Subject: Studies in the News 07-11 (February 26, 2007)


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Children and Families Commission


Contents This Week

Introductory Material DEMOGRAPHY
   Demographic portrait of young Hispanic children
ECONOMY
   Cost-effective investments in children
   Early-life events and outcomes as adults
   Economic costs of child poverty
EDUCATION
   Assessing disabled English learners in preschool
   Teaching and assessing students with disabilities
   Transition practices of preschool teachers
   Low-income children closing the achievement gap
   Pre-kindergarten expansion and community providers
   Transitions for young special needs children
   Cultural competence in out-of-school programs
   Partnerships between Head Start and state pre-k
   Benefits of family literacy
   States embrace preschool
   Preschool, educational attainment and crime prevention
   Arkansas' Better Chance school readiness program
   LA's early care and education labor force
HEALTH
   Court teams for maltreated infants and toddlers
   Underinsurance and children with special needs
HUMAN SERVICES
   Family child care
   After welfare reform: mothers choose child over job
STUDIES TO COME
   Uninsured children with special health care needs
   Supporting families before, during and after childbirth
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News: Children and Family Supplement is a service provided to the First 5 California by the California State Library. The service features weekly lists of current articles focusing on Children and Family policy. Prior lists can be viewed from the California State Library's Web site at www.library.ca.gov/CRB/SITN/.

How to Obtain Materials Listed in SITN:

  • When available on the Internet, the URL for the full-text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

DEMOGRAPHY

CHILDREN

Para Nuestros Niños: A Demographic Portrait of Young Hispanic Children in the United States. By the National Task Force on Early Childhood Education for Hispanics. (The Task Force, Tempe, Arizona) [2006.] 15 p.

Full Text at: www.ecehispanic.org/work/demoportrait_brief.pdf

["More than 20 percent of U.S. children ages 0-8 are Hispanic. Although many are from immigrant families, nearly 90 percent are citizens. They are more likely than non-Hispanic white children to live in low-income households. This ... brief from the National Task Force on Early Childhood Education for Hispanics has more." CFK Weekly (January 31, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S2071]

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ECONOMY

Cost-Effective Investments in Children. By Julia B. Isaacs. Budgeting for National Priorities. (The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC) January 2007. 40 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/views/papers/200701isaacs.pdf

["Based on a review of benefit-cost evidence, this paper identifies four areas of investment that merit expanded federal funding even in a time of fiscal austerity. America’s future economic well-being will benefit from targeted investments to ensure that children have the skills to become tomorrow’s adult workers, caregivers, taxpayers, and citizens. Target areas for a package of proposals totaling about $25 billion annually and $133 billion over a five-year period are the following: 1) High-quality early childhood education programs for three- and four-year-old children ($94 billion over five years); 2) Nurse home-visiting programs to promote sound prenatal care and the healthy development of infants and toddlers ($14 billion over five years); 3) School reform with an emphasis on programs in high-poverty elementary schools that improve the acquisition of basic skills for all students ($17 billion over five years); and 4) Programs that reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancy ($8 billion over five years)."]

[Request #S2072]

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The Influence of Early-Life Events on Human Capital, Health Status, and Labor Market Outcomes Over the Life Course. By Rucker C. Johnson, University of California, Berkeley, and Robert F. Schoeni, University of Michigan. Institute of Industrial Relations Working Paper Series. Paper iirwps-140-07. (The Institute, Berkeley, California) January 2, 2007. 57 p.

Full Text at: repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1142&context=iir

["We find that poor health at birth and limited parental resources (including low income, lack of health insurance, and unwanted pregnancy) interfere with cognitive development and health capital in childhood, reduce educational attainment, and lead to worse labor market and health outcomes in adulthood.... The results reveal that low birth weight ages you by 12 years, increases the odds of dropping out of high school by one-third, lowers labor force participation by 5 percentage points, and reduces labor market earnings by roughly 15 percent.... Finally, the paper sheds light on the well known strong relationship between education and health outcomes.... Taken together, the evidence is consistent with a negative reinforcing intergenerational transmission of disadvantage within the family; parental economic status influences birth outcomes, birth outcomes have long reaching effects on health and economic status in adulthood, which in turn leads to poor birth outcomes for one’s own children."]

