Subject: Studies in the News 06-31 (July 14, 2006)


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Children and Families Commission


Contents This Week

Introductory Material CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT
   Cradle to prison
DEMOGRAPHY
   Racial gap in parental education
ECONOMY
   Business leaders support universal preschool
EDUCATION
   Supply of early childhood teachers
   Quality child care and early learning
   State policy trends in early education
   Public schools with prekindergarten programs
   New York's pre-k system
   High quality pre-k checklist
   Full-day vs. half-day preschool
HEALTH
   Young children and smoke exposure
   Preventive health care for children
   Instability of public health insurance coverage
   Uninsured children and families
   Oral health of special needs children
   Child health community based initiatives
   Autism, air pollution and children
   Lead poisoning and young children
   Food insecurity and young children
HUMAN SERVICES
   Children in kinship care trends
   Rural families choose home care
   Meth and children's welfare
   2006 profiles of child well-being
   Families and high-poverty neighborhoods
   Nonresident fathers
   The importance of fathers
   TANF and early childhood programs
   TANF and the Deficit Reduction Act
STUDIES TO COME
   Early Head Start fathers
   Universal preschool education in America
   More black, hispanic parents dissatisfied
   Television exposure and overweight preschoolers
   Children, television and dietary intake
   Child growth standards
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News: Children and Family Supplement is a service provided to the First 5 California by the California State Library. The service features weekly lists of current articles focusing on Children and Family policy. Prior lists can be viewed from the California State Library's Web site at www.library.ca.gov/CRB/SITN/.

How to Obtain Materials Listed in SITN:

  • When available on the Internet, the URL for the full-text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

CRIMINAL JUSTICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT

CHILDREN & YOUTH

Facts Contributing to the Cradle to Prison Pipeline. By the Children's Defense Fund. (The Fund, Washington, DC) 2006. 7 p.

Full Text at: www.childrensdefense.org/CPP_FactSheet.pdf

["The Cradle to Prison Pipeline can be reduced to one simple fact: the United States of America is not a level playing field for all children. The largest driving force of the pipeline is poverty, exacerbated by race. At critical points in their development, from birth through adulthood, poor children, and disproportionately poor children of color, face many critical risks and disadvantages. These multiple risks and disadvantages, when accumulated, make a successful transition to productive adulthood significantly less likely and involvement in the criminal justice system significantly more likely. They include lack of access to health and mental health care; lack of quality early education and enrichment; unstable parenting; child abuse and neglect; educational disadvantages resulting from failing schools; zero tolerance discipline policies; a culture which glorifies materialism and violence; unaddressed mental health problems; racial and economic disparities in child-serving systems; the criminalization of children at earlier ages; tougher sentencing guidelines; and too few positive alternatives to the streets and positive role models and mentors."]

[Request #S63101]

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DEMOGRAPHY

FAMILIES

The Racial Gap in Parental Education. By the National Center for Children in Poverty. (The Center, New York, New York) May 2006. 3 p.

Full Text at: nccp.org/media/rgp06_text.pdf

["Although education is one of the most effective ways that parents can raise their families’ incomes, black and Latino children benefit less from higher levels of parental education than do white and Asian children. Latino children are the least likely to have a parent who attended college. Both black and Latino children are more likely to be low income, even when their parents have some college education and are employed full-time."]

[Request #S63102]

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ECONOMY

CHILDREN

The Economic Promise of Investing in High-Quality Preschool: Using Early Education to Improve Economic Growth and the Fiscal Sustainability of States and the Nation. By the Committee for Economic Development. (The Committee, Washington, DC) 2006.

["A national organization of business leaders is calling for universal, high-quality preschool for all children, an expensive initiative that would cost at least $16 billion but is a price the Committee for Economic Development (CED) declares states and the federal government must pay. The CED report maintains that costly academic-remediation programs are draining state and federal budgets, when money would be better spent getting 3- and 4-year-olds ready to learn. The result, the report says, would boost the nation's economy and deliver returns of at least between $2 and $4 for every dollar states and the federal government invest. The role for businesses, according to the report, is to push states to fund these preschool programs." ECS e-Clips (June 30, 2006) 1.]

