Subject: Studies in the News 06-48 (November 20, 2006)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Children and Family Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material EDUCATION
   Special-needs children in classrooms
   Increased funding for Pre-K
   Education statistics projections
   Student computer and Internet use
   State spending on preschool
   Early literacy and school readiness
   Teacher training in disarray
   Teacher satisfaction and prestige
HEALTH
   Prevention of shopping-cart injuries
   California among safest states for kids
   Los Angeles Healthy Kids Program
   ADHD linked to lead exposure and tobacco smoke
   Maternal smoking leads to SIDS
   Infant health issues in Medicaid
   Preterm births raise infant mortality
   Home heating costs and childhood hunger
   Potential to serve more children with Medicaid
   Children's mental health problems widespread
   Food insecurity and mental health
   Becoming overweight before third grade
   Abdominal obesity increasing in children
   High-fat food ads target toddlers
   Special needs children and prescriptions
   Examining secondhand smoke in cars
HUMAN SERVICES
   Effect of childcare on child development
   Gaps in state childcare assistance
   Prenatal cocaine exposure and child welfare
   Applying early childhood interventions
   Budgeting tools for early childhood systems
   Facts about low-income children
   Data on low-income children
   Different approaches for welfare caseload decline
STUDIES TO COME
   Successful strategies in early childhood education
   Improving science education
   Childcare subsidy policies
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

EDUCATION

DISABILITIES

"Making the Social Visible Within Inclusive Classrooms." By Laurie Katz and Jeanne S. Galbraith. IN: Journal of Research in Childhood Education, vol. 21, no. 1. (October 20, 2006) pp. 5-21.

Full Text at: www.knowledgeplex.org/news/207734.html

["There is an increasing need to address children's social development in the midst of academic initiatives for early childhood curricula. A study was conducted to make visible and support children's social interactions within inclusive preschool classrooms through documentation from the Reggio Emilia approach.... Researchers have found that inclusive classrooms of both children with disabilities and their typically developing peers can provide opportunities for all children to develop positive social relationships."]

[Request #S64801]

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EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Votes Count: Legislative Action on Pre-K: Fiscal Year 2007. By Pre-K Now. (Pre-K Now, Washington, DC) October 2006.

["For FY07, a record-setting 31 state legislatures committed to increased funding for pre-k, offering more families access to voluntary pre-k and improved program quality. Notably, no state legislative body authorized decreased funding for pre-k. Over just the past two years, states have increased pre-k spending by more than $1 billion.... Legislators nationwide embraced pre-k with bipartisan zeal putting children’s educational success above party bickering....Illinois made pre-k history by committing to provide voluntary early education for all three and four year olds over the next few years."]

Full Report. 24 p.
http://www.preknow.com/documents/LegislativeReport_Oct2006.pdf

State-by-State Highlights. Various pagings.
http://www.preknow.com/resource/votescount/index.cfm

[Request #S64802]

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EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS

Projections of Education Statistics to 2015. By William J. Hussar, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Tabitha M. Bailey, Global Insight, Inc. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 2006. 163 p.

Full Text at: nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006084.pdf

["This publication provides projections for enrollment, graduates, teachers, and expenditures in elementary and secondary schools.... For the nation, the report contains data on enrollment, teachers, graduates, and expenditures for the past 14 years and projections to the year 2015. For the 50 states, the report contains data on projections of public elementary and secondary enrollment and public high school graduates to the year 2015.... Some highlights from the report: enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools rose 18 percent between 1990 and 2003 and is projected to increase an additional 6 percent between 2003 and 2015; between 2003 and 2015, private school enrollment is expected to increase by 7 percent." NCES Newsflash (September 14, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64803]

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EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

Computer and Internet Use by Students in 2003: Statistical Analysis Report. By Matthew DeBell, Education Statistics Services Institute, American Institutes for Research, and Chris Chapman, National Center for Education Statistics. NCES 2006–065. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 2006. 72 p.

Full Text at: nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006065.pdf

["This report examines the use of computers and the Internet by children enrolled in nursery school and students in kindergarten through grade 12. The report examines the overall rate of use, the ways in which students use the technologies, where the use occurs, and the relationships of these aspects of computer and Internet use to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics such as students' age and race/ethnicity and their parents' education and family income.... One of the more important findings presented in the report is that schools appear to help narrow the disparities between different types of students in terms of computer use. Differences in the rates of computer use are smaller at school than they are at home when considering such characteristics as race/ethnicity, family income, and parental education."]

