Subject: Studies in the News 07-20 (April 24, 2007)


CALIFORNIA RESEARCH BUREAU
CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY
Studies in the News:
Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement


Contents This Week

Introductory Material ECONOMY
   Employment in nonprofit organizations
   Fatigue in the workplace
EDUCATION
   Energizing America's future workforce
   Undereducated future workforce
EMPLOYMENT
   Effect of business leaving state
   California job-flight theory falters
   Workers' disabilities and earnings
   Talent shortage trends
   Overview of rural employment
   Immigrants boost pay
   Employment and Mexican American immigrants
   Trends in immigrant labor force
   Job growth in California
   Energy costs and job growth
   Labor statistics in 2005
   Right to work and job growth
   Workers want unions
   Minimum wage and at-risk groups
   Retaining older workers
   Californians working longer
   Boomers will work longer
   Shaping the government workforce
   State employee misconduct rises
   Unemployed are undercounted
   Wage insurance
   Women's wages are increasing
   One third paid low wages
   Effects of welfare reform in rural areas
   Flexible workplaces for families
   Fewer injured stay off payrolls
   New perspectives on developing the workforce
   Federal workforce training policy
   Federal workforce development initiatives
   Developing the workforce of the future
   Late career workers and retention
   Enhancing workers' skills benefits economy
   Teens' workplace safety
HUMAN SERVICES
   Mayors call for learning savings account for every child
   Rewarding workers and reducing poverty
PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
   Studies in the News, January 2007 - April 2007
Introduction to Studies in the News

Studies in the News is a very current compilation of items significant to the Legislature and Governor's Office. It is created weekly by the State Library's Research Bureau to supplement the public policy debate in California’s Capitol. To help share the latest information with state policymakers, these reading lists are now being made accessible through the State Library’s website. This week's list of current articles in various public policy areas is presented below.

Service to State Employees:

  • When available, the URL for the full text of each item is provided.

  • California State Employees may contact the State Information & Reference Center (916-654-0206; cslsirc@library.ca.gov) with the SITN issue number and the item number [S#].

  • All other interested individuals should contact their local library - the items may be available there, or may be borrowed by your local library on your behalf.

The following studies are currently on hand:

ECONOMY

NOT FOR PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

Employment in America's Charities: A Profile. By Lester M. Salamon and S. Wojciech Sokolowski. Nonprofit Employment Bulletin. No. 26. (Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies, Baltimore, Maryland) December 2006. 17 p.

Full Text at: www.jhu.edu/ccss/research/pdf/Employment%20in%20Americas%20Charities.pdf

["This report presents new information on employment in America’s charities -- the broad set of health, education, civic, scientific, and charitable organizations entitled to tax exemption under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. The report covers the full nonprofit workforce, including both paid and volunteer workers, though for some variables data are available only on paid employment. Employment is an unusually good indicator of trends in the nonprofit sector. This is so because nonprofit organizations tend to operate in fields that are highly labor intensive."]

[Request #S72001]

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PRODUCTIVITY

"Fatigue in the U.S. Workforce: Prevalence and Implications for Lost Productive Work Time." By Judith Ricci and others. IN: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 49, no. 1 (January 2007) pp. 1-10.

["Fatigue and its magnifying effect on other health conditions is responsible for $136 billion annually in lost worker productivity. The study was based on a random-digit dial telephone survey of the U.S. population. The survey captured information on self-reported employment status, occupational characteristics, health conditions and symptoms, lifestyle factors, health-related quality of life, and demographic characteristics. Lost productive time was measured as the sum of self-reported hours per week absent from work for a health-related reason and the hour-equivalent per week of self-reported health-related reduced performance while at work." Labor Market Information, California Employment Development Department (January 30, 2007) 1. NOTE: Fatigue in the U.S. Workforce.... will be available for loan.]

[Request #S72002]

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EDUCATION

WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future: Executive Summary. By the Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Century: An Agenda for American Science and Technology, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine. (National Academies Press, Washington, DC) 2007. 49 p.

