California Gold Rush

Indian attack on a wagon train Transparency: one of the 14 vignettes of life in the mines, humorously illustrating the points made in the commandments and scenes of emigrants crossing the plains.

Introduction

When James Wilson Marshall saw something golden shining in the tailrace at Sutter's Mill, he not only set off a worldwide rush to California but also touched off the greatest writing and artistic frenzy in our nation's history.

Newspapers, guidebooks, government reports, sermons, diaries, and letters written home all spread the word about a land where golden dreams could be realized. Artists through sketches, paintings, prints, pictorial letter sheets, birds-eye views, and illustrations for books likewise gave visual meaning to this new El Dorado. The California State Library got its start during the height of the Gold Rush. Many libraries and archives across the country from Yale University to the Henry E. Huntington Library preserve formidable collections of Gold Rush material, but the State Library's direct relationship to Marshall's earthshaking discovery gives it a unique role. Without the mad scramble to our golden shore, California would not have been admitted into the Union so quickly and the institution of the State Library would not have come into being as it is presently constituted.

The goal of the exhibit is many fold: provide an overview of the Gold Rush, emphasize the strength of the Library's collection, and incorporate items that will simultaneously delight, surprise, and inform. In creating this exhibit, the varieties and richness of the material proved to be both a joy and challenge. Literally, Hundreds of items were scrutinized and various themes explored. Unavoidably, because of space limitations, many choice documents and topics were grudgingly set aside. It is no accident that so much documentation exists about the run for gold. In fact, it could be argued that the California Gold Rush stands as the best documented event in our state's history. There are many reasons for this. Most importantly, though, the Gold Rush took place when people commonly kept diaries and wrote detailed letters. Fortunately for us, many Argonauts possessed exceptional powers of description, the ability to express philosophical thoughts, and the gift to record what they saw with drama, emotion, and on occasion with humor. Because the Gold Rush represented the adventure of a lifetime, participants, through letters and diaries, eagerly shared their experiences with friends and relatives and made sure that their writings would be preserved for future generations.

A Collection of Gold Rush Materials

The exhibit features many examples drawn for the California History Section's extensive manuscript collections. Scores of Gold Rush manuscript collections holding thousands of letters were examined. Included are such treasures as Marshall's own map showing where he discovered gold, pioneer preacher Joseph A. Benton's journals of his voyage to California and his first years in Sacramento looking for souls instead of gold, and letters to his mother by Sacramento's first historian, Dr. John F. Morse. Letters by those less well known, however, vividly tell us of the travel to California by land and sea and then the cold reality of the diggings and its hardships, loneliness, lawlessness, and disappointments. Printed books, pamphlets, periodicals, and newspapers, of course, form a major component of any Gold Rush exhibition. These printed sources, more than any single medium, spread the news and influenced would-be gold seekers.

Bayard Taylor's El Dorado, the best seller of the Gold Rush; Dame Shirley's celebrated letters from Rich Bar which appeared in California's first periodical, The Pioneer, and the Journal of the Hartford Union Mining Company, actually printed on board a California bound ship in 1849, serve as a solid foundation of early eyewitness accounts. An array of rare guidebooks, foreign language works, and printed pamphlets issued by mining companies supplement these seminal publications. The very first issue of the Panama Star, an American newspaper printed in Panama, records the importance of that narrow isthmus as a link between the United States and its new mineral-rich territory.

The gold discovery and its immediate aftermath took place when the visual means of mass communication was making great strides. Lithographs and wood engravings gave visual credence to the incredible news that poured out of California. Artists were not immune to gold fever and some real talent came to California first to hunt for gold, and then finding this to be hard and unproductive work, turned back to their God-given natural abilities. Charles Christian Nahl, Harrison Eastman, John David Borthwick, and George Holbrook Baker, to name just a few, produced memorable images that publishers even to this day reproduce over and over. The result of all of this made the Gold Rush one of the first important episodes in our history recorded visually and systematically by its participants. Consequently, pencil sketches, pictorial letter sheets, illustrations found in books and newspapers, and birds-eye views of cities and towns form an essential component of this collection.

