Subject: Studies in the News 06-39 (September 12, 2006)

Studies in the News

California -- One Hundred and Fifty Years Ago

September 1856 - "San Francisco's Ladies' Aid & Protective Society organized to assist destitute seamen from 1856 to 1869. In the nineteenth century there was no welfare state for the relief of unemployed or destitute sailors, their families or even their orphaned children. The Seamen's Friendly Union and Protective Society in San Francisco was the first organization of seamen in the United States. It was formed in January of 1866. The Seamen's Protective Union (SUP) formed in San Francisco in 1878 with 800 members. In June of 1886, the SUP had called its first strike, forcing wages up to $30 a month. With these organizations, the seamen's labor movement was off to a firm start, at least on the West Coast."    

1856 - "In 1856 the Sisters of Charity founded the orphan asylums at Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, and Santa Cruz, and an academy at Hollister.... Soon after their arrival, the Daughters of Charity, headed by Sr. Scholastica, began their work in the former home of Benjamin D. Wilson, southeast of the Plaza. Using the $6,000 in funds that had been raised, the Daughters opened a combined school/orphanage and within a month had enrolled 68 day-scholars and had taken in a number of orphans. Within a year, the number of girls at Caritativa had grown to 120 and the old wood frame house was replaced by a new brick structure that cost $11,000 and would be used for the next 34 years. As early as November 1857, Sr. Scholastica wrote of plans for a fair to raise funds for the orphanage. This fall affair developed into an annual event eliciting community wide support. The Orphans Fair provided an opportunity for the community to gather and socialize. The non-sectarian nature of the preparation and patronage reflected an early Los Angeles where cooperation across religious credos contributed to its success and growth as a city. "    

Contents This Week

   Analysis of gun laws
   Juvenile justice remedial plan
   Recommendations of sex offender task force
   The arts and state governments
   Income rises, poverty rate unchanged
   More lack health insurance
   Enterprise zones are improving economy
   Economic impact of sports facilities
   Cap lifted on phone rates
   Results from STAR Exam
   Reducing crime by reducing dropouts
   Identifying potential dropouts
   High school reform models
   Teacher's gender affects student's learning
   Sustainable forestry
   Sequoia logging plan rejected
   Local land use regulations.
   Disabled sue CalTrans
   Suit against local immigrant laws
   Redistricting reform
   California fiscal choices
   Problems with term limits
   Insured satisfied with health care
   Statewide health survey results
   State behavioral health innovations
   Nurse shortage
   Responses to nurse shortage
   Meth and child welfare
   State policies for working poor
   State welfare choices
   Evaluating 1996 welfare change
   Cost of traffic and traffic relief
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:



Regulating Guns in America: An Evaluation and Comparative Analysis of Federal, State and Selected Local Gun Laws. By Legal Community Against Violence. (The Community, San Francisco, California) August 2006. 212 p.

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["Legal Community Against Violence presents a comprehensive, national review of federal, state and selected local laws on more than twenty topics covering all major areas of gun policy. Regulating Guns in America demonstrates conclusively that gaps in federal policy contribute significantly to the country’s gun violence epidemic. In addition to identifying the limits of federal law, Regulating Guns in America describes state and local laws in each policy area, highlighting innovative measures already in place at the state and local levels." Press Release, Legal Community Against Violence (August 17, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63901]

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Safety and Welfare Remedial Plan. By the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Juvenile Justice. (The Department, Sacramento, California) July 10, 2006. 82 p.

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["California will have to revamp the way it incarcerates juvenile offenders by using smaller and more modern lockups to replace the warehouse-style prisons it uses, according to a court-mandated report from the state corrections department.... The juvenile reforms stem from a lawsuit filed in 2003 by the San Francisco-based Prison Law Office. The nonprofit alleged that California's youth prisons were plagued by overcrowding and violence, with wards routinely locked in cages and staff members administering prescription drugs more commonly than counseling. In a settlement filed in Alameda County Superior Court, the Division of Juvenile Justice committed to a four-year plan to change the way it houses and treats young criminals." San Diego Union Tribune (July 15, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63902]

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Report. By the California High Risk Sex Offender Task Force. Presented to Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. (California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Sacramento, California) August 15, 2006. 48 p.