Full Text at: books.nap.edu/execsumm_pdf/11463.pdf

["In a world where advanced knowledge is widespread and low-cost labor is readily available, U.S. advantages in the marketplace and in science and technology have begun to erode. A comprehensive and coordinated federal effort is urgently needed to bolster U.S. competitiveness and pre-eminence in these areas. This congressionally requested report by a pre-eminent committee makes four recommendations along with 20 implementation actions that federal policy-makers should take to create high-quality jobs and focus new science and technology efforts on meeting the nation’s needs, especially in the area of clean, affordable energy: 1) increase America’s talent pool by vastly improving K-12 mathematics and science education; 2) sustain and strengthen the nation’s commitment to long-term basic research; 3) develop, recruit, and retain top students, scientists, and engineers from both the U.S. and abroad; and 4) ensure that the United States is the premier place in the world for innovation." NOTE: Full Report: Rising Above the Gathering Storm.... is available for loan.]

[Request #S72003]

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WORKFORCE PREPARATION

America's Perfect Storm: Three Forces Changing Our Nation's Future. By Irwin Kirsch and others, Educational Testing Service. (The Service, Princeton, New Jersey) January 2007.

["This study makes an effort ... to project a disturbing future, including a sharply declining middle class in addition to the lost ground in literacy.... U.S. workers may be significantly less literate in 2030 than they are today. The reason: Most baby boomers will be retiring and a large wave of less-educated immigrants will be moving into the workforce.... The report's author and others suggest increasing attention and resources to early childhood education, to the social factors that affect young children, to continuing adult education, and to programs that keep kids from dropping out of school and address the achievement gap." Christian Science Monitor (February 6, 2007) 1.]

Full Report. 34 p.
http://www.ets.org/Media/Education_Topics/pdf/AmericasPerfectStorm.pdf

Executive Summary. 6 p.
http://www.ets.org/Media/Education_Topics/pdf/ExecSummAmPerfectStorm.pdf

[Request #S71228]

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EMPLOYMENT

CALIFORNIA

Interstate Business Relocation: An Industry-Level Analysis. By David Neumark and others, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) June 19, 2006. 36 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/op/OP_606DNOP.pdf

["Using data covering all establishments ever located in California during 1992-2003, we study interstate business relocation and other establishment and employment dynamics in different industries. We find that job loss due to interstate relocation is uniformly small across industries. Although some industries such as manufacturing and information services are more footloose, relocation in these industries is usually more common in both directions (into and out of California), resulting in a net effect that is still small. We also find that although job loss due to interstate relocation is concentrated in better-paying industries, the imbalance and the overall flows are sufficiently small that the effect of relocation on the composition of jobs is small as well."]

[Request #S72004]

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Are California’s Companies Shifting Their Employment to Other States? By Jed Kolko and David Neumark, Public Policy Institute of California. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) February 15, 2007. 60 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/op/OP_207JKOP.pdf

[“A study says talk of a problematic business climate is overblown, and California is holding its own against other states. While some California companies are moving jobs out of state, non-California companies are moving operations here. And, of course, existing companies are adding jobs. The state is even doing well in factory jobs compared with the rest of the country.” Sacramento Bee (February 15, 2007) D1.]

[Request #S72005]

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DISABLED WORKERS

Disability, Earnings, Income and Consumption. By Bruce D. Meyer, University of Chicago, and Wallace K.C. Mok, Northwestern University. Harris School Working Paper. Series 06-10. (Harris School of Public Policy, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois) December 2006. 95 p.

Full Text at: harrisschool.uchicago.edu/About/publications/working-papers/pdf/wp_06_10.pdf

["We find that nearly one-fifth of male household heads 22-64 ... are currently disabled.... In terms of life-time prevalence, we find that a person reaching age 60 has a 54 percent chance of having been disabled at least once during his working years and a nearly 40 percent chance of experiencing a chronic disability.... Ten years after disability onset, those with chronic and severe disability condition have seen their earnings decline by 61%.... Our findings indicate the partial but incomplete role individual savings, family support and social insurance play in reducing the consumption drop following disability. Despite the various government programs available, about one-fifth of the disabled have incomes below the poverty line in the long term."]

[Request #S72006]

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EMPLOYMENT SKILLS

Confronting the Talent Crunch: 2007. By Manpower, Inc. (Manpower, Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin) 2007. 18 p.