[Request #S2073]

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The Economic Costs of Child Poverty: Testimony. By Harry Holzer, Urban Institute. Presented to the U.S. House Committee on Ways and Means. (The Committee, Washington, DC) January 24, 2007. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/publications/901032.html

["Each year, childhood poverty reduces productivity and economic output by about 1.3 percent of GDP, raises the costs of crime by 1.3 percent of GDP, and raises health expenditures and reduces the value of health by 1.2 percent of GDP." Urban Institute Update (February 1, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S2074]

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EDUCATION

ASSESSMENT

Assessing Children With Disabilities Who Are English Learners: Guidance for the Desired Results Development Profile (DRDP) Access and the Preschool Desired Results Development Profile-Revised (PS DRDP-R) for Children with Individualized Education Programs (IEPs). By the California Department of Education, Special Education Division. (The Department, Sacramento, California) 2007.

Full Text at: www.draccess.org/pdf/EL%20Guide/el_guide_Jan07.pdf

["(Adapted from Introduction) The article provides guidance on the Desired Results system, which assesses the progress of California's preschool children with disabilities. According to the authors, the purpose of the manual is to provide guidance in assessing children from linguistically diverse backgrounds. The manual provides information on second language acquisition in young children, suggestions for communicating with children who are English Learners, and information about cultural influences on learning. The manual also provides assessors with a guide for planning observations and working with interpreters. A listing of resources about the assessment of English Language Learners children is also included." OELA Newsline (January 16, 2007) 1.]

Report: 36 p.
www.draccess.org/pdf/EL%20Guide/el_guide_Jan07.pdf

Planning to Observe Young Children who are English Learners: 4 p.
http://www.draccess.org/pdf/EL%20Guide/el_observation_guide_Jan07.pdf

[Request #S2075]

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Tool Kit on Teaching and Assessing Students with Disabilities. By the Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education. (The Office, Washington, DC) 2006. Interactive website.

Full Text at: www.osepideasthatwork.org/toolkit/index.asp

["To achieve excellence in education for students with disabilities, Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings launched an initiative focused on improving teaching, learning, and assessing by increasing states’ capacity to provide rigorous assessment, instruction, and accountability for these students. The keys to this effort are instruction and assessment, relying on the most current and accurate information on how students with disabilities learn while also measuring student performance to ensure continuous growth and progress.... To support this initiative, the Department has developed a Tool Kit on Teaching and Assessing Students with Disabilities ... which offers a compilation of current information that will move states forward in improving results for all students with disabilities. The Tool Kit will be added to over time to include more information designed to support states’ efforts and to communicate the results of research on teaching, learning, and assessments."]

[Request #S2076]

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EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Use of Transition Practices by Public Preschool Teachers. By Beth Rous and others. (National Early Childhood Transition Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky) October 2006. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.ihdi.uky.edu/NECTC/Documents/researchBriefs/researchBriefpreschool%20survey1.pdf

["Public preschool teachers use a variety of transition practices to support young children as they enter and exit public preschool programs. A focus for the National Early Childhood Transition Center (NECTC) has been to provide information on the status of current practices by professionals in supporting the transition process for children and families. To this end, NECTC conducted a national survey of public preschool teachers."]

[Request #S2077]

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Promoting Effective Early Learning: What Every Policymaker and Educator Should Know. By Lisa Klein and Jane Knitzer. (National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University, New York, New York) January 2007. 8 p.

Full Text at: nccp.org/media/pes07a_text.pdf

["This brief provides a blueprint for state and local policymakers, early learning administrators, teachers, families, community leaders, and researchers to use effective preschool curricula and teaching strategies to help low-income young children close the achievement gap in early literacy and math to be ready for kindergarten like their more affluent peers. It... addresses the question: 'What will it take to ensure that young low-income children succeed in the early school years?'"]

[Request #S2078]

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Effective Strategies for Prekindergarten Expansion: Collaboration with Community Providers. By Steffanie Clothier, National Conference of State Legislatures. Early Education: A Research and Policy Report. (NCSL, Washington, DC) December 2006. 16 p.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/print/cyf/Pre-KCommunityProviders.pdf

["As state leaders develop or expand state prekindergarten programs, they face the challenge of how best to deliver the services to children.... This policy brief examines the benefits and challenges of implementing a mixed delivery system for prekindergarten that incorporates not only schoolbased providers but also non-school or community providers. State statutory approaches and best practices in states will also be described. Non-school providers can include private child care and Head Start, faith-based child care centers, state colleges, military bases, nonprofit organizations, tribal organizations, public housing authorities, or family child care providers.... In this policy brief, 'prekindergarten' refers to programs for preschool-age children that are funded by states to promote early learning."]