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["The state should treat high-risk sex offenders and give advance warning to communities before paroling them, and help cities find appropriate places to house them, according to a task force report.... The report said the department must treat, not just house, sex offenders. 'Today in California, sex offenders don't get any treatment until they're released by the Department of Corrections.' The task force also recommended notifying victims 90 days before the anticipated release of a high-risk sex offender. And it suggested giving local law enforcement a 60-day notice." Sacramento Bee (August 16, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63904]

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The Arts and State Governments: At Arm's Length or Arm and Arm? By Julia F. Lowell and Elizabeth Heneghan Ondaatje, RAND. (RAND, Santa Monica, California) 2006.

["Even though a majority of Americans claim to support public funding of the arts, state government spending on the arts is minimal -— and may be losing ground relative to other types of state expenditures.... The report examines state arts agencies' (SAA) leaders’ efforts to more firmly establish their agencies’ value to state government in a changing political and fiscal environment. Case studies of two SAAs are used to illustrate a more strategic approach to public management, and to clarify some of the risks and rewards of bringing the arts and political worlds closer together."]

Summary. 10 p.

Report. 86 p.

[Request #S63905]

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Income, Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2005. By Carmen DeNavas-Walt and others, U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) August 2006. 86 p.

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["A record 46.6 million Americans had no health insurance in 2005 and fewer people received coverage through their employers, according to U.S. census figures. In California, the number of uninsured grew to 19 percent, an increase of about .5 percent from 2003-2004 to 2004-2005. With medical costs rising about three times as fast as wages, employers have tried to reduce the burden by shifting a greater percentage of costs onto their employees. Some no longer offer coverage, have reduced benefits or are hiring more contract employees who are not covered under the company's plan. Among workers offered insurance, a growing number are declining it, deciding they can't afford the higher costs." San Francisco Chronicle (August 30, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63906]

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Income, Earnings, and Poverty Data from the 2005 American Community Survey. By Bruce H. Webster, Jr. and Alemayehu Bishaw, U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce. (The Bureau, Washington DC) August 2006. 32 p.

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["Median household income rose about 1 percent between 2004 and 2005, but the nation's poverty rate remained unchanged, according to the survey. The survey for 2005 also estimated that the median income for individuals nationwide dropped -- men's about 1.8 percent and women's about 1.3 percent. About 13.3 percent of Californians, or 4.7 million, were estimated to be living in poverty in 2005. David Johnson, chief of the Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division of the U.S. Census Bureau, suggested there were more people working per household to make ends meet, but working at individual jobs that pay less." San Francisco Chronicle (August 30, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63907]

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Report to the California Department of Housing and Community Development on Enterprise Zones. By Nonprofit Management Solutions and Tax Technology Research, LLC. (The Department, Sacramento, California) August 18, 2006. 102 p.

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["Enterprise zones overall have been an economic plus for the state, according to a report. The report, which compared the zones with the rest of the state on a number of factors, said that between 1990 and 2000: poverty rate declined 7.35 percent more than the rest of the state; unemployment rate dropped 1.2 percent more than the rest of the state; household income increased 7.1 percent more than the rest of the state; and wage and income rose 3.5 percent more than the rest of the state. Overall during the 1980s there was economic decline in the zones, but improvements kicked in during the 1990s." The Desert Sun (August 19, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63909]

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A Tale of Two Stadiums: Comparing the Economic Impact of Chicago's Wrigley Field and U.S. Cellular Field. By Robert A. Baade, Lake Forest College, and others. Working Paper Series No. 06-14. (International Association of Sports Economists, Limoges, France) August 2006. 15 p.

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["Supporters of sports stadium construction often defend taxpayer subsidies for stadiums by suggesting that sports infrastructure can serve as an anchor for local economic redevelopment. Have such promises of economic rejuvenation been realized? The City of Chicago provides an interesting case study on how a new stadium, U. S. Cellular Field, has been integrated into its southside neighborhood in a way that may well have limited local economic activity. This economic outcome stands in stark contrast to Wrigley Field in northern Chicago which continues to experience a synergistic commercial relationship with its neighborhood."]