Full Text at: files.shareholder.com/downloads/MAN/104744225x0x87524/0d64f86c-77eb-4f53-a021-c8f100bfd4ba/2007_TalentCrunchWP_USLetter.pdf

["Demographic shifts (aging populations, declining birthrates, economic migration), social evolution, inadequate educational programs, globalization, and entrepreneurial practices (outsourcing, offshoring, on-demand employment) are causing shortages, not only in the overall availability of talent but also – and more significantly – in the specific skills and competencies required in industrialized, emerging, and developing economies.... This paper explores which trends are likely to become more pronounced, and what further steps governments and employers can take in response. It also looks at how individuals can be both encouraged and enabled to regularly redefine their career objectives, renew their skills and, when necessary, re-engage with the labor force in more sustainable ways."]

[Request #S72007]

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FARMWORKERS

Rural Employment at a Glance. By the Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Economic Information Bulletin. No. 21. (The Service, Washington, DC) December 2006. 6 p.

Full Text at: www.ers.usda.gov/publications/eib21/eib21.pdf

[“This brochure highlights the most recent indicators of employment and unemployment in rural areas. It documents changes and differences in metro and nonmetro employment growth, unemployment, earnings per job, and occupational mix, as well as differences across nonmetro areas by location and county type.”]

[Request #S72008]

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IMMIGRATION

How Immigrants Affect California Employment and Wages. By Giovanni Peri, Public Policy Institute of California. California Counts: Population Trends and Profiles. Vol. 8, No. 3. (The Institute, San Francisco, California) February 2007. 19 p.

Full Text at: www.ppic.org/content/pubs/cacounts/CC_207GPCC.pdf

[“A study found that immigrants who arrived in the state between 1990 and 2004 increased wages for native workers by an average 4%. The benefits were shared by all native-born workers, from high school dropouts to college graduates, because immigrants generally perform complementary rather than competitive work. As immigrants filled lower-skilled jobs, they pushed natives up the economic ladder into employment that required more English or know-how of the U.S. system.” Los Angeles Times (February 28, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S72009]

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"Bad Jobs, Good Jobs, No Jobs? The Employment Experience of the Mexican American Second Generation." By Roger Waldinger and others. IN: Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 33, no. 1 (January 2007) pp. 1-35.

["Concern with the prospects and experience of the ‘new’ second generation now stands at the top of the immigration research agenda in the United States. In contrast to the past, many immigrant offspring appear to be rapidly heading upward, exemplified by the large number of Chinese, Korean, Indian and other Asian-origin students enrolled in the nation's leading universities, some the children of workers, others the descendants of immigrants who moved straight into the middle class. On the other hand, knowledgeable observers tell us that the offspring of today's poorly educated immigrants are likely to experience a very different fate. In their view, post-industrial America is an inhospitable place for low-skilled immigrants and their offspring, as the latter are likely not to be integrated into the mainstream but acculturated into the ways and lifestyles of their underclass neighbours. We advance an alternative perspective, not captured by these two opposing views: namely, that the children of recent immigrants will follow in the footsteps of the offspring of Italian or Polish labour migrants of the turn of the last century, gaining incorporation into working-class America."]

[Request #S72010]

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Trends in the Low-Wage Immigrant Labor Force, 2000-2005. By Randy Capps, the Urban Institute, and others. (The Institute, Washington, DC) March 2007. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411426_Low-Wage_Immigrant_Labor.pdf

["As Congress debates the fate of more than 10 million unauthorized immigrants living in the United States, their impact on the U.S. low-skilled labor force is an important consideration. In 2005, immigrants overall represented more than a fifth of low-wage workers—those earning less than twice the minimum wage—and almost half of workers without a high school education. Unauthorized workers were nearly a tenth of low-wage workers and a quarter of low-skilled workers. The number of low-wage and low-skilled native-born workers fell between 2000 and 2005, due to improvements in their educational attainment but also due to decreasing labor force participation. This report describes recent trends in the immigrant labor force and their implications for the U.S. economy."]