[Request #S64804]

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PRESCHOOL

How Much Does Quality Preschool Cost? By W. Steven Barnett and Kenneth B. Robin, National Institute for Early Education Research, Rutgers University. (The Institute, New Brunswick, New Jersey) 2006. 19 p.

Full Text at: nieer.org/resources/research/CostOfEffectivePreschool.pdf

["Research demonstrates that quality preschool programs are a good economic investment. However, there is less information available that examines how much funding is necessary for programs to be successful. This working paper looks at current state spending on preschool, identifies aspects of programs that are related to cost, and provides estimates of the funding needed to achieve desired levels of access and quality." Early Education in the News (September 5, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64806]

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SCHOOL READINESS

"Identifying Key Early Literacy and School Readiness Issues: Exploring a Strategy for Assessing Community Needs." By Daniel J. Weigel and Sally S. Martin. IN: Early Childhood Research and Practice, vol. 8, no. 2 (Fall 2006) 16 p.

Full Text at: ecrp.uiuc.edu/v8n2/weigel.html

["This article presents the results of a needs assessment project aimed at identifying priorities for community intervention programs aimed at ensuring that young children enter school ready to learn. Panelists developed a prioritized list of key community needs and programs. The panelists identified 39 broad issues and prioritized these in terms of critical importance. Participants also identified key existing assets and needed community efforts to address the highest rated priorities. The article may provide a blueprint for others wishing to identify key community needs related to important early childhood issues."]

[Request #S64808]

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TEACHERS

Educating School Teachers. By Arthur Levine. (The Education Schools Project, Washington, DC) 2006. 142 p.

Full Text at: www.edschools.org/pdf/Educating_Teachers_Report.pdf

["Aspiring teachers emerge from college woefully unprepared for their jobs, according to a study that depicts most teacher education programs as deeply flawed. The report... comes as public schools are under federal orders to have a qualified teacher for every class.... The coursework in teacher education programs is in disarray nationwide, the report says. Unlike other professions such as law and medicine, there is no common length of study or set of required skills. Then there are a host of other problems: low admissions standards, disengaged college faculty, insufficient classroom practice and poor oversight." Boston Globe (September 18, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64809]

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The MetLife Survey of the American Teacher Expectations and Experiences. By MetLife. (MetLife, Warwick, Rhode Island) 2006. 167 p.

Full Text at: www.metlife.com/WPSAssets/81821402701160505871V1F2006MetLifeTeacherSurvey.pdf

["Teachers' satisfaction with their careers has increased significantly over the past two decades, according to the survey.... Notably, teacher satisfaction is at a 20-year high: 56% of the 1,001 teachers polled earlier this year reported being 'very satisfied' with their careers, in comparison with just 40% in 1984, the first year of the survey.... Teacher satisfaction appears to be closely intertwined with the perceived prestige of the profession."]

[Request #S64810]

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HEALTH

CHILDREN

"Shopping Cart–Related Injuries to Children." By the Committee on Injury, Violence, and Poison Prevention, American Academy of Pediatrics. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 2 (August 2006) pp. 825-827.

Full Text at: pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/118/2/825

["The current U.S. standard for shopping carts should be revised to include clear and effective performance criteria for shopping cart child-restraint systems and cart stability to prevent falls from carts and cart tip-overs. Injuries associated with shopping carts are an important cause of pediatric morbidity, especially among children under age 5. The policy statement presents background information and recommendations." MCH Alert (August 11, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64811]

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"The 10 Safest States for Kids." By Karen Cicero. IN: Child Magazine (November 2006) pp. 126-136.