[Request #S63910]

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Order Instituting Rulemaking on the Commission's Own Motion to Assess and Revise the Regulation of Telecommunications Utilities. Rulemaking 05-04-005 Proposed Decision of Commissioner Chong. (California Public Utilities Commission, San Francisco, California) July 25, 2006. 273 p.

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["Ending decades of government price regulation, the Public Utilities Commission approved a plan that would allow California's major phone carriers to raise rates at will. The unanimous decision to abolish most price caps came after the commission concluded that competition from cable carriers and wireless providers had grown strong enough to check rate hikes by traditional land-line phone companies such as AT&T Inc. Just to be sure, though, the PUC reserved the power to step in and curb excessive price hikes. The commission also froze basic residential rates until 2009 to protect poor and rural customers who have less access to new technologies." Los Angeles Times (August 25, 2006) A1.]

[Request #S63911]

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Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR) Program: Summary of Results. By the California Department of Education. (The Department, Sacramento, California) July 21, 2006.

["Latino, African American, and low-income children trailed far behind their peers on state tests, despite modest gains by all demographic groups in both reading and math. 42 percent of all students statewide scored proficient or better in English-language arts, and 40 percent did the same in math. That's an improvement of two percentage points since last year in each subject, and an increase of 7 percent and 5 percent, respectively, since 2003. However, those in the rear of the pack are improving without moving closer to the front. Gaps persist among students of different ages, races, and economic backgrounds." Sacramento Bee (August 16, 2006) A1.]

Summary of Results. 16 p.:

Individual Results. Various pagings.:

[Request #S63912]

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Saving Futures, Saving Dollars: The Impact of Education on Crime Reduction and Earnings. By the Alliance for Excellent Education. (The Alliance, Washington, DC) August 2006. 6 p.

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["Our nation’s public high schools graduate, on average, 70 percent of seniors each year. This troubling rate may be more costly than we realize; there’s a correlation between diploma attainment and crime -- although just what and why is the subject of many theories. This brief finds that boosting male graduation rates by 10 percent would decrease murder and assault arrest rates by about 20 percent, and would save states money in crime-related costs." Connect for Kids (August 14, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63913]

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Identifying Potential Dropouts: Key Lessons for Building an Early Warning Data System: A Dual Agenda of High Standards and High Graduation Rates. By Craig D. Jerald, Break the Curve Consulting. Prepared for Achieve, Inc. (Achieve, Inc., Washington, DC) June 2006. 53 p.

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["Here’s a quandary: the United States has to raise graduation rates, but we’ve also got to raise academic standards (witness the California high school exit exam results). So how to do both, simultaneously? This white paper suggests it might not be as difficult as it seems. Schools can predict with some accuracy who will drop out, and why, and targeted interventions for these types of students have proven successful. The paper also recommends building an 'early warning data system' to lower drop-out rates." Connect for Kids (August 14, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63914]

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Meeting Five Critical Challenges of High School Reform: Lessons from Research on Three Reform Models. By Janet Quint, MDRC. (MDRC, Oakland, California) 2006.

["This is the first in a series of reports summarizing and synthesizing what has been learned from rigorous and large-scale evaluations of high school reform initiatives. It discusses three comprehensive initiatives -- Career Academies, First Things First, and Talent Development -- that have grappled with the challenges of improving low-performing urban and rural schools. Together, these three interventions are being implemented in more than 2,500 high schools across the country, and various components of these models are being used in thousands more schools."]

Executive Summary. 8 p.:

Full Report. 89 p.:

[Request #S63915]

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"The Why Chromosome: How a Teacher’s Gender Affects Boys and Girls." By Thomas S. Dee. IN: Education Next (Fall 2006) pp. 68-75.

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["For all the differences between the sexes, here's one that might stir up debate in the teacher's lounge: Boys learn more from men and girls learn more from women.... Dee's research faces a fight for acceptance. Some leading education advocates dispute his conclusions and the way in which he reached them. But Dee says his research supports his point, that gender matters when it comes to learning. Specifically, as he describes it, having a teacher of the opposite sex hurts a student's academic progress.... His study comes as the proportion of male teachers is at its lowest level in 40 years. Roughly 80 percent of teachers in U.S. public schools are women." Newsday (August 28, 2006) A22.]