[Request #S72011]

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JOB CREATION

California Jobs Have Shifted Inland. By Alissa Anderson Garcia, California Budget Project. Policy Points. (The Project, Sacramento, California) January 2007. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/pdfs/2007/0701_pp_inlandcoastal.pdf

["This study shows that job growth in inland counties was nearly five times larger than that of coastal counties between 1990 and 2005. In fact, inland counties contributed more than half of the state’s job growth over this 15-year period. In addition, inland county job growth exceeded that of coastal counties in nearly every major sector of the economy. This Policy Points includes data showing job growth by county."]

[Request #S72012]

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The Impact of Increased Energy Costs on Businesses and Jobs. By Roger Bezdek, Management Information Services. (Americans for Balanced Energy Choices, Alexandria, California) November 2006. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.balancedenergy.org/docs/ABEC%20Media%20Room%20Docs/Business_Energy_Costs_Study.pdf

["This study shows that over the past ten years, states with lower business energy costs grew 25 percent faster and created 60 percent more jobs than states with higher business energy costs.... Twenty states were included and analyzed according to energy prices, unemployment, and extended mass layoffs. The states included in the study, ranked from highest to lowest, were: Hawaii, California, Vermont, Massachusetts, New York, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Florida, North Carolina, Alabama, Utah, Kentucky, Texas, West Virginia, Indiana, Louisiana, Wyoming and Alaska."]

[Request #S72013]

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LABOR STATISTICS

Work Experience of the Population in 2005. By the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. (The Bureau, Washington, DC) February 9, 2007. 9 p.

Full Text at: www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/work.pdf

["Highlights from the 2005 data include: 1) The proportion of the civilian noninstitutional population age 16 years old and over that worked at some time during the year was 67.7 percent in 2005, essentially unchanged from 2004. 2) The proportion of workers who worked full time, year round in 2005 (67.5 percent) was up from 2004 (66.8 percent). 3) The 'work-experience unemployment rate'—defined as the number unemployed at some time during the year as a proportion of the number who worked or looked for work during the year—decreased to 9.3 percent in 2005 from 9.7 percent in 2004."]

[Request #S72014]

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LABOR UNION

Since 2001, Right to Work States Lead in Job Growth, Five-to-One. By the National Institute for Labor Relations Research. NILRR Fact Sheet. (The Institute, Springfield, Virginia) April 10, 2007. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.nilrr.org/Job-Growth%20Advantage%20--%201996-2006%20--%20final.pdf?storyId=4834393

["For many years, U.S. Labor Department data have shown that states with Right to Work laws on the books have far faster private-sector job growth than states that do not protect employees from federal policies authorizing the termination of workers for refusal to pay dues or fees to an unwanted union. Between 1996 and 2006, private-sector jobs in Right to Work states increased by a net 19.8%. That’s an 87% greater increase than the relatively small increase in private-sector jobs experienced by non-Right to Work states over this period."]

[Request #S72015]

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Do Workers Still Want Unions? More than Ever. By Richard B. Freeman, Harvard University. EPI Briefing Paper. No. 182. (Economic Policy Institute, Washington, DC) February 22, 2007. 13 p.

Full Text at: www.sharedprosperity.org/bp182/bp182.pdf

["In the mid-2000s, workers see a major gap between the representation and participation they want at the workplace and what they have; the largest proportion ever recorded in survey data express a desire for union representation. Many workers also desire workplace committees that meet and discuss issues with management, some as a supplement to collective bargaining and some as useful even without collective bargaining. Many attribute the absence of mechanisms for workers to discuss issues with management to management opposition to workers speaking out. The United States has fallen far behind other English-speaking countries in providing alternative modes of employee voice at the workplace."]

[Request #S72016]

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MINIMUM WAGE

Minimum Wage Effects in the Post-Welfare Reform Era. By David Neumark, University of California, Irvine. (Employment Policies Institute, Washington, DC) January 2007. 38 p.

Full Text at: www.epionline.org/studies/Neumark_2007.pdf

["The author finds that the most negative minimum wage employment effects are felt by at-risk groups, such as the less-skilled and young minority males. He also finds that there may be positive minimum wage effects on the employment of young minority women aged 20-24 when combined with Earned Income Tax Credit policies. However, this benefit comes at a substantial cost to other groups. Among those who pay the highest costs are minority males and female high school dropouts. Minority males and high school dropouts often serve as 'poster children' for increases in the minimum wage, yet experience the strongest disemployment effects as well as decreased earnings which are magnified by higher state EITC levels."]