Full Text at: www.rikidscount.org/matriarch/documents/Safest%20States%20for%20Kids.pdf

["The results of the survey finds California squeaked in at number ten. Child Magazine embarked on a six-month investigation of how state governments protect against accidents and violence and examined more than 55 criteria, including: crime rates; the number of police officers and firefighters per capita; the availability and quality of emergency-medicine doctors and trauma centers; childhood-injury rates; booster-seat, bike-helmet and window-guard laws; school-bus-crossing safety issues; the quality of the playgrounds; protection from sex offenders; and more." San Diego Union-Tribune (October 21, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64812]

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A Profile of Young Children in the Los Angeles Healthy Kids Program: Who Are They and What Are Their Experiences on the Program? By Embry Howell, The Urban Institute, and others. Prepared for First 5 LA. (The Institute, Washington, DC) October 2006. 85 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411370_healthy_kids.pdf

["The Los Angeles Healthy Kids program was created in July 2003 to provide coverage to low-income, uninsured children ages zero to five years who are ineligible for Medi-Cal or Healthy Families. The report provides a descriptive analysis of 1,087 families who completed a baseline survey during 2005. The survey gathered data on children's health status, health care access and use, parental satisfaction, and the enrollment and renewal process." News from Mathematica (October 24, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64813]

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"Exposures to Environmental Toxicants and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in US Children." By Joe Braun and others. IN: Environmental Health Perspectives, September 19, 2006. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.ehponline.org/members/2006/9478/9478.pdf

["Nearly a third of ADHD cases may be due to two preventable causes: early childhood exposure to environmental lead and exposure to tobacco smoke in the womb. This is further proof-positive that prenatal smoking has long-term developmental effects on kids, perhaps leading to an additional 270,000 cases of ADHD.... But the study's most innovative finding is that childhood exposure to lead, even at low levels that the government finds acceptable, also has detrimental effects on kids, perhaps leading to an additional 290,000 excess cases of ADHD." WebMD Medical News (September 20, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64814]

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INFANT MORTALITY

"Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Reported Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy." By Tushar Shah and others. IN: American Journal of Public Health, vol. 96, no. 10 (October 2006) pp. 1757-1759.

["We investigated the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the relative risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) by linking data from Georgia birth and death certificates from 1997 to 2000.... Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with a significantly increased risk of SIDS."]

[Request #S64815]

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INFANTS

"Poor Preventive Care Achievement and Program Retention Among Low Birth Weight Infant Medicaid Enrollees." By Shanna Shulman. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 5 (November 2006) pp. e1509-e1515.

Full Text at: pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/118/5/e1509

["Some Medicaid-enrolled low birth weight infants are at risk for poor health supervision and poor continuity of care through failure to retain coverage. The disproportionate odds of poor health promotion among mothers of low birth weight infants explain much of this deficit. States may want to prioritize preventive care supervision and program reenrollment for children of mothers with evidence of low health promotion. This recommendation is particularly important for infants of low birth weight."]

[Request #S64816]

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"The Contribution of Preterm Birth to Infant Mortality Rates in the United States." By William M. Callaghan and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 4 (October 2006) pp. 1566-1573.

["Being born too early may be a bigger threat to babies' health than previously realized. One-third of all infant deaths in 2002 were linked to prematurity, defined as birth before 37 weeks' gestation. That's double the risk experts had so far estimated." HealthDay News (October 2, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64836]

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INFANTS & CHILDREN

"Heat or Eat: The Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program and Nutritional and Health Risks Among Children Less Than 3 Years of Age." By Deborah A. Frank and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 5. (November 2006) pp. e1293-e1302.

Full Text at: pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/118/5/e1293

["Even within a low-income renter sample, Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) benefits seem to reach families at the highest social and medical risk with more food insecurity and higher rates of low birth-weight children. Living in a household receiving LIHEAP is associated with less evidence of undernutrition, no evidence of increased overweight, and lower odds of acute hospitalization from an emergency department visit among young children in low-income renter households compared with children in comparable households not receiving LIHEAP.... From a public policy perspective, these findings suggest that, particularly as fuel costs and children’s poverty rates increase, expanding LIHEAP funding and meeting the national LIHEAP performance goal of increasing the percentage of recipient households with young children might potentially benefit such children’s growth and health."]

[Request #S64817]

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MEDICAID

The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005: An Overview of Key Medicaid Provisions and Their Implications for Early Childhood Development Services. By Sara Rosenbaum and Anne Markus, George Washington University. (The Commonwealth Fund, New York, New York) October 2006. 52 p.