[Request #S2079]

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Strategies for Supporting Transitions for Young Children with Special Needs: National Focus Group Findings Technical Report No. 1. By Beth Rous and Christine Myers, National Early Childhood Transition Center, Human Development Institute. (University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky) 2006.

Full Text at: www.ihdi.uky.edu/NECTC/DOCUMENTS/technicalReports/Technical%20Report%201_10-24-06.pdf

["The transition across multiple environments for young children with special needs has been identified as stressful for many children and families.... A series of focus group sessions of administrators, practitioners, and family members were held around the U.S. to identify transition practices that have been implemented effectively for children, families, staff, administrators, and communities. Outcomes from these focus groups included identification of transition strategies for young children with special needs that are considered valuable by parents, providers, and administrators."]

Technical Report: 17 p.
http://www.ihdi.uky.edu/NECTC/DOCUMENTS/technicalReports/Technical%20Report%201_10-24-06.pdf

Research Brief: 3 p.
http://www.ihdi.uky.edu/NECTC/Documents/researchBriefs/focusGroup.pdf

[Request #S20710]

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ETHNIC, RACIAL & CULTURAL DIVERSITY

Enhancing Cultural Competence in Out-of-School Time Programs: What Is It, and Why Is It Important? By Elena Kennedy and others. Practitioner Insights: Research-to-Results. Publication No. 2007-03. (Child Trends, Washington, DC) February 2007. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.childtrends.org/Files//Child_Trends-2007_01_31_RB_CultureCompt.pdf

["The cultures and ethnicities of today's youth paint a picture rich in diversity. Understanding these unique differences has become a core competency among youth workers and others in the out-of-school time field. Cultural Competence, what it is and ways to build it are the focus of Child Trends' newest research brief." Child Trends E-Newsletter (February 5, 2007)1.]

[Request #S20711]

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HEAD START

Better Outcomes for All: Promoting Partnerships Between Head Start and State Pre-K. By Helene Stebbins, HMS Policy Research and L. Carol Scott, Pre-K Now. (Center for Law and Social Policy and Pre-K Now, Washington, DC) January 2007. 19 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/publications/better_outcomes.pdf

["This report, a collaboration between CLASP and Pre-K Now, examines how Head Start and state pre-kindergarten programs can work together to best serve young children and their families. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with state pre-k program directors, Head Start collaboration coordinators, and providers of both Head Start and state pre-k programs in five states. The report finds that collaborations led to the enrollment of more children; the availability of more full-day, full-year options; and improvements in the quality of programs across settings. All of those interviewed for the report noted that collaboration is possible under current law and that it is well worth the effort."]

[Request #S20712]

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LITERACY

Family Literacy. By the Family Strengthening Policy Center. Policy Brief No. 19. (National Human Services Assembly, Washington, DC) January 2007. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.nassembly.org/fspc/documents/Brief19.pdf

["Parent involvement in literacy improves children's reading acquisition and may increase adults' likelihood of being employed, according to a new policy brief from the National Assembly's Family Strengthening Policy Center. After participating in family literacy programs, 43 percent of parents were employed, compared with 14 percent before enrolling." Connect for Kids (January 24, 2007)1.]

[Request #S20713]

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PRESCHOOL

Preschool Rocks: Policymakers Around the Country Are Investing in Preschool. By Steffanie Clothier and Julie Poppe. IN: State Legislatures, vol. 33, no. 1 (January 2007) pp. 28-30.

Full Text at: www.ncsl.org/programs/pubs/slmag/2007/07SLJan07_Preschool.pdf

["States are on the move with preschool. Thirty-one have increased funding -- more than $1 billion in the past two years. Illinois and West Virginia are joining Florida, Georgia and Oklahoma in making sure preschool is available to all children whose parents want it, not just for low-income families. Other states are targeting children most at-risk of school failure. And some states are establishing task forces to look at what they can do. But most are doing something."]

[Request #S20714]

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Preschool Education, Educational Attainment, and Crime Prevention: Contributions of Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills. By Judy A. Temple and others, Early Childhood Research Collaborative. Prepared for the Center for Early Education and Development, University of Minnesota and the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. (The Center, Twin Cities, Minnesota) October 2006. 31 p.

Full Text at: www.earlychildhoodrc.org/papers/DP106.pdf

["We investigated the extent to which cognitive and noncognitive skills accounted for the measured links between participation in preschool intervention and high school completion, highest grade completed, and incarceration history in early adulthood.... The cognitive measures included school readiness, achievement test scores up to age 14, and remedial education while noncognitive skills were represented by measures of social adjustment, motivation, educational expectations, problem behavior, and juvenile arrest.... Cognitive skills were more important for explaining educational attainment while noncognitive skills made greater value-added contributions to incarceration history. As one of very few studies investigating the differential contributions of cognitive and noncognitive skills to preschool effects, our findings support the important role of test scores, school performance, and social and motivational factors in explaining the effect of enriched preschool on economically important indicators of well-being."]