[Request #S72017]

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OLDER WORKERS

Engaging and Retaining Older Workers: Highlights of a GAO Forum. By the U.S. Government Accountability Office. GAO-07-438SP. (The Office, Washington, DC) February 2007. 25 p.

Full Text at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d07438sp.pdf

["If older Americans were to remain in the labor force longer, it could ease some of the pressures on Social Security, supplement individual retirement incomes, and help finance health care. However, researchers have suggested that barriers may impede some older workers who want or need to work."]

[Request #S72018]

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More Californians are Working Later in Life. By Alissa Anderson Garcia, California Budget Project. (The Project, Sacramento, California) April 2007. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/pdfs/2007/0704_pp_olderworkers.pdf

["This study finds that the share of Californians age 55 to 69 who are employed increased considerably between 1995 and 2006, after a decade and a half of little change. This trend reflects a number of factors, including improved health and longer life expectancy, as well as diminished retirement security."]

[Request #S72019]

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Why Do Boomers Plan to Work So Long? By Gordon B.T. Mermin and others, the Urban Institute. The Retirement Project Discussion Paper. 06-04. (The Institute, Washington, DC) December 2006. 37 p.

Full Text at: www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311386_Boomers_Work.pdf

["Will early boomers in fact delay retirement, and will the trend continue for later boomers? The answer likely depends, in part, on whether the recent trend in work characteristics and demographics continues. The erosion of employer retiree health benefits will likely persist, as health care costs continue to rise. And the trend away from traditional defined benefit plans shows no signs of abating. Taken together, these trends and the study findings suggest that the boomers will remain at work longer than the previous generation. The recent uptick in average retirement ages appears to be the leading edge of a new long-term trend. Lengthier careers will likely promote economic growth, increase government revenue, and improve individual financial security at older ages."]

[Request #S72020]

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PUBLIC EMPLOYEES

Within Reach ... But Out of Synch: The Possibilities and Challenges of Shaping Tomorrow's Government Workforce. By The Council for Excellence in Government and The Gallup Organization. (The Council, Washington, DC) December 2006. 11 p.

["This report identifies trends that will influence the federal government’s ability to attract and retain talented workers to replace those who are leaving. Our intention is to get answers to some simple but important questions: What do key targeted populations value in a job? How do they perceive working in the federal sector? How do they get information about jobs? What is the brand value of selected federal agencies?"]

Full Report. 11 p.
http://www.excelgov.org/UserFiles/File/Within%20Reach%20But%20Out%20of%20Synch.pdf

Top Line Data. 14 p.
http://www.excelgov.org/UserFiles/File/Best%20and%20Brightest%20Top%20Line%20Data.pdf

[Request #S72021]

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Investigations of Improper Activities by Employees: July 2006 Through January 2007. By the California State Auditor, Bureau of State Audits. (The Bureau, Sacramento, California) March 2007. 85 p.

Full Text at: www.bsa.ca.gov/pdfs/reports/I2007-1.pdf

[“A semiannual report on whistle-blower complaints pinpoints at least nine cases of employee or agency misconduct costing taxpayers hundreds of thousands of dollars. The bureau has seen a sharp increase in complaints since 2002, when a law took effect requiring state agencies to notify employees about California's whistle-blower hotline. In 2001-02, the agency averaged 26 complaints a month. The next year, after the law took effect, the average jumped to 44 per month.” Los Angeles Daily News (March 22, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S72022]

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UNEMPLOYMENT STATISTICS

Many California Workers are Struggling to Find Work. By Alissa Anderson Garcia, California Budget Project. Policy Points. (The Project, Sacramento, California) January 2007. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/pdfs/2007/0701_pp_unemployment.pdf

["Many California workers are struggling to find work, even though the economy is in its fifth year of a recovery. This finding stands in stark contrast to the state’s official unemployment rate in November 2006 – only one-tenth of one percent higher than that of October, which was the lowest reported unemployment rate of the past 30 years. However, the unemployment rate is artificially low because it fails to include the state’s 'discouraged workers' – those who want to work, but have given up their search for employment. If discouraged workers were counted as unemployed, the state’s unemployment rate would be 8.1 percent. This Policy Points portrays a more complete picture of California’s employment situation than that suggested by the official unemployment rate alone."]