Full Text at: www.cmwf.org/usr_doc/Rosenbaum_DRA_Medicaid_provisions_958.pdf

["The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 grant states flexibility to modify their Medicaid programs in ways that could negatively affect access to early childhood development services. At the same time, other provisions allow states to actually expand eligibility for Medicaid, thereby potentially serving more children. How it all turns out will ultimately depend on how states implement the law over the next year."]

[Request #S64818]

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MENTAL HEALTH

Children’s Mental Health: Facts for Policymakers. By the National Center for Children in Poverty. (The Center, New York, New York) November 2006. 4 p.

Full Text at: nccp.org/media/ucr06b_text.pdf

["NCCP's first fact sheet on mental health highlights the widespread nature of mental health problems among children and youth and the lack of adequate services. Latino children and youth are less likely to receive services than children and youth of other ethnic groups. Effective public policy strategies can improve mental health services for children."]

[Request #S64819]

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"Food Insecurity and the Risks of Depression and Anxiety in Mothers and Behavior Problems in their Preschool-Aged Children." By Robert C. Whitaker and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 3. (September 2006) pp. e859-e868.

Full Text at: pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/118/3/e859

["Stressful social circumstances, particularly constrained economic resources, have been linked to behavioral problems in young children and to symptoms of depression and anxiety in mothers. Researchers sought to determine if the prevalence of depression and anxiety in mothers and the prevalence of behavior problems in preschool-aged children are more common when mothers report being food insecure. Mental health problems in mothers and behavior problems in their children were twice as likely in food-insecure households, after controlling for multiple factors, including income and other forms of material hardship." News from Mathematica (September 12, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64820]

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OBESITY

"Childhood Overweight and Elementary School Outcomes." By Ashlesha Datar and Roland Sturm. IN: International Journal of Obesity, vol. 30, no. 9. (September 2006) pp. 1449-1460.

Full Text at: www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v30/n9/pdf/0803311a.pdf

["This study examines the association between changes in overweight status and school outcomes between kindergarten entry and end of third grade.... Being always-overweight was associated with more internalizing behavior problems among girls but fewer externalizing behavior problems among boys. The authors conclude that a change in overweight status during the first four years in school is a significant risk factor for adverse school outcomes among girls but not boys." RAND Child Policy Update (October 31, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64821]

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"Recent Trends in Waist Circumference and Waist-Height Ratio Among U.S. Children and Adolescents." By Chaoyang Li and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 5. (November 2006) pp. e1390-e1398.

Full Text at: pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/118/5/e1390

["Five-year-olds are developing middle-age paunches -- a bleak sign that children are not only getting heavier, they're packing on the worst kind of fat. Abdominal obesity increased more than 65 per cent among U.S. children between 1988 and 2004, according to the first national study to track trends in belly fat in children.... Belly fat is riskier than overall obesity. Studies have shown the increased risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes due to excess body fat is mainly linked to abdominal fat." The Vancouver Sun (November 6, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64822]

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"Food-Related Advertising on Preschool Television: Building Brand Recognition in Young Viewers." By Susan M. Connor. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 4. (October 2006) pp. 1478-1485.

["Messages for high-fat, high-sugar foods permeate programming for preschoolers on Nickelodeon. On the Disney Channel's shows for the youngest children and even on Public Broadcasting Service shows such as 'Sesame Street,' companies woo tots' loyalty by linking logos, licensed characters and slogans with fun and happiness. Disney and PBS promote themselves as ad-free, but fast-food companies dominated sponsor messages during programming for toddlers, making up 82 percent of sponsor messages on PBS preschool programming and 36 percent of messages on Disney's toddler block of shows." CBS News (October 2, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64837]

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PRESCRIPTION DRUGS

Prescription Drug Costs for Children with Special Health Care Needs. By Henry Ireys and others, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (Mathematica, Princeton, New Jersey) October 2006. 2 p.

Full Text at: www.mathematica-mpr.com/publications/pdfs/qualitycareupdate2.pdf

["The rapidly escalating costs of prescription drugs affect children and adults alike and contribute to concerns that traditional employer-based insurance will be unaffordable in the future. However, little information is available on costs for children with chronic conditions and disabilities, who make heavy use of these drugs. This brief, based on the most comprehensive data available for a large sample of commercially insured children, recommends strategies for helping to ensure that children have access to needed medications in the future." News from Mathematica (October 10, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64823]

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SMOKING

"Measuring Air Quality to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke in Cars." By Vaughan W. Rees and Gregory N. Connolly. IN: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 31, no. 5. (November 2006) p 1-6.