Executive Summary: 2 p.
http://www.ced.org/docs/summary/summary_prek_econpromise.pdf

Full Report: 74 p.
http://www.ced.org/docs/report/report_prek_econpromise.pdf

[Request #S63103]

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EDUCATION

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Pipelines and Pools: Meeting the Demand for Early Childhood Teachers in Illinois. By Jennifer B. Presley, Brenda K. Klostermann, and Bradford R. White. Policy Research Report. No. IERC 2006-3. (Illinois Education Research Council, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, Illinois) 2006.

["Despite concerns about finding enough teachers to staff expanding teacher needs under the state’s new universal pre-K program, there should be no shortage of qualified teachers - if providers pay competitive salaries, according to a study of teacher availability conducted by the Illinois Education Research Council. The study, funded by NIEER, looked at the pipeline delivering teachers from college as well as the reserve pool of teachers already qualified to teach early childhood education.... NIEER Director Steve Barnett said the study refutes some of the misinformation commonly used by opponents of preschool for all. While circumstances in other states may not be identical to Illinois, the economic principles of the study apply across the country." NIEER Online Newsletter (June 19, 2006) 1.]

Executive Summary: 2 p.
http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/Pipelines%20and%20Pools%202006-3%20-%20Executive%20Summary.pdf

Full Report: 32 p.
http://ierc.siue.edu/documents/Pipelines%20and%20Pools%202006-3.pdf

[Request #S63104]

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Why is High-Quality Child Care Essential? The Link Between Quality Child Care and Early Learning. By the Early Learning Knowledge Centre, University of Toronto. (The Centre, Toronto, Canada) May 31, 2006. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.ccl-cca.ca/CCL/Reports/LessonsInLearning/20060530LinL.htm

["This article reviews research on child care quality and finds that high quality is key to positive child development, early learning and school readiness. The study found that this linkage held true regardless of the type of child care, country of origin of the research or other socioeconomic factors."]

[Request #S63105]

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Current and Emerging State Policy Trends in Early Childhood Education. By Mimi Howard. ECS Policy Brief. (Education Commission of the States, Denver, Colorado) March 2006. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/68/21/6821.pdf

["Over the past decade, investing in learning programs for young children has emerged as a central strategy in states’ efforts to improve educational achievement and opportunity. This ECS Policy Brief examines current and emerging trends in state early-learning policy through the prism of governors’ 2006 State of the State addresses - nearly half of which included proposals relating to the availability, quality and/or structure of early learning programs. It provides a breakdown of these proposals - by topic and by state - and concludes with a brief review of three issues of growing concern and interest to policymakers: alignment, governance and quality rating systems."]

[Request #S63106]

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Public schools with Prekindergarten and Special Education Prekindergarten Programs. By Child Trends. Child Trends DataBank Indicator. (Child Trends, Washington, DC) June 2006. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.childtrendsdatabank.org/pdf/105_PDF.pdf

["Public elementary schools in areas where most children are eligible for free or reduced-price lunches are much more likely than schools in wealthier areas to offer prekindergarten classes. During the 2000-2001 school year, over half (51 percent) of public elementary schools with 75 percent or more of all students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch had prekindergarten classes. In contrast, one quarter of public elementary schools with less than 35 percent of all students eligible for free lunch offered prekindergarten classes."]

[Request #S63107]

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PRESCHOOL

A Diverse System Delivers for Pre-K: Lessons Learned in New York State. By Betty Holcomb, Child Care, Inc. (Pre-K Now, Washington, DC) July 2006. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.preknow.org/documents/DiverseDelivery_Jul2006.pdf

["To provide pre-k services to more children, states are increasingly turning to 'diverse' or 'mixed' delivery, which uses both community-based and school sites.... This new report looks closely at the successes and challenges of New York's diverse delivery system and offers recommendations to other states looking to implement such a program." Pre-K Post (July 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63108]

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Finding High-Quality Pre-K Checklist. By Pre-K Now and the National Parent Teacher Association. (Pre-K Now, Washington, DC) 2006. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.preknow.org/documents/Pre-k_checklist.pdf

["Research has consistently proven that the benefits of pre-k are closely tied to the quality of the pre-k program. But families searching for a high-quality program often had little help ... until now. Pre-K Now and the National Parent Teacher Association (National PTA) have created the 'Finding High-Quality Pre-K Checklist,' a take-along resource that families can use when visiting and selecting a program. Our checklist covers dozens of pre-k quality factors and gives parents specific questions to pose to program staff and to ask of themselves. With these questions, families will be able to evaluate program features such as teacher training and styles, classroom facilities and management, and support for parental involvement."]