One other form of visual documentation emerged, photography namely in the form of the daguerreotype. The Gold Rush represented the first important event in our nation's past to be captured by photography. Those one-of-a-kind, silvery, mirror-like images held together in beautiful, protective leather cases provide a breathtaking, crystal clear view of life during that rambunctious era. Certainly a highlight of California As We Saw It are the exquisite open air daguerreotypes of mining operations near Georgetown and Nevada City attributed to J. B. Starkweather. Daguerreian portraits of men and women put a human face on that golden era.

Some Themes Explored

Several topics apart from the discovery and long journey to California and the diggings have been developed. The title of J. S. Holliday's brilliant book, The World Rushed In, provided inspiration for some of this exhibit. Accounts and guidebooks published in England, France, Australia, and Germany are featured. Another section focuses on the experiences of women, African Americans, and Chinese. One remarkable manuscript consists of a bill of sale whereby a slave imported by his Southern master to hunt for gold buys his freedom for $1,000. Within a couple years after the discovery miners extracted gold from the earth by working in teams and then by forming companies. Turning rivers with dams, delivering water by flumes to wash away the hillsides in search of gold, and setting up stamp mills to crush the ore was not a simple, individual endeavor.

This mechanization of mining and the need to raise capital is documented by manuscripts and printed by-laws, articles of incorporation, mining claims, and bills of sale. A selection of beautifully engraved early stock certificates provides visual evidence of the financing needed to work the mines. The need to supply the mines gave rise to instant cities and mining camps. While San Francisco emerged as El Dorado's most important port and city, Sacramento also experienced unbelievable growth. This exhibit contains a sampling of books, letters, and sketches documenting Sacramento's transformation from the citadel of Captain Sutter's New Helvetia empire to a vital port to the northern mines. Highlights include the first Sacramento directory by Horace Culver, a broadside proclamation concerning the formation of city government in 1849, and one of the earliest known sketches of its famed embarcadero by George Holbrook Baker. Not all was seriousness when it came to looking for gold. The gold mania spawned a series of satirical prints and books by the likes of Alfred Crowquill (Alfred Henry Forrester), Jeremiah Saddlebags, and Old Block (also known as Alonzo Delano). A centerpiece is a beautiful hand-colored lithograph entitled the "Independent Gold Hunter on His Way to California." Crowned with a pot, the bespectacled gold hunter is loaded down with every conceivable appliance and weapon including a set of gold scales from which hangs a strong of sausage, dried fish, and a tea kettle. A rare series of hand-colored lithographs by two Cuban artists gives a light-hearted look at a group of miners who evidently had made their pile and enjoyed the fruits of their labor.

It is hoped that this compilation will provide a permanent record of a truly remarkable grouping of primary source material. As demonstrated by this exhibit, James Marshall's discovery produced not only treasure in the form of yellow metal but also the foundation for the Library's great California history collection.

I. The Great Discovery

“My eye was caught with the glimpse of something shining in the ditch.”

James Wilson Marshall

Untitled manuscript map of the gold discovery site, a portion of the Coloma Valley, and location of Sutter's Mill

James Wilson Marshall

No date.

14 x 25 in.

Drawn by James Wilson Marshall, the gold discoverer himself, the map depicts the Coloma Valley with the south fork of the American River and shows mountains, gulches, trees, and brush. Despite its crude appearance, the map, according to Marshall's biographer Theressa Gay, was fairly accurate. Marshall apparently made the map sometime after the discovery but an exact date cannot be determined.

The map was found in a desk at his cabin in Kelsey (near Placerville) after his death. John Sipp, who purchased the cabin at an administrator's sale, gave the map to the State Library in 1910 along with a double-sided drawing of the mill by Marshall. According to cartobibliographer Carl I. Wheat, Marshall's map ranks as one of the most important documents in the State Library's collections.

Untitled drawing of the gold discovery

James Wilson Marshall

No date.

This crude pencil drawing delineates perhaps the most important event in California history in the discoverer's own hand. Marshall wrote on the lower right side: "Situation of all hands on the mill at the time I brought the gold and show'd it." The workman (left of center) asks: "What is it?" Marshall (right of center) answers: "I have found it." William Scott, the carpenter (right of Marshall), replies: "I guess not."

The drawing, like the map, was found in Marshall's desk, and John Sipp presented it to the Library in 1910.