[Request #S63916]

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"Sustainable Forestry in the Balance." By Stephen R. Shifley. IN: Journal of Forestry (June 2006) pp. 187-195.

["In the United States we increasingly restrict wood production in the name of sustainability while going abroad for an ever larger share of the wood we consume, even though our own forest resources per capita are greater than the rest of the Earth. The unintended consequence is we transfer impacts of harvesting and consumption elsewhere. If we believe impacts of harvesting and consumption are primarily positive, we should embrace them locally. If we believe impacts are negative, we should take responsibility for them locally and mitigate them. Sustainable forest management requires scalable solutions across geopolitical units: states, regions, nations, and Earth. There are some simple measures of sustainability applicable across all these scales to establish sideboards for sustainable forest management."]

[Request #S63917]

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People of the State of California v. U.S. Forest Service, et al. U.S. District Court, Northern District of California. 05-00898. August 22, 2006. 19 p.

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["A judge rejected the plan to allow increased logging in the Giant Sequoia National Monument, saying the government had 'trampled the applicable environmental laws.' The order did not permanently ban stepped-up commercial lumbering in the southern Sierra Nevada preserve, instead requiring further environmental review. But the judge said the administration's plan to increase the size and number of trees that could be cut, while claiming to adhere to the monument's preservationist standards, was incomprehensible. The judge ordered the U.S. Forest Service to develop a new management plan." San Francisco Chronicle (August 23, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63918]

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From Traditional to Reformed: A Review of the Land Use Regulations in the Nation's 50 Largest Metropolitan Areas. By Rolf Pendall and others. The Brookings Institution. (The Institution, Washington, DC) August 2006. 40 p.

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["Local land use regulations help define the character of cities, towns, counties, and entire regions. Zoning, comprehensive plans, infrastructure control, urban containment, building moratoriums, and permit caps can drive development outward, promote density, or something in between.... This comprehensive survey of local land use regulations finds a wide variety of regulatory regimes, classifying them in four broad typologies, across the nation’s 50 largest metropolitan areas. They range from exclusionary and restrictive to innovative and accommodating. These produce a variety of effects on metropolitan growth and density, and on the opportunities afforded to the residents that live there."]

[Request #S63919]

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Californians for Disability Rights, Inc., et al. v. California Department of Transportation, et al. U.S. District Court, Northern District of California. 06-CV-05125. Class Action Complaint for Violation of Civil Rights. August 23, 2006. 21p.

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[“A Berkeley-based disability rights group filed a federal class-action lawsuit against Caltrans, claiming state roads are rife with barriers for people with disabilities. Obstacles include missing and inadequate curb ramps; dangerous slopes and crumbled or uneven pavement; Park-and-Ride facilities with inaccessible paths; non-accessible parking spaces; and failure to provide accessible alternate routes during construction….” Oakland Tribune (August 24, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63920]

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Pedro Lozano, et al. v. City of Hazelton. U.S. District Court, Middle District of Pennsylvania. Complaint. August 2006. 42 p.

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["The Pennsylvania city of Hazleton passed an ordinance aimed at making it 'one of the most difficult places in America for illegal immigrants.'... Dozens of other communities have picked up on the idea, saying local governments must find ways to expel illegal immigrants.... In hopes of stopping the spread of the ordinances, opponents filed federal lawsuits arguing principally that the local governments were violating the supremacy clause of the Constitution by attempting to regulate immigration, which is a federal matter." Los Angeles Times (August 16, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63921]

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Re-Drawing Lines: A Public Interest Analysis of California’s 2006 Redistricting Reform Proposals. By Shakari Byerly, Center for Governmental Studies, and Steven Carbó, Demos. (Demos, New York, New York) August 2006. 40 p.

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["This report provides a brief overview of redistricting reform principles and the need for an independent redistricting commission in California. It also reviews California’s 2005 reform efforts and provides an overall evaluation of the two current measures. This evaluation recommends public interest improvements that could be made to each of the 2006 proposals and presents a detailed series of charts comparing the major provisions of the measures with ideal public interest provisions."]