Full Text at: www.ajpm-online.net/webfiles/images/journals/amepre/1751.pdf

["Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) can have harmful effects on children. Some of the adverse health outcomes include a greater likelihood of ear infections, lower respiratory infections, sudden infant death syndrome and severity of asthma symptoms. It is estimated that 35% to 45% of children are regularly exposed to SHS from adults using tobacco in homes and cars.... Smoking in cars can produce unsafe levels of SHS. Even with the driver's window slightly open, mean respirable suspended particles concentrations hit levels rated 'hazardous' by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency." ScienceDaily (October 6, 2006)1.]

[Request #S64824]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

The NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development: Findings for Children up to Age 4 1/2 Years. By the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (The Institute, Washington, DC) 2006. 52 p.

Full Text at: www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/upload/seccyd_051206.pdf

["Findings reveal that a child’s family life has more influence on a child’s development through age four and a half than does a child’s experience in child care. 'This study shows only a slight link between child care and child development,' said Duane Alexander, Director of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 'Child care clearly matters to children’s development, but family characteristics -- and children’s experiences within their families -- appear to matter more.'" NIH News (October 3, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64825]

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State Child Care Assistance Policies 2006: Gaps Remain, With New Challenges Ahead. By Karen Schulman and Helen Blank, Women's Law Center. (The Center, Washington, DC) September 2006. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.nwlc.org/pdf/StateChildCareAssistancePoliciesReport2006.pdf

["Center-based care for one child can cost between $3,000 and $13,000 per year depending on geographical location and the age of the child.... The report reveals that states continue to underfund programs that help low-income families pay for child care. In the area of reimbursement rates for child care providers, states were significantly behind where they were in both 2005 and 2001.... The problem is likely to get worse as new welfare work requirements this year will create more demand for child care assistance." Early Education in the News (October 3, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64826]

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CHILDREN

"Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Child Welfare Outcomes." By John L. Doris and others. IN: Child Maltreatment, vol. 11, no. 4 (November 2006) pp. 326-337.

Full Text at: cmx.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/11/4/326

["This study examines the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure and child welfare outcomes. Cocaine-exposed infants had significant decrements in birth weight, length, head circumference, and depressed 5-min Apgar scores. This confirmed the health risk of prenatal cocaine exposure. Three-year follow-up data were obtained from the State Central Register and foster care records. Study groups did not differ in incidents of child maltreatment or foster care placement. These findings suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure is not a marker for abusive parenting."

[Request #S64827]

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Common Purpose: Sharing Responsibility for Child and Family Outcomes. By Lisbeth B. Schorr, Harvard University. (National Center for Children in Poverty, New York, New York) October 2006. 12 p.

Full Text at: nccp.org/media/cps06_text.pdf

["In the last several years, I’ve been part of a team assembling information about what works -- particularly in early childhood -- on a web site, PathwaysToOutcomes.org. It is crystal clear that as a society we know a great deal more about what works than we’re acting on. And the outcomes we’re achieving are far more modest than they would be if we applied the vast knowledge we now have. So why are we having so much trouble in applying what we know?"]

[Request #S64828]

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Developing Fiscal Analyses and Children’s Budgets to Support Early Childhood Comprehensive System. By the National Center for Children in Poverty. Project Thrive. Short Take No. 3. (The Center, New York, New York) 2006. 8 p.

Full Text at: nccp.org/media/tst06c.pdf

["This Short Take describes how states can carry out strategic fiscal analyses and create children's budgets. Both are essential for building a state or community fiscal infrastructure to support and sustain early childhood comprehensive system plans. Using a 'how to' approach, this document features exemplary approaches, tables, and tools that highlight state and local experience in fiscal analysis."]

[Request #S64831]

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LOW INCOME

Basic Facts About Low-Income Children. By the National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University. (The Center, New York, New York) September 2006.

["We've updated our most popular fact sheet series with the most recent Census data. Millions of children with low-income parents find themselves without the basics, even though the majority of these parents work. The series tracks by age children in the U.S. who live in low-income families: birth to age 18; birth to age 6; and birth to age 3."]