Untitled drawing of Sutter's Mill

James Wilson Marshall

No date.

The gold discoverer made this drawing on the other side of his gold discovery sketch. Marshall wrote the following caption: "The mill as finished at the time of the gold discovery Jany. 19th 1848." Sutter's millwright confused the actual date of the discovery and hence the date of the 19th rather than the 24th.

Lease agreement between John A. Sutter & James Wilson Marshall and the Yalesummi Tribe

February 4, 1848.

4 p.

Contemporary copy.

Captain Sutter and James Marshall attempted to gain legal control of the Coloma Valley by entering into a lease with the local Indians. This document was actually made on January 1 but not signed until February 4. With the discovery of gold, control of the valley became imperative to Sutter. The document was signed by two chiefs and two alcaldes of the Yalesummi tribe. As historian Theressa Gay notes: "This historic document defined the boundaries of the first mining claim on the Mother Lode just eleven days after the discovery of gold." Sutter sent the lease document to Colonel R. B. Mason, military governor of California, for his approval. Mason rejected the lease in a letter to Sutter: "The United States do not recognize the right of Indians to sell or lease lands on which they reside."

The original document was probably lost in the fire that consumed Sutter's Hock Farm. The copy in the State Library's possession is part of the George McKinstry Collection. McKinstry worked for Sutter at the fort in the 1840s.

Unsigned letter of John A. Sutter to Governor R. B. Mason

New Helvetia.

February 22, 1848.

1 p.

This cover letter to Mason accompanied Sutter's lease agreement with the Yalesummi Indians. Written less than a month after Marshall's discovery, Sutter explains the expense of building and settling Coloma and the need to protect his property. Without mentioning gold, Sutter went on to write: "The settlement will be of great benefit to the Indians by protecting them against the wild tribes above them, furnishing them with food, clothing, etc. and teach them habits of industry." On display is a contemporary copy of the lost original. George McKinstry Collection.

Captain Sutter's Account of the First Discovery of Gold

Portait [sic] of Mr. Marshal [sic], Taken from Nature at the Time When He Made the Discovery of Gold in California. View of Sutter's Mill or Place Where the First Gold Has Been Discovered.

San Francisco.

Lithographed and published by Britton & Rey.

1854.

Sutter's account of Marshall's momentous visit to his fort after finding gold appeared in San Francisco Pacific News for October 9, 1849. The letter sheet reproduces Sutter's text. Sutter recalled: "…suddenly all my misgivings were put at an end by his [Marshall] flinging on the table a handful of scales of pure virgin gold. I was fairly thunderstruck and asked him to explain what all this meant." Sutter then accompanied Marshall to Coloma and found gold himself by picking out with a small knife a lump of gold from a dry gorge. He concluded his statement with the words: "- Oro! - Oro! - Oro!"

The Life and Adventures of James W. Marshall, The Discoverer of Gold in California

George Frederick Parsons

Sacramento.

Published by James W. Marshall and W. Burke.

1870.

188 p.

The frontispiece represents Marshall holding a golden nugget. Gold Rush historians call this one of the most important books of California history. It is based on materials supplied by William Burke, a business associate of Marshall, and Parsons' interview of Marshall. It details not only Marshall's discovery but also the "curse" that dogged much of his life. Marshall and Burke published the book to win support for the discoverer's petition to the legislature to obtain a pension and as a means of promoting his lecture tours.

A View of Sutter's Mill and Culloma [sic] Valley

William S. Jewett [attributed to]

New York: Sarony & Major.

[1850].

17 ¾ x 24 ¾ in. Image on 21 x 26 in. sheet.

This beautiful hand-colored lithograph depicts the Coloma Valley during the heyday of the Gold Rush. In the foreground, a Native American gazes on the scene. Sutter's Mill, the site of the gold discovery, is in the center of the print. By 1850, Coloma emerged as a bustling mining town with hotels, saloons, restaurants, stores, and a bowling alley. The text below the title and image reads: "On the South Fork of the American Line, Alta California / Respectively dedicated to Capt. John A. Sutter; / by his obedient servant'; [signed] "John T Little." Little's store is depicted in the center across the river from the mill.