administration once again has missed an opportunity to promote new technology, fuel economy and conservation by issuing fuel economy goals that are status quo,' [Attorney General Bill] Lockyer said." Los Angeles Times (May 2, 2006) 1.]

Petition. 7 p.
petition

Comment Letter. 15 p.
letter

[Request #S62110]

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MEXICO

"Is NAFTA Working For Mexico?" By Kevin P. Gallagher. IN: The Environmental Forum, (May/June 2006), pp. 21-27.

Full Text at: www.ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/rp/EnvForumNAFTAMay06.pdf

["NAFTA and its environmental side agreement were supposed to bring prosperity to Mexico and thus give it the money to improve public health and natural resource protection. So far, the treaties haven’t done either. But that does not mean that environmentalists’ criticism of the pacts was correct, just that proponents were wrong. It also means that new trade agreements being forged by the Bush administration could undermine the ability of its undeveloped-country trading partners to achieve sustainability."]

[Request #S62111]

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Air Quality and Transportation and Cultural and Natural Resources on the U.S.-Mexico Border. By the Good Neighbor Environmental Board. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC) March 2006. 72 p.

Full Text at: www.epa.gov/ocem/gneb/gneb9threport/English-GNEB-9th-Report.pdf

["The report looks at several aspects of the border environment, including air pollution, transportation and American Indian cultural sites.... Improvements needed include reducing high-polluting vehicles, developing a binational public transit system and limiting the destruction of archaeological sites by illegal immigrants..... Its conclusions center on increasing U.S.-Mexico partnerships and boosting government funding." San Diego Union Tribune (March 15, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S62112]

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GENERAL GOVERNMENT

EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS

2006 State Homeland Security Directors Survey: New Challenges, Changing Relationships. By the National Governor's Association Center for Best Practices. (The Center, Washington, DC) April 2006. 11 p.

Full Text at: www.nga.org/Files/pdf/0604HLSDIRSURVEY.pdf

["At least 28 states and U.S. territories are making it a top priority to open intelligence fusion centers, according to a survey of homeland security directors.... Fusion centers are places where personnel and IT networks from state, local and federal agencies are combined into a single facility to develop joint intelligence." Washington Technology (April 6, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S62114]

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ETHICS

State Ethics Commissions. By Nicole Casal Moore and Peggy Kerns, National Conference of State Legislatures. NCSL Legisbrief. Vol. 14 No. 23. (NCSL, Denver, Colorado) April/May 2006. 2 p.

["Ethics commissions play an important role in government.... In most states, the ethics commission has jurisdiction over legislators.... Most commissions can levy fines for late financial disclosure or other violations.... State ethics commission duties include training, enforcement and oversight."]

[Request #S62115]

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Policy and Management Issues Framework: Statewide Portal Project. By Deborah Schwartz, California Research Bureau, California State Library. CRB 06-005. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) May 2006. 77 p.

Full Text at: www.library.ca.gov/crb/06/05/06-005.pdf

["The purpose of this document is to identify the primary policy and management issues that California will need to address in designing and deploying a state portal or website that is focused on customer needs, secure from unauthorized access, accessible and usable by California’s diverse citizenry and business communities, and flexible to accommodate changes in political or administrative environment, changing customer expectations, and new technologies.... The issues are grouped into chapters addressing vision, public trust, customer-focus, governance, and funding.]

[Request #S62121]

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STATE BUDGET

May Revision: Governor's Budget 2006-2007. By the Department of Finance. (The Department, Sacramento, California) May 2006. 117 p.

Full Text at: www.ebudget.ca.gov/pdf/Revised/BudgetSummary/FullBudgetSummary.pdf

["Flush with $7.5 billion more than he expected to have over the next two years, his budget would provide big increases in spending for public schools as well as more money for emergency preparedness, children's health care and flood protection. Meanwhile, the governor would set aside $3.2 billion to pay off old debts early and build reserves to levels not seen so soon in the budget process in nearly 30 years. The administration also agreed to spend $2.9 billion over seven years to improve academic performance in poorly performing schools." San Francisco Chronicle (May 13,2006) A1.]

[Request #S62122]

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Overview of the 2006-07 May Revision. By Brad Williams and others, Legislative Analyst's Office. (The Office, Sacramento, California) May 15, 2006. 20 p.

Full Text at: www.lao.ca.gov/2006/may_revise/may_revise_051506.pdf

["The report recommended that Governor Schwarzenegger cut back on proposed new school spending for programs such as art, physical education and teacher retention by some $416 million and redirect that money to economic impact aid, special education and financially troubled districts. It also recommended that Schwarzenegger rethink his idea to pay down the voter-approved 2004 economic recovery bonds by $1 billion in 2009 and instead use that new revenue to cut into the projected budget shortfalls of 2007-08 and 2008-09." Sacramento Bee (May 16, 2006) A4.]

[Request #S62123]

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STATE TAXES

ReadyReturn Pilot: Tax Year 2004 Study Results. By the California Franchise Tax Board. (The Board, Sacramento, California) April 2006. 31 p.

Full Text at: www.ftb.ca.gov/readyReturn/TY04RRFinalReport.pdf

["Most of the taxpayers who voluntarily participated in a test run of the state's ReadyReturn program said it alleviated anxiety, saved time and was something government ought to do routinely. More than 96% said they would participate again.... Lawmakers opposed to ReadyReturn say it confuses people, creates privacy concerns and could scare taxpayers away from legitimate deductions.... State tax officials say they heard no such complaints, that the objections they received were philosophical arguments against the government doing people's taxes." Los Angeles Times (May 5, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S62116]

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VOTER REGISTRATION

Making the List: Database Matching and Verification Processes for Voter Registration. By Justin Levitt and others, Brennan Center for Justice. (The Center, New York, New York) March 2006. 35 p.