[Request #S20715]

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SCHOOL READINESS

The Effects of the Arkansas Better Chance Program on Young Children’s School Readiness. By Jason T. Hustedt and others, National Institute for Early Education Research, Rutgers University. (The Institute, New Brunswick, New Jersey) January 2007. 16 p.

Full Text at: nieer.org/resources/research/ArkansasYear1.pdf

["This report estimates the effects of the Arkansas Better Chance Program (ABC) on entering kindergartners' academic skills.... The study finds the ABC Program has statistically significant and meaningful impacts on the early language, literacy and mathematical development of the 4-year-old children participating in the program. Specifically, the study found that as a result of attending the Arkansas program at age 4: Children showed gains in vocabulary that were 31 percent higher than the gains of children without the program.... This outcome is particularly important because the measure is indicative of general cognitive abilities and predictive of becoming a successful reader. Preschool increased children's gains in math skills by 37 percent compared to children's growth without the program.... The Arkansas preschool program had strong effects on children's understanding of print concepts. The program produced a 116 percent increase in growth in print awareness among children enrolled compared to growth of children without the program.... The report is the first in a series of reports on a 5-year longitudinal study that will document the effects of the Arkansas Better Chance Program over time."]

[Request #S20716]

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TEACHERS

Caring for LA’s Children: Overview of Los Angeles County’s Early Care and Education Labor Force: Briefing Paper. By Daniel Flaming and Patrick Burns. (Economic Roundtable, Los Angeles, California) 2007. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.economicrt.org/pub/overview_of_la_child_care/Overview%20of%20LA%20Child%20Care.pdf

["In 2005, Los Angeles County had an estimated 39,300 workers in the child care and early education sector, including self-employed and unreported workers. When we take into account that only 60 percent of this labor force works directly with children, we estimate that there is only one preschool teacher or child care worker for every 32 children under the age of 5 years. Based on minimum staff-child ratios established by the state, disregarding issues of labor force credentialing, and taking into account the fact that 53 percent of children younger than five are in families where all parents in the household are working, LA County’s child care and early education labor force can serve only 70 percent of the children of working parents in child care groups, or 46 percent in preschool classes. When we add in families where only one parent works, or no parent works, but that seek child care services, the capacity deficit is even larger. There are not enough child care and early education workers in Los Angeles County to meet the essential needs of working parents and their children."]

[Request #S20717]

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HEALTH

CHILD ABUSE

From Science to Public Policy: Court Teams for Maltreated Infants and Toddlers. By Victoria Youcha, Court Teams for Maltreated Infants and Toddlers, and others. IN: The Baby Monitor: ZERO TO THREE Policy and Advocacy News (2006) pp. 1-4.

Full Text at: www.zerotothree.org/site/DocServer/Court_Teams_Sci_to_Policy.pdf?docID=2524

["In the time it takes to watch an episode of Law and Order SVU, five infants are being removed from their homes for abuse or neglect or both. During the time you’re getting ready to go to work, another five babies move into foster care. Everyday in the United States, 118 babies leave their homes because their parents cannot take care of them. The quality of their entire lives -- at home and in foster care -- is deeply troubling. Children between birth and three years have the highest rates of victimization, with infants accounting for almost 10% of all child maltreatment victims. Children ages 3 and younger are also 34% more likely to be placed in foster care than children ages 4 to 11. Once they have been removed from their homes and placed in foster care, infants stay in foster care longer than older children. Infants and toddlers who come into contact with the child welfare system are at great risk of compromised development. Approximately 42% of them are developmentally delayed.... With this knowledge in hand, Judge Cindy Lederman and psychologist Dr. Joy Osofsky developed a model for addressing the needs of infants and toddlers within the context of the judicial system in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Their model program combines judicial muscle with a parent/child mental health intervention so that babies, toddlers, and their parents receive the life-changing help they need."]

[Request #S20719]

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HEALTH INSURANCE

"Underinsurance and Key Health Outcomes for Children with Special Health Care Needs." By Donald P. Oswald and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 119, no. 2 (February 2007) pp. e341-e347.