Basic Facts About Low-Income Children: Birth to Age 3. 4 p.
http://nccp.org/media/ecp06b_text.pdf

Basic Facts About Low-Income Children: Birth to Age 6. 4 p.
http://nccp.org/media/ycp06b_text.pdf

Basic Facts About Low-Income Children: Birth to Age 18. 4 p.
http://nccp.org/media/lic06b_text.pdf

[Request #S64829]

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Low-Income Children in the United States: National and State Data, 1995-2005. By National Center for Children in Poverty. (The Center, New York, New York) September 2006. 56 p.

Full Text at: nccp.org/media/nst06a_text.pdf

["After nearly a decade of decline, the number of children living in low-income families has increased significantly since 2000. This data book provides national and 50-state trend data on the characteristics of low-income children over the past decade: parental education, parental employment, marital status, family structure, race and ethnicity, age distribution, parental nativity, home ownership, residential mobility, type of residential area, and region of residence."]

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TEMPORARY ASSISTANCE FOR NEEDY FAMILIES

An Examination of the First Ten Years Under TANF in Three States: The Experiences of New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania: Draft. By Robert G. Wood and Justin Wheeler, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (Mathematica, Princeton, New Jersey) October 2006. 41 p.

Full Text at: www.mathematica-mpr.com/publications/pdfs/examinefirstten.pdf

["Ten years ago, Congress reformed welfare by creating Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), which required most welfare recipients to work and imposed time limits on benefits for the first time. Recent changes to federal TANF rules place additional pressure on states to move more recipients from welfare to work. This specially commissioned report on the implementation of TANF highlights different approaches to welfare reform and explores how these approaches may have affected caseload declines, as well as the proportion of TANF recipients who are working." News from Mathematica (October 10, 2006) 1.]

[Request #S64832]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

DEMOGRAPHY

FAMILIES

Changing Rhythms of American Family Life. By Suzanne M. Bianchi and others. (Russell Sage Foundation, New York, New York) 2006. 249 p.

["Despite the surge of women into the work force, mothers are spending at least as much time with their children today as they did 40 years ago, and the amount of child care and housework performed by fathers has sharply increased.... Women still do twice as much housework and child care as men in two-parent families. But they said that total hours of work by mothers and fathers were roughly equal, when they counted paid and unpaid work." New York Times (October 16, 2006) 1. NOTE: Changing Rhythms... will be available for loan.]

[Request #S64833]

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EDUCATION

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Building Blocks: Making Children Successful in the Early Years of School. By Gene I. Maeroff. (Palgrave Macmillan, New York, New York) 2006. 256 p.

["A student’s entire journey along the educational spectrum is affected by what occurs -- and, crucially, by what does not occur -- before the age of eight or nine. Yet the government remains reluctant to implement an effective plan for early learning. Building Blocks offers a concrete and groundbreaking strategy for making the critical changes needed in early education. Filled with colorful interviews and anecdotes from Maeroff’s visits to schools around the country, this book serves as a rich portrait of education in America, as well as a call to action for policy makers and parents." NOTE: Building Blocks... will be available for loan.]

[Request #S64834]

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MATHEMATICS & SCIENCE TEACHING

Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. By the Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade. Edited by Richard A. Duschl and others. (National Academies Press, Washington, DC) 2007. 336 p.

["Improving science education in kindergarten through eighth grade will require major changes in how science is taught in America's classrooms, as well as shifts in commonly held views of what young children know and how they learn. After decades of education reform efforts that have produced only modest gains in science performance, the need for change is clear." NOTE: Taking Science... will be available for loan.]

[Request #S64835]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

From Welfare to Childcare: What Happens to Young Children When Mothers Exchange Welfare for Work? Edited by Natasha Cabrera and others. (Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New Jersey) 2006. 296 p.

["The purpose of From Welfare to Childcare is first to describe what changes occurred in childcare following the 1996 welfare reform legislation, and then to analyze how federal welfare and subsidy policies influence the availability, accessibility, and quality of childcare arrangements for single mothers with young children. National in scope, it focuses on how the reforms influence the way that children are cared for when their mothers leave welfare and enter the workforce." NOTE: From Welfare... will be available for loan.]

[Request #S64838]

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