[Request #S63109]

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PRESCHOOL EDUCATION

Is More Better? The Effects of Full-Day vs. Half-Day Preschool on Early School Achievement. By Kenneth B. Robin, Ellen C. Frede and W. Steven Barnett. NIEER Working Paper. (National Institute for Early Education Research, New Brunswick, New Jersey) May 2006. 22 p.

Full Text at: nieer.org/resources/research/IsMoreBetter.pdf

["While further research is needed to augment this study of half-day vs. extended-day preschool education, the results clearly indicate that duration matters. Extended-day preschool of good quality had dramatic and lasting effects on children’s learning across a broad range of knowledge and skills. As many families need full-day programs for their 4-year-olds to accommodate parent work schedules, the evidence that full-day preschool education can meet child care needs and benefit children’s learning should be of high interest to parents and policymakers. Indeed, some children, particularly those in low-income working families, will miss out on high quality preschool education altogether if only a half-day public program is available."]

[Request #S63110]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

"Household Characteristics, Smoking Bans, and Passive Smoke Exposure in Young Children." By Yvonne K. Yousey, University of North Carolina, Charlotte. IN: Journal of Pediatric Health Care, vol. 20, no. 2 (March 2006) pp. 98-105.

["Young children are vulnerable to the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in their own homes. Characteristics of households and the use of smoking bans (i.e., no smoking allowed) as an indicator of smoke exposure need to be understood before interventions can be developed to eliminate ETS exposure in homes where young children live. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive study investigated demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, health of children, smoking practices, and the presence of smoking bans in households. A survey questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 226 English- and Spanish-speaking subjects, 18 to 50 years of age, including both smokers and nonsmokers. Cotinine levels of urine samples from children measured actual smoke exposure to confirm reports of home smoking policies. Results: Ethnicity of households... and negative attitudes toward smoke exposure... predicted the presence of smoking bans. The number of households with no or partial smoking bans correlated significantly with urine cotinine levels...; the presence of no or partial smoking bans predicted smoke exposure in households."]

[Request #S62719]

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"Preventive Care for Children in the United States: Quality and Barriers." By Paul J. Chung, University of California, Los Angeles, and others. IN: Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 27 (April 2006) pp. 491-515.

["Preventive care for kids is critical - but not all care is equal, or evenly accessed. This article in the Annual Review of Public Health 2006 reviews the available literature on elements of effective care and barriers to quality. It then assesses strengths and weaknesses in preventive care and offers strategies for improving quality through practice, training, and sound policy." Connect for Kids (May 1, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S62720]

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Instability of Public Health Insurance Coverage for Children and their Families: Causes, Consequences, and Remedies. By Laura Summer and Cindy Mann, Georgetown University Health Policy Institute. Commonwealth Fund. Pub. No. 935. (The Fund, New York, New York) June 2006. 66 p.

Full Text at: www.cmwf.org/usr_doc/Summer_instabilitypubhltinschildren_935.pdf

["This report examines the extent, causes, and consequences of instability in public coverage programs for children and families. It focuses particularly on the phenomenon of 'churning,' which occurs when individuals lose and regain coverage in a short period of time. It also looks at strategies to make public program coverage more stable for children and families. Findings are drawn from a variety of sources, including national and state-based studies, roundtable discussions and interviews with stakeholders and experts, and an examination of the effect of state and local policies on instability and churning in four states: Louisiana, Rhode Island, Virginia, and Washington. The experiences of these states demonstrate that coverage instability can be averted to a significant degree by adopting key policies and procedures, like limiting the frequency of required renewals; developing easy, seamless transitions among public coverage programs; and setting affordable limits on premium costs."]