Full Text at: tinyurl.com/e5ryd

["The practice of using Department of Motor Vehicle and Social Security databases to verify information on voter registration forms could result in up to 20 percent of eligible voters being left off the rolls.... In a study in New York officials sought to match 15,000 voters with the state vehicle database, found that one in five failed to match because of typos and other glitches." Associated Press (March 8, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S62113]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

Shape of the Nation Report: Status of Physical Education in the USA. By the National Association for Sport and Physical Education and the American Heart Association. (National Association for Sport and Physical Education, Reston, Virginia) 2006. 62 p.

Full Text at: www.aahperd.org/naspe/ShapeOfTheNation/PDF/ShapeOfTheNation.pdf

["The report summarizes information for the profession and the public on the status of physical education in the American educational system and the importance of exemplary physical education programs as part of the solution for inactivity, obesity, and related chronic diseases. The report includes.... recommendations for action, state profile, and summary charts of state policies, standards, and certification and assessment requirements." MCH Alert (May 12, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S62124]

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HOSPITALS

"The Effect of Population Aging on Future Hospital Demand." By Bradley C. Strunk and others. IN: Health Affairs, vol. 25, no. 3 (May/June, 2006) pp. w141-w149.

["A simulation of future spending finds that aging will not be the strongest influence on inpatient hospital use.... Aging’s effect on inpatient demand varies by medical condition, with the highest rates of growth in services most used by elderly patients. Even for those services, however, aging is a much less important factor than local population trends and changing practice patterns attributable to advancing medical technology."]

[Request #S62117]

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MENTAL HEALTH

"The Struggle To Provide Community-Based Care To Low-Income People With Serious Mental Illnesses." By Peter Cunningham, and others. IN: Health Affairs, vol. 25, no. 3 (May/June, 2006) pp. 694-705.

["Cutbacks in federal funding have reduced the options available for people with mental illnesses, especially if they are uninsured. Growing service gaps contribute to the high prevalence of serious mental illness among the homeless and incarcerated populations, as well as crowding of emergency departments. Some states and communities are aggressively addressing these gaps, although funding for new programs remains scarce."]

[Request #S62118]

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HOUSING

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

"Inclusionary Zoning: A Key Tool in the Search for Workable Affordable Housing Programs." By David Rusk. IN: Public Management, vol. 88 no. 3 (April 2006) pp. 18-22.

["Inclusionary zoning requires developers to produce 'affordable' housing units along with the development of market rate units.... Inclusionary zoning is no panacea... but if it is a fair law and each neighborhood is covered, it is more likely to be accepted than the development of relatively large clusters of low income housing.]

[Request #S62119]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILDREN

Child Welfare Performance in California: A County-by-County Analysis. By the National Center for Youth Law. Presented to the Assembly Committee on Human Services and the Select Committee on Foster Care. (The Center, Oakland, California) March 7, 2006. 66 p.

Full Text at: www.youthlaw.org/fileadmin/ncyl/youthlaw/publications/cw_performance_mar_2006.pdf

["California is failing all of the federal standards for child safety, permanency, and stability. Despite a mandate to protect them, the state is putting tens of thousands of children at risk of further harm. As the result of failing to meet the federal standards, the state faces possible penalties of up to $60 million."]

[Request #S62125]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

State Organizations Weigh in on TANF Regulations. By Federal Funds Information for States. FFIS Issue Brief 06-22. (FFIS, Washington, DC) April 20, 2006. 2 p.

["After being reauthorized through the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, TANF faces many changes that will affect states. Many of these changes will require specific action by states, and failure to take action may result in states being required to pay heavy penalties. The changes made to TANF will be made by the rulemaking process and will be released June 30, 2006."]

[Request #S62120]

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TRANSPORTATION

SURFACE TRANSPORTATION

Stable Outlook for U.S. State and Local Government Toll Facilities: Strong Trend in Toll Revenues Fueled by Economic Growth and Growth in Capital Needs. By Moody's Investors Service. (Moodys, New York, New York) March 2006. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.ibtta.org/files/PDFs/Moodys%20Toll%20Sector%20Report%5F06.pdf

["Moody's projects a stable credit outlook for the U.S. state and local government owned toll facility sector in 2006 and into 2007. Established toll roads are generally achieving stable or slightly improving credit trends due to traffic and revenue growth, which serves as an offset to expected higher leverage for capital improvements and new projects.... Moody's rates 47 toll facilities with approximately $45 billion of total rated debt outstanding. Of these, 44 currently carry a stable credit outlook."]

[Request #S62126]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

Changing Lives: Delinquency Prevention as Crime-Control Policy. By Peter W. Greenwood. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois) 2006. 224 p.

["As crimes rates have fallen, researchers have identified more connections between specific risk factors and criminal behavior, while program developers have discovered a wide array of innovative interventions.... Changing Lives presents the most promising of these prevention programs, their histories, the quality of evidence to support their effectiveness, the public policy programs involved in bringing them into wider use, and the potential for investments and developmental research to increase the range and quality of programs." NOTE: Changing Lives ... is available for loan.]

[Request #S62127]

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