[Request #S63922]

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In Search of Fiscal Responsibility: An Analysis of State Fiscal Choices. By J. Fred Silva. Prepared for the New California Network. (The Network, San Francisco, California) 2006. 20 p.

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["The steady economy and a boost in income tax revenue provide California with the fair weather needed to make vital repairs to the fiscal foundation of state government. If policymakers seize this opportunity, the State will begin to improve public services that are necessary for California to be safe, healthy, and prosperous. If the opportunity slips away, state government will continue to languish and remain vulnerable to an even larger fiscal crisis when the next, inevitable recession arrives. The right reforms could ease the 'structural' budget gap by reducing the pressure of increasing costs. Smart reforms in budgeting and management could deliver in California, as they have in other states, better results in education, social services, and even prisons, and as a result, hold down demands on the most expensive government programs. "]

[Request #S63923]

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Coping With Term Limits: A Practical Guide. By Jennifer Drage Bowser and others, The Joint Project on Term Limits. (National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, Colorado) August 2006. 36 p.

["The National Conference of State Legislators released a study of California and five other states that indicated term limits have eroded the effectiveness of legislative branches nationwide. Instead of leveling the playing field between the legislative and executive branches, term limits have weakened the legislative branch in relation to executive power. Term caps have curtailed the strength of leadership, led to frequent revisiting of the same issues, weakened committee power, boosted staff influence and left officeholders scrambling over one another to fulfill ambitions." Oakland Tribune (August 15, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63924]

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Insured Californians Report High Satisfaction with Health Care. By Gerald F. Kaminski and others, UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. (The Center, Los Angeles, California) June 2006. 4 p.

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["More than 24 million insured Californians report 'good' to 'excellent' satisfaction with their health care, based on data from the 2003 California Health Interview Survey. These individuals who represent 96% of the total insured, non-elderly population in California report a positive health care experience, while having health insurance and visiting a doctor within the past two years. The 900,000 individuals with 'fair' or 'poor' satisfaction (3.6%) are more likely to delay seeking medical care and to have experienced problems getting the necessary health care."]

[Request #S63925]

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Health of California's Adults, Adolescents, and Children: Findings from CHIS 2003 and 2001. By Sue Holtby, Public Health Institute, and others. (UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, Los Angeles, California) May 2006. Various pagings.

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["Most Californians believe they are in excellent health, but a sweeping survey highlights some trends that appear to contradict their optimism. More than half of California adults are overweight or obese, for example, and the prevalence of asthma among adults jumped 9 percent in just two years, from 2001 to 2003. The survey of more than 42,000 adults, 4,000 teens and 8,500 children looked at a range of health indicators, from kids' daily soda intake to colon cancer screening rates and the use of hormone replacement therapy by post-menopausal women." Sacramento Bee (July 7, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63926]

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State Behavioral Health Innovations: Disseminating Promising Practices. By S. B. Perman and R. H. Dougherty, DMA Health Strategies. (The Commonwealth Fund, New York, New York) August 2006. 64 p.

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["The delivery of mental health care in the United States requires radical improvement and reform. To help identify promising innovations in behavioral health care, the authors of this report interviewed experts in the field of mental health and substance abuse. Based on their suggestions, the authors selected and described 17 innovations... that fall into six categories: enhancing consumer-centered care, criminal justice/mental health collaboration, system integration, the use of performance incentives, quality improvement, and other promising practices."]

[Request #S63927]

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Regional Forecasts of the Registered Nurse Workforce in California. By Joanne Spetz, Center for California Health Workforce Studies, University of California, San Francisco. (The Center, San Francisco, California) August 2006. 35 p.

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["By 2012, every region in California will face a shortage of registered nurses. Unless policies are enacted to address the problem, by 2030 most of northern and central California will not have the nurses to fill 30 percent of RN positions, Los Angeles will need enough RNs to fill 20,000 full-time-equivalent vacancies, and the state's northernmost counties will lack 40 percent of the registered nurses they need." UCSF Press Release (August 22, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63928]

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"Hospitals' Responses to Nurse Staffing Shortages." By Jessica H. May and others. IN: Health Affairs, vol. 25, no. 4 (2006) pp. 316-323.