[Request #S63111]

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Why Do People Lack Health Insurance? By John A. Graves and Sharon K. Long, The Urban Institute. Health Policy Online. No. 14. (The Urban Institute, Washington, DC) 2006. 12 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411317_lack_health_ins.pdf

["In a policy brief prepared for the 2006 Cover the Uninsured Week initiative, John Graves and Sharon Long document the reasons cited by uninsured families and individuals for why they lack insurance coverage. Using data from the National Health Interview Survey, the authors find that in 2004 less than three percent of the uninsured saw no need for health insurance, while well over half stated that the high cost of coverage was a reason for lacking insurance. The authors also report that the share of the uninsured citing the high cost of coverage as a barrier to obtaining insurance has risen substantially over time, increasing more than eight percentage points for uninsured nonelderly adults, and by over six percentage points for uninsured children." Urban Institute's Health Policy Newsletter (May 25, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63112]

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Promoting the Oral Health of Children with Special Health Care Needs: In Support of the National Agenda. Policy Brief. By Jay Balzer, Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors, Children with Special Health Care Needs Advisory Workgroup. (National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC) 2006. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.mchoralhealth.org/PDFs/CSHCNPolicyBrief.pdf

["This study provides suggestions for oral health promotion activities that are consistent with the National Agenda for Children with Special Health Care Needs. The brief addresses the six critical indicators of a comprehensive system of care identified by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau: 1) medical home, 2) insurance coverage, 3) screening, 4) organization of services, 5) family roles, and 6) transition to adulthood." MCH Alert (June 9, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63113]

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Evaluating Community-Based Child Health Promotion Programs: A Snapshot of Strategies and Methods. By Ann Cullen and others. (National Academy for State Health Policy, Portland, Maine) March 2006. 83 p.

Full Text at: www.nashp.org/Files/GNL_62_final_for_web.pdf

["The report provides the practical experience and knowledge of program administrators, evaluators, and researchers regarding what works and what does not work when evaluating community-based initiatives that focus on children’s health promotion and disease prevention. It provides a snapshot of seven projects nationwide that have a community-based component and the lessons learned from their evaluation activities. The report includes a discussion of evaluation design, process and partnerships, outcomes, and dissemination."]

[Request #S63114]

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"Autism Spectrum Disorders in Relation to Distribution of Hazardous Air Pollutants in the San Francisco Bay Area." By Gayle C. Windham and others. IN: Environmental Health Perspectives, EHP in-press article (online June 21, 2006). 41 p.

Full Text at: www.ehponline.org/members/2006/9120/9120.pdf

["Children with autism spectrum disorders in the San Francisco Bay Area were 50% more likely than non-autistic children to be born in areas with higher estimated levels of toxic contaminants, a study released on Wednesday found.... Researchers from the Department of Health Services reviewed data for 19 air pollutants that are known or suspected neurotoxins. The level of air pollution in the Bay Area is considered typical for urban areas. According to the study, autistic children were 50% more likely to be born in areas with higher estimated levels of the metals mercury, cadmium and nickel and the chlorinated solvents trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride. Researchers did not find a significant link between autism and 14 other pollutants, including lead, benzene and chromium. Researchers said the study 'suggests that living in areas with higher ambient levels of hazardous air pollutants... during pregnancy or early childhood may be associated with a moderately increased risk of autism.'" California Healthline (June 23, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63115]

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LEAD POISONING

Improving Childhood Blood Lead Level Screening, Reporting, and Surveillance in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. By Donna Keyser and others. (RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California) 2006.

["Despite the general perception that it is no longer an important public health problem, lead poisoning remains a serious, preventable environmental health threat to young children that affects neurodevelopmental, intellectual, and cognitive outcomes. One of the key goals of current U.S. public health policy is the elimination of childhood lead poisoning, which will require improvements in lead poisoning prevention; screening, reporting, and surveillance of childhood blood lead levels; and treatment of childhood lead poisoning. The focus of this report is on screening, reporting, and surveillance, which are critical for eliminating lead poisoning, as well as for its prevention and treatment." RAND Child Policy Update (June 26, 2006) 1.]