Full Text at: pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/119/2/e341

["Underinsurance is associated with the Maternal and Child Health Bureau core outcomes for children with special health care needs related to satisfaction with care and partnering with families in decision-making, access to a medical home, community-based service delivery that is easy to use, and access to services to make transitions to adulthood. In each case, children with special health care needs who were underinsured had significantly poorer outcomes than did children who were adequately insured."]

[Request #S20718]

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HUMAN SERVICES

CHILD CARE

National Study of Child Care for Low-Income Families. Care in the Home: A Description of Family Child Care and the Experiences of the Families and Children Who Use It. Wave 1 Report. By Jean I. Layzer and Barbara D. Goodson. Prepared for U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. (Abt Associates Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts) 2006.

Full Text at: www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/cc/nsc_low_income/reports/care_in_home/care_in_home.pdf

["'Family child care is an option that works best for many families,' said HHS Assistant Secretary for Children and Families Wade F. Horn, Ph.D. 'This report sheds light on the benefits family child care provides to working parents and the factors parents consider when choosing an appropriate child care arrangement.' The report, 'Care in the Home: A Description of Family Child Care and the Experiences of the Families and Children Who Use It,' presents findings from the first wave of data collection for the In-Depth Study of Family Child Care, a component of the National Study of Child Care for Low-Income Families - a seven year research effort being conducted in 25 communities in 17 states." HHS News (January 31, 2007).]

Executive Summary: 15 p.
http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/cc/nsc_low_income/reports/care_in_home_execsum/care_in_the_home_execsum.pdf

Main Report: 134 p.
http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/cc/nsc_low_income/reports/care_in_home/care_in_home.pdf

[Request #S20720]

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PARENTS

"After Welfare Reform: You Choose Your Child Over the Job." By Lisa Dodson. IN: Focus, vol. 24, no. 3 (Fall-Winter 2006) pp. 25-28.

Full Text at: www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/focus/pdfs/foc243d.pdf

["This article, written by Lisa Dodson, a sociology professor at Boston College, turns on its ear the common stereotype that working-poor mothers are 'deficient workers known for tardiness, absenteeism, and lack of a work ethic.' In her research, Dodson finds the reverse to be true: faced with work conditions that make it hard to care for their families -- no paid leave, long or irregular hours, no benefits -- mothers often defy job restrictions in favor of caring for children, which can lead to penalties or job loss."]

[Request #S20721]

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STUDIES TO COME
[The following studies, reports, and documents have been ordered or requested, but have not yet arrived. Requests may be placed, and copies will be provided when the material arrives.]

HEALTH

HEALTH CARE

"Low-Income Uninsured Children With Special Health Care Needs: Why Aren't They Enrolled in Public Health Insurance Programs?" By Jennifer Haley and Genevieve Kenney, Urban Institute Health Policy Center. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 119, no. 1 (January 2007) pp. 60-68.

["(This article) examined potential barriers to enrollment in public programs among low-income children with special health care needs who were uninsured. Using the 2001 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, the researchers found that many low-income parents with uninsured children with special health care needs did not have full information about the Medicaid and State Children's Health Insurance programs, or did not have positive perceptions of the programs’ application processes. Although 93 percent had heard of at least one of the programs, only half believed that their child was eligible to enroll. In addition, just 48 percent felt that the application processes were easy. Since public health insurance programs have the potential to provide coverage to all low-income children with special needs, understanding why some do not participate is important. The authors concluded that initiatives to increase enrollment in Medicaid and SCHIP could yield real dividends given that the vast majority of parents of low-income uninsured children with special health care needs say they would enroll their children in public coverage programs." Urban Institute's Health Policy Newsletter (January 19, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S20722]

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INFANTS

Community-Based Doula: Supporting Families Before, During, and After Childbirth. By Rachel Abramson and others. (Zero to Three, Washington, DC) 2006. 166 p.

["Doula: One who 'mothers the mother.' A constant companion who provides physical, emotional, and informational support to mothers during the journey of labor and delivery, a doula makes a critical difference to families and newborns in underserved communities. The authors highlight how Chicago Health Connection’s community-based doula model extends this role into a long-term relationship, providing support during pregnancy, birth, and the early months of parenting. This book provides research-based evidence of the profound effects doulas can have in the lives of mothers, newborns, their families, and their communities. It also serves as a call to action. 'The Community-Based Doula' provides information and analysis to help social support, home-visiting, and medical and nursing care programs to find new ways to address the needs of birthing families and to relate to the culture, values, and language of young mothers who face difficult challenges." NOTE: The Community-Based Doula... will be available for loan.]

[Request #S20723]

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