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["While many hospitals in 12 communities across the country report that short-term measures, such as higher pay and temporary staff, have helped ease nurse staffing shortage, serious doubts remain about hospitals' inability to meet future nursing needs."]

[Request #S63929]

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Meth and Child Welfare: Promising Solutions for Children, Their Parents and Grandparents. By Generations United. (Generations United, Washington, DC) 2006. 45 p.

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["In California and across the nation, methamphetamine addiction is tearing apart families and sending growing numbers of children into foster care. The drug's impact on child welfare has become so severe, it now compares to the crack cocaine crisis of the 1980s, according to a national report.... In California, 71 percent of counties report an increase in out-of-home placements due to meth over the past five years. In counties with meth problems, 48 percent report that an increasing number of families cannot be reunified, 56 percent say reunification takes longer, and 27 percent say reunifications that do occur are less likely to last." Contra Costa Times (June 9, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63930]

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Strengthening State Policies for Working Families. By Deborah Povich and others, Working Poor Families Project. (Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, Maryland) 2006. 21 p.

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["The authors analyze state performance in key policy areas related to workforce development. The report summarizes and highlights public policy issues that have been addressed by state groups in the first five years of the Working Poor Families Project. These efforts include strengthening policies involving community colleges and adult education systems, skills training programs, economic development investments, and income and work supports. Examples of specific state strategies and actions are included."]

[Request #S63931]

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Getting on, Staying on, and Getting off Welfare: The Complexity of State-By-State Policy Choices. By Gretchen Rowe and Linda Giannarelli, Urban Institute, Income and Benefits Policy Center. (The Institute, Washington, DC) July 2006. 8 p.

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["Virtually any statement about welfare is no longer universally true across the country.... States may now choose to use state funds for certain recipients who would not be covered by federal funds, furthering local options. As a result of this flexibility and the ensuing diversity of state policy choices, it is difficult to summarize clearly and briefly the national picture of state welfare policy."]

[Request #S63932]

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Testimony of Ron Haskins, Brookings Institution on 1996 Welfare Overhaul. Presented to the Ways and Means Committee, U.S. House of Representatives. (The Institution, Washington, DC) July 19, 2006. 12 p.

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["Thanks to provisions in the legislation itself that provided millions of dollars for research, to an unprecedented level of research sponsored by foundations, to data reported by states to the federal government, and to national data collected and reported on a routine basis by the Census Bureau, a tremendous volume of information bearing on the effects of the legislation has been produced. In fact, there is probably more information about the effects of the 1996 welfare reform law than any other piece of social legislation enacted in recent decades."]

[Request #S63933]

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Building Roads to Reduce Traffic Congestion in America’s Cities: How Much and at What Cost? By David T. Hartgen and M. Gregory Fields, University of North Carolina at Charlotte. (Reason Foundation, Los Angeles, California) August 2006.

["Today, just four U.S. cities (Los Angeles, Chicago, Washington and San Francisco-Oakland) have daily congestion delays that prolong peak-hour trips by more than 50 percent. In the next 25 years, 30 cities will join that club. And drivers in an unlucky 12 cities will face daily bottlenecks worse than the notorious traffic jams in today's Los Angeles -- their commutes will take at least 75 percent longer than off-peak trips. The economic cost -- lost time, inefficiency, unreliable deliveries and snarled schedules -- is immense and saps the economy of $63 billion a year. Before you pack up and move to Small Town USA, you should know that things are getting just as bad there." Contra Costa Times (August 31, 2006) F1.]

Report. 54 p.

California Analysis. 5 p.

Appendices. Various pagings.

[Request #S63934]

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[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]



Visible Invisibility: Women of Color in Law Firms. By the American Bar Association Commission on Women in the Profession. (The Association, Washington, DC) 2006. 140 p.

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["Justice is supposed to be blind and you are entitled to be tried by a jury of your peers. Those are two of the major tenets behind the American justice system that should support inclusiveness and thwart discrimination based on gender, race and other factors. But, something has apparently been lost in the process as the American legal profession continues to be plagued by inequities regarding the professional development of attorneys and the selection of judges." Ventura County Star (August 18, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S63935]

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