Summary: 12 p.
http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2006/RAND_MG423.sum.pdf

Full Report: 87 p.
http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2006/RAND_MG423.pdf

[Request #S63116]

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NUTRITION

The Impact of Food Insecurity on the Development of Young Low-Income Black and Latino Children. By the Children’s Sentinel Nutrition Assessment Program (C-SNAP). Prepared for the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, Health Policy Institute. (The Center, Washington, DC) May 2006. 40 p.

Full Text at: www.jointcenter.org/publications1/publication-PDFs/YMOC/ImpactFoodInsec.pdf

["This report states that 24 percent of black households and 21 percent of Latino households were insecure as opposed to 9 percent of white households. It links food insecurity and child development, focusing specifically on black and Latino children under the age of three who are living in low-income households. Food insecurity increases the odds that children will develop difficulties in cognitive, language, motor skills and other areas of development." Connect for Kids (June 19, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63117]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

Trends in Service Receipt: Children in Kinship Care Gaining Ground. By Regan Main, Jennifer Ehrle Macomber, and Rob Geen. New Federalism: National Survey of America's Families. Series B. No. B-68. (The Urban Institute, Washington, DC) May 2006. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311310_B-68.pdf

["During the past eight years, researchers have used the National Survey of America's Families (NSAF), a nationally representative survey of households, to gain insight into the health and well-being of children in kinship care. This brief uses the three rounds of the survey (1997, 1999, and 2002) to examine changes in the standard of living among children in kinship care between 1997 and 2002. Overall, the standard of living for these children improved significantly in this period. The portion of children in kinship care living in poverty steadily declined. Similarly, the portion of children in kinship care who do not have any health insurance is on a downward trend. Both trends are more pronounced for children in public kinship care than children in private kinship care, though both groups' improvements were more dramatic than the gains made by children living with their parents."]

[Request #S63118]

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Rural Families Choose Home-Based Child Care for their Preschool-Aged Children. By Kristin Smith. Policy Brief. No. 3 (Carsey Institute, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire) Spring 2006. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.carseyinstitute.unh.edu/documents/ChildCare_final.pdf

["Although the benefits of formal, center-based child care are well documented, many parents rely on informal settings in the homes of relatives, friends, or neighbors. This Carsey Institute brief focuses on rural families - and finds that most rely on informal care, which costs less than formal care. The report recommends making formal care more affordable and accessible in rural areas, or training home-based caregivers to ensure that the care they provide is high-quality." Connect for Kids (June 12, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63119]

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CHILDREN

Meth and Child Welfare: Promising Solutions for Children, their Parents and Grandparents. By Generations United. (Generations United, Washington, DC) 2006. 45 p.

Full Text at: ipath.gu.org/documents/A0//Meth_Child_Welfare_Final_cover.pdf

["Figures in a new report by a coalition of child advocacy groups suggest that the number of children removed from their homes because of methamphetamine abuse is rising, bringing with them a variety of problems straining families and child welfare system. This booklet from Generations United looks at both the need for permanent care for kids whose parents cannot care for them because of addiction, and what can work to help keep families together when parents are successfully recovering. Among the reforms to the child welfare system (to make it better able to aid kids and families in the face of a growing meth problem) are the following: establishing and expanding targeted services and support networks for grandfamilies and adoptive families; better training child welfare workers; and broadening the use of family drug court model programs." Connect for Kids (June 12, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63120]

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2006 Kids Count Data Book: State Profiles of Child Well-Being. By the Annie E. Casey Foundation. (The Foundation, Baltimore, Maryland) 2006.

["The major news is that three out of 10 child well-being indicators have worsened since 2000, and child poverty continues to rise: more than 13 million children were living in poverty in 2004 (1 million more than in 2000). The Data Book essay focuses on early childhood care and development programs - including the use of 'family, friend, and neighbor care,' and recommendations to improve it. The interactive site allows you to filter the findings by topic area, state, and more." Connect for Kids (July 3, 2006) 1.]