[Request #S72023]

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WAGES

The Case for Wage Insurance. By Lael Brainard, Global Economy and Development. (The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC) February 28, 2007. 3 p.

Full Text at: www.brookings.edu/printme.wbs?page=/pagedefs/1e3eefa4ec41ff404afa0dfc0a1415cb.xml

["A new wave of outsourcing has put increasing pressure on American workers while the nation's safety net for easing job transitions remains one of the weakest among the wealthy economies. Lael Brainard makes the case for wage insurance as one way to help smooth the incomes of workers who suffer permanent displacement or lower wages during job transitions."]

[Request #S72024]

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Women's Wage Gains Continue to Exceed Those of Men in California. By Alissa Anderson Garcia, California Budget Project. Policy Points. (The Project, Sacramento, California) March 2007. 4 p.

Full Text at: www.cbp.org/pdfs/2007/0703_pp_femaleworkers.pdf

["This Policy Points shows that women’s wage gains surpassed those of their male counterparts across the earnings distribution in the early 2000s, reflecting, in part, women’s concentration in sectors of the economy that experienced strong growth. As women’s wages and the number of hours they work have increased, their earnings have become an increasingly important source of income for California’s families. However, women as a whole continue to earn less than men."]

[Request #S72025]

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Understanding Low-Wage Work in the United States. By Heather Boushey, Center for Economic Policy and Research, and others. (The Mobility Agenda, Washington, DC) March 2007. 24 p.

Full Text at: www.inclusionist.org/files/lowwagework.pdf

["Over 40 million jobs in the United States -— about 1 in 3 -— pay low wages ($11.11 per hour or less) and often do not offer employment benefits like health insurance, retirement savings accounts, paid sick days or family leave. These low-wage jobs are replacing jobs that have historically supported a broad middle class. This report provides a clear and sobering picture of the low-wage labor market through analysis of labor market data, including: downward wage trends over time, poor work conditions, largest occupations, and declining mobility. The authors used a social inclusion definition of low-wage work that allows for comparison among jobs in the United States." Center for Economic and Policy Research (March 15, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S72026]

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WELFARE RECIPIENTS

Laboring Towards Economic Self-Sufficiency: A Public Policy Perspective. AND: Laboring Towards Economic Self-Sufficiency: A Research Perspective. By Bonnie Braun, University of Maryland and Catherine Huddleston-Casas, University of Nebraska. (Rural Families Speak Project, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota) May 2006.

["Evidence exists that for rural families to participate in the labor force, there are inhibiting or facilitating factors. Some factors are … families are eligible for, but not receiving the Earned Income Tax Credit; families are challenged to get to places of employment, retail business and health or other services due to distances and the lack of reliable transportation; and employed mothers struggle with the demands of both employment and parenthood including finding available, affordable, safe care for their children."]

A Research Perspective. 6 p.
http://fsos.che.umn.edu/img/assets/16501/May_ResearchBrief.pdf

A Public Policy Perspective. 6 p.
http://fsos.che.umn.edu/img/assets/16501/May_PolicyBrief.pdf

Webcast.
http://fsos.che.umn.edu/projects/rfs/publications/breeze.html

[Request #S72027]

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WORK CONDITIONS

Responsive Workplaces: the Business Case for Employment that Values Fairness and Families. By Jodie Levin-Epstein, Center for Law and Social Policy. (The Center, Washington, DC) March 5, 2007. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.clasp.org/publications/responsive_workplaces.pdf

["More and more, working parents have dual—and dueling—responsibilities on the job and at home. Some employers have adapted and made their workplaces responsive to working parents, offering, for example, flexible scheduling and paid time off. Often, such measures have benefited the employers, too, demonstrating that businesses can do well by doing good."]

[Request #S72028]

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WORKERS COMPENSATION

Return-to-Work Rates for Injured Workers with Permanent Disability. By the California Division of Workers’ Compensation (The Division, Sacramento, California) January 30, 2007. 5 p.