2006 Kids Count Data Book: 188 p.
http://www.aecf.org/publications/data/2006entire_db.pdf

State-Level Data Online: Various pagings.
http://www.aecf.org/kidscount/sld/index.jsp

[Request #S63121]

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FAMILIES

How Does Family Well-Being Vary across Different Types of Neighborhoods? By Margery Austin Turner and Deborah R. Kaye. Low-Income Working Families Paper. No. 6. (The Urban Institute, Washington, DC) April 2006. 48 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311322_family_wellbeing.pdf

["A substantial body of research finds evidence that living in high-poverty and racially isolated neighborhoods can undermine the well-being and potential of children and adults. This paper uses the richness of National Survey of America's Families data on family work effort, economic security, access to services and supports, and child well-being to shed new light on the relevance of neighborhood environment." Urban Institute Update (May 18, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63122]

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FATHERHOOD

What About the Dads? Child Welfare Agencies’ Efforts to Identify, Locate, and Involve Nonresident Fathers. By Karin Malm and others, the Urban Institute. (The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Washington, DC) April 2006. 186 p.

Full Text at: aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/06/CW-involve-dads/report.pdf

["Finding and engaging nonresident fathers carries the potential for significant benefits for children in the child welfare system. When fathers are identified and involved in decisions about their children, there is the possibility for a strengthened father–child relationship, increased permanency, and access to more family information and resources. A recent study, 'What About the Dads? Child Welfare Agencies' Efforts to Identify, Locate and Involve Nonresident Fathers', explored the ways that child welfare agencies in four States find and engage nonresident fathers." Children's Bureau Express (July/August 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63123]

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The Importance of Fathers in the Healthy Development of Children. By Jeffrey Rosenberg and W. Bradford Wilcox. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office on Child Abuse and Neglect, Washington, DC) 2006. 127 p.

Full Text at: www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/fatherhood/fatherhood.pdf

["Working with fathers of children involved in the child welfare system often requires specialized understanding and different approaches by CPS caseworkers than might be used with mothers. The effective engagement of fathers is the focus of the newest User Manual from the Office on Child Abuse and Neglect. 'The Importance of Fathers in the Healthy Development of Children' provides information to frontline caseworkers and other professionals about the profound impact of fathers on their children, as well as practical guidance on engaging fathers in assessment, case planning, and services when children suffer maltreatment." Children's Bureau Express (July/August 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63124]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

Using TANF for Early Childhood Programs. By Mark Greenberg and others. (Center for Law and Social Policy, Washington, DC) May 10, 2006. 8 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/publications/tanf_early_childhood.pdf

["In recent years, states have made significant investments in pre-kindergarten programs in order to help young children enter school ready to learn. Federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) funds are among the sources states have tapped to support some or all of their early childhood initiatives. This brief outlines when and how states can use TANF funds to support early childhood programs, and examines the impact of TANF changes included the 2006 federal budget (called the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005) on this use."]

[Request #S63125]

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Implementing the TANF Changes in the DRA: "Win-Win" Solutions for Families and States. By Sharon Parrott, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities and others. (Center for Law and Social Policy, Washington, DC) May 9, 2006. 107 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/publications/tanfguide.pdf

["This report from CLASP and the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities is intended to guide state administrators and advocates as they consider implementing the new Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) provisions of the 2006 federal budget, called the Deficit Reduction Act (DRA). The paper discusses the legal structure of the work participation requirements; strategies for improving and increasing engagement in programs; strategies for increasing support for working families (through increased earnings disregards, stand-alone 'work supplement' programs, and child support distribution options)and helping states meet participation rates; disability laws and ways to improve the effectiveness of TANF-related programs for individuals with disabilities; and the fiscal implications of the TANF, child care, and child support provisions."]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

EDUCATION

HEAD START

Early Head Start Fathers and Children. [Special Issue] IN: Parenting: Science and Practice. vol. 6, no. 2/3 (April-September 2006) Entire issue.

["The purpose of this special issue is to add definition and texture to understanding the nature and consequences of fathering in low-income families. While intensive research on fathers has been conducted for three decades, much about father involvement in low-income families remains unclear. 'Early Head Start Fathers and Children' assesses The National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project, a study commenced after the implementation of the Early Head Start program to determine the program’s efficacy. The collection of data presented here offers a better understanding of how Early Head Start programs affect fathers’ involvement in family life. Some questions addressed include: What is the role of fathers in the lives of low-income children?; What are the child and mother outcomes associated with father involvement?; and How can a publicly funded intervention program successfully involve fathers in program activities and in parenting?"]