Full Text at: www.dir.ca.gov/dwc/ReturnToWorkRates/ReturnToWorkRates.pdf

[“Moderately injured workers are getting back on the job more quickly since Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed a 2004 overhaul of California's workers' compensation insurance system, according to a state study. The report, which dealt with only a small portion of the workers' comp system, showed that 70% of employees declared permanently but partially disabled from Jan. 1, 2005, to June 30, 2006, returned to work. That's a slight improvement from the 65% of the injured population that went back to work in 2003 and 2004.” Los Angeles Times (February 1, 2007) 1.]

[Request #S72029]

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WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

Working in America: Transitioning in a Global Economy: Recommendations from a National Conversation on Jobs. By Patricia McGinnis, Council for Excellence in Government, and Suzanne Nora Johnson, Goldman Sachs Group. (The Council, Washington, DC) 2006. 47 p.

Full Text at: www.excelgov.org/UserFiles/Town%20Hall%20Final%20Report%20-%20low%20res.pdf?PHPSESSID=6c2663d7757bb85e6c5df4b5fe73a886

["From the town hall conversations and the regional and national polls, five themes emerged regarding public perceptions of the status and prospects for economic development, and the challenges and opportunities Americans face in creating a globally competitive workforce: 1) education is the most important key to developing the economy and creating and retaining good jobs; 2) collaboration between the public and private sectors is imperative for growth; 3) strategies and mechanisms for accessing investment capital need to be established and well-communicated to enhance business formation and growth; 4) beyond obtaining and continuously upgrading basic skills, individuals need to demonstrate the will to work; and 5) adaptation at institutional and personal levels is vital to creating good jobs in a competitive global economy."]

[Request #S72030]

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An Overview of Federal Workforce Development Policies: Training Policy in Brief: 2007. By Gwen Rubenstein and Andrea Mayo, The Workforce Alliance. (The Alliance, Washington, DC) 2007. 120 p.

Full Text at: www.workforcealliance.org/atf/cf/{93353952-1DF1-473A-B105-7713F4529EBB}/Briefing_Ed2.pdf

["The second edition of our handy reference for policy makers and advocates profiles 13 federal programs that support skills training and education at the state and local level, including the Workforce Investment Act, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, Carl D. Perkins Technical and Vocational Education Act, Pell Grants, and Food Stamp Employment and Training program."]

[Request #S72031]

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The President's Demand-Driven Workforce Development Initiatives. By Ann Lordeman and Linda Levine, Congressional Research Service, U.S. Library of Congress. CRS Report for Congress. Code RL33811. (The Service, Washington, DC) January 10, 2007. 32 p.

Full Text at: www.workforceatm.org/sections/pdf/2007/Demand%20Driven%20Initiatitives_RL33811.pdf

["The U.S. Department of Labor has developed and implemented three initiatives referred to as market- or demand-driven. The goal of the initiatives — the High Growth Job Training Initiative (HGJTI), Community-Based Job Training Grants (CBJTG), and Workforce Innovation and Regional Economic Development (WIRED) — is to address the workforce challenges thought to impede the nation’s competitive advantage in the global economy. The initiatives have in common an approach that involves partnering the publicly funded workforce system, the business community, education and training providers, and economic development agencies. This report begins with an overview of each of the initiatives, which is followed by an analysis of the quantity and quality of jobs the targeted sectors might afford workers, and an examination of the relationship between the initiatives and Workforce Investment Act. The report closes with a series of policy questions for potential congressional oversight."]

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Reshaping the American Workforce in a Changing Economy. Edited by Harry J. Holzer and Demetra Smith Nightingale. (Urban Institute Press, Washington, DC) February 2007. 344 p.

["What directions should workforce policy in the U.S. take over the next few decades in light of major labor market developments that will likely occur -— such as the retirements of baby boomers and continuing globalization? This new volume presents fresh thoughts on the topic. This book offers policy discussions that are firmly grounded in strong research and that address the critical workforce issues of the coming years." NOTE: Reshaping the American Workforce.... is available for loan.]

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The National Study Report: Phase II of the National Study of Business Strategy and Workforce Development. By Marcie Pitt-Catsouphes, Center on Aging and Work/Workplace Flexibility at Boston College, and others. Research Highlight. No. 04. (The Center, Boston, Massachusetts) March 2007. 23 p.