[Request #S63127]

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PRESCHOOL

A Vision for Universal Preschool Education. By Edward Zigler and others. (Cambridge University Press, New York, New York) 2006. 304 p.

["Decades of research point to the need for a universal preschool education program in the U.S. to help give our nation's children a sound cognitive and social foundation on which to build future educational and life successes. In addition to enhanced school readiness and improved academic performance, participation in high quality preschool programs has been linked with reductions in grade retentions and school drop out rates, and cost savings associated with a diminished need for remedial educational services and justice services. This book brings together nationally renowned experts from the fields of psychology, education, economics and political science to present a compelling case for expanded access to preschool services. They describe the social, educational, and economic benefits for the nation as a whole that may result from the implementation of a universal preschool program in America, and provide guiding principles upon which such a system can best be founded."]

[Request #S63128]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

"Satisfaction With Care and Ease of Using Health Care Services Among Parents of Children With Special Health Care Needs: The Roles of Race/Ethnicity, Insurance, Language, and Adequacy of Family-Centered Care." By Emmanuel M. Ngui and Glenn Flores. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 117 no. 4 (April 2006) pp. 1184-1196.

["Black and Hispanic parents of children with special health care needs are twice as likely as white parents to be dissatisfied with their child's care, according to a study appearing in... Pediatrics.... They found that 13 percent of black parents and 17 percent of Hispanic parents were dissatisfied with their child's care, in contrast to only seven percent of white parents. They also found that over one-third of black or Hispanic parents reported problems with ease of using health care services, compared to less than one-fourth of white parents. Hispanic/white disparities in both satisfaction with care and ease of use disappeared when a statistical adjustment was made for interview language. For all parents, difficulty in using services was three times more likely to be associated with dissatisfaction with care, and lack of insurance coverage was associated with twice the odds of dissatisfaction with care." EurekAlert! (April 3, 2006) 1.]

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"Television Exposure and Overweight Risk in Preschoolers." By Julie C. Lumeng, and others. IN: Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 160, no. 4 (April 2006) pp. 417-422.

["Objective: To test the independent effect of television exposure in preschool-aged children on overweight risk.... Results. At age 36 months, 5.8% of children were overweight; at age 54 months, 10.0% were overweight. Exposure to 2 or more hours of television per day was associated with an increased risk of overweight at both age 36 months... and age 54 months.... Conclusion. Excessive television exposure is a risk factor for overweight in preschoolers independent of a number of potential confounders associated with the quality of the home environment."]

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"When Children Eat What They Watch: Impact of Television Viewing on Dietary Intake in Youth." By Jean L. Wiecha, and others. IN: Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 160, no.4 (April 2006) pp. 436-442.

["Wiecha and colleagues studied 548 students from 5 schools in Massachusetts and observed them for nearly 2 years. Each additional hour of television viewing was associated with 167 additional calories per day, with increases in consumption of foods commonly advertised on television."]

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WHO Child Growth Standards. By the World Health Organization. (WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland) 2006. 332p.

Full Text at: www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/Technical_report.pdf

["Children's growth is influenced more by environmental factors than genetics up to the age of five, the World Health Organisation said.... The United Nations agency found that, despite differences among individual children, the average potential size of youngsters worldwide lies in a narrow range. 'Children from India, Norway and Brazil all show similar growth patterns when provided healthy growth conditions in early life,' the WHO said in issuing its new child growth standards. 'Differences in children's growth to age five are more influenced by nutrition, feeding practices, environment, and healthcare than genetics or ethnicity,' it said. To compile the global study, researchers tracked more than 8,000 children in Brazil, Ghana, India, Norway, Oman, and the United States from birth to age five. Children selected were deemed to live in 'an optimal environment for proper growth,' where infants are breastfed and young children have access to good nutrition and quality health care, and mothers do not smoke. The new WHO growth charts include universal guidance for parents and health workers on healthy ranges of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height. It also includes six key motor development milestones for activities like sitting, standing and walking." Medline Plus (May 5, 2006) 1.]

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