Full Text at: agingandwork.bc.edu/documents/RH04_NationalStudy_03-07_000.pdf

["Key findings include: 1) Only 37% of employers had adopted strategies to encourage late career workers to stay past the traditional retirement age, despite the fact that late career employees 'have high levels of skills and strong professional and client networks, a strong work ethic, low turnover and are loyal and reliable.' 2) 60% of the employers indicated that recruiting competent job applicants is a significant HR challenge. 3) 40% indicated that management skills are in short supply in their organizations. 4) Only 33% of employers reported that their organization had made projections about retirement rates of their workers to either a moderate (24.1 percent) or great (9.7 percent) extent."]

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WORKFORCE PREPARATION

Working Together: Aligning State Systems and Policies for Individual and Regional Prosperity. By Christopher Mazzeo and others, Workforce Strategy Center. (The Center, Brooklyn, New York) December 2006. 45 p.

Full Text at: www.workforcestrategy.org/publications/WSC_workingtogether_12.1.06_3.pdf

["Despite evidence that both individuals and regions benefit economically when state systems effectively prepare skilled workers to participate in the knowledge economy, policymakers often come up short in optimizing the performance of their public systems of education and training. This paper details how policymakers can take immediate action to align policies and improve these systems, with numerous examples of best practices in numerous states. These cutting edge states have all learned that low-skill and low-wage workers are an important untapped potential resource for regional economic growth, and that enhancing the skills and employment prospects of these workers can and will benefit a state’s overall economy."]

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YOUTH

"Work-Related Hazards and Workplace Safety of U.S. Adolescents Employed in the Retail and Service Sectors." By Carol W. Runyan and others. IN: Pediatrics, vol. 119, no. 3 (March 2007) pp. 526-534.

["U.S. youngsters aged 14 to 18 who work at retail and service jobs during the school year put in an average of 16 hours a week, often at jobs that are dangerous and unsupervised. The report said some of the working conditions found in interviews with a representative sample of 928 teenage workers violated federal law. The research done during 2003 found the teens worked an average of 16.2 hours per week during the school year, including nearly three times a week after 7 p.m. on school nights. Thirty-seven percent of those under 16 reported working after 7 p.m. on a school night, a probable violation of federal law, it said." Workplace Issues Today (March 5, 2007) 1.]

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HUMAN SERVICES

POVERTY

Repairing the Economic Ladder: A Transformative Investment Strategy to Reduce Poverty and Expand America's Middle Class. By the U.S. Conference of Mayors Task Force on Poverty, Work and Opportunity. (The Conference, Washington, DC) January 2007. 29 p.

Full Text at: usmayors.org/chhs/VillaraigosaPovertyReport07.pdf

["A task force of the nation's mayors is calling for the federal government to create a lifetime learning savings account for every child born in the country -- beginning with a $500 deposit -- as part of an overall strategy to ease poverty.... The task force also called for increased federal investment in preschool and education to boost the middle class and reduce the number of working poor. The mayors said the federal government also should make more money available to underserved neighborhoods by offering tax credits and incentives to draw financial institutions to the areas." Daily News of Los Angeles (March 22, 2007) N4.]

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Rewarding the Work of Individuals: A Counterintuitive Approach to Reducing Poverty and Strengthening Families. By Gordon L. Berlin. (MDRC, New York, New York) February 2007. 28 p.

Full Text at: www.mdrc.org/publications/443/workpaper.pdf

["The author answers the question: If you could do one thing to reduce poverty in America, what would it be? Drawing on experimental evidence about the impact of earnings supplements, he explores the potential advantages of expanding the federal Earned Income Tax Credit to all low-wage adults who work full time — whether they have children or not and whether they marry or not."]

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PREVIOUSLY IN STUDIES IN THE NEWS
[This section links to items in Studies in the News since the last Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work Supplement.]

EMPLOYMENT

"Employment, Training, Vocational Education and Welfare to Work" IN: Studies in the News, January 2007 - April 2007

[Includes: " Labor laws apply to tribes;" "Transitional services for emancipated foster youth;    "Poverty reduces economic growth; "Ratio of government employees to population is low; and